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Department Of Technical Education

Andhra Pradesh
Name :G Sudhakar Reddy.
Designation :Senior Lecturer.
Branch :ECE
Institute :Government Polytechnic
Narsipatnam.
Year/Semester :III semester.
Subject :ELECTRONICS CIRCUITS-I.
Subject Code :EC-302.
Topic :FET& UJT.
DURATION :50 MIN
SUB TOPIC :Construction of
enhancement
MOSFET
TEACHING AIDS :Animation & photographs
EC302.35 to 36 1
OBJECTIVES
Upon the completion of this topic the student will be able to
know

• Construction of enhancement MOSFETs

• Symbols of enhancement MOSFET

• Working of enhancement MOSFET

• Drain characteristics of enhancement MOSFET

EC302.35 to 36 2
RECAP

Mention

• The types of FETs

• MOSFET types

EC302.35 to 36 3
ENHANCEMENT MOSFET

Al layer • A p-channel MOSFET


source consists of lightly
Gate Drain
doped n-substrate into
Si o2 layer which two heavily
------- doped p+ regions act
as the source and the
P+ +++ P+
drain.
Induced
P channel
• A thin layer of SiO2 is
N-type substrate grown over the surface
of the entire assembly..
P channel Enhancement MOSFET

EC302.35 to 36 4
Construction
• Holes are cut into this
Al layer SiO2 layer for making
source
contact with p+ source
Gate Drain
and drain regions.
Si o2 layer
------- • On the SiO2 layer, a
P+ +++ P+
metal (alluminium) layer is
overlaid covering the
Induced
P channel entire channel region from
source to drain.
N-type substrate
• This aluminum layer
constitutes the gate.
P channel Enhancement MOSFET

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Construction • The area of MOSFET is
typically 5 square mills or
less.
Al layer • This area is extremely small
source Gate Drain being only about 5% of the
Si o2 layer area required for a bipolar
junction transistor.
------- • A parallel plate capacitor is
P+ +++ P+ formed with the metal areas
Induced of the gate and the
P channel semiconductor channel
acting as the electrodes of
N-type substrate the capacitor.
• The oxide layer acts as the
P channel Enhancement MOSFET dielectric between the
electrodes.

EC302.35 to 36 6
symbols

D
D

substrate
G G

S S
p channel enhancement MOSFET p channel

EC302.35 to 36 7
WORKING
Al layer • The substrate will be
source Gate Drain connected to the
Si o2 layer common terminal i.e.,
to the ground terminal.
-------
P+ +++ P+ • A negative potential will
Induced be applied to the gate.
P channel

• This results in the


N-type substrate
formation of an electric
field normal the SiO2
P channel Enhancement MOSFET layer.

EC302.35 to 36 8
WORKING
Al layer • This electric field originates
source from the induced positive
Gate Drain
charges on the semiconductor
Si o2 layer
side on the lower surface of
------- the SiO2 layer.
P+ +++ P+
Induced
P channel• The induced positive charge
become minority carriers in
N-type substrate the
n-type of substrate.
P channel Enhancement MOSFET

EC302.35 to 36 9
Enhancement MOSFET symbols

D
D

substrate

G
G
S S

N channel N channel

EC302.35 to 36 10
WORKING • It consists of a lightly doped
source Al layer p type substrate in to which
Gate
Drain two heavily Doped n type
Si o2 layer material are diffused.
++++
N+ ------ N+
• The surface is coated with
a layer of silicon dioxide(Sio2).
Induced
N channel
• Holes are cut through the
P-type substrate Sio2 to make contact with
n-type blocks.

N channel Enhancement MOSFET

EC302.35 to 36 11
WORKING
Al layer • Metal (Al) is deposited
source Gate
Drain through the Holes to form drain

++++ Si o2 layer
andsource terminals
N+ ------ N+
Induced
N channel • The surface area between
drain and source a metal plate
P-type substrate is deposited from which gate
terminal is taken out.
N channel Enhancement MOSFET

EC302.35 to 36 12
•Gate is insulated from the body of
Al layer
FET so it is called insulated gate
Gate FET(IGFET).
Drain

source
++++ Si o2 layer•Structurally there exits no channel
between source
N+ ------ N+ and drain so MOSFET some times
Induced called as N-channel enhancement
N channel type

P-type substrate •Because a thin layer of P-type


substrate touching the metal oxide
N channel Enhancement MOSFET film provides channel for electrons
and hence acts like N-type
material.

EC302.35 to 36 13
WORKING OF THE ENHANCEMENT MOSFET

• Drain is made positive with respect


Al layer to the source and no potential
is applied to the gate as shown
Drain
SOURCE
Si o2 in figure.
layer
+++ • The two n-blocks and p-type
n+ ----- n+ substrate form back to back pn
Induced junctions connected by the
n channel
Resistance of the p-type material.

p-type substrate • Both the junctions cannot be


forwarded at the Same time so
n channel Enhancement MOSFET small drain current order of
few nano amperes flows.
EC302.35 to 36 14
WORKING OF THE ENHANCEMENT MOSFET

• So MOSFET is cut off when


gate source voltage Is zero.
Al layer

Gate Drain • That is why it is called normally-


SOURCE Si o2
layer
OFF MOSFET.
+++ • The gate is made positive with
n+ --- n+ respect to source substrate as
Induced shown in figure.
n channel
• A channel of electrons (n-
p-type substrate channel) is formed in between
the source and drain regions.

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•Behaves as a capacitor with
gate metal acting as one
electrode, upper surface of the
substrate as other electrode and
Al layer
sio2 layer as dielectric medium.
Gate DrainSi o2
SOURCE
layer
+++
n+ --- n+ •When positive voltage is applied
Induced
n channel
to gate the capacitor begin to
charge.
p-type substrate

N channel Enhancement MOSFET

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Al layer •Consequently positive
charges appears on the gate
Gate Drain
SOURCE
and negative charges appears
+++
in the substrate between
n+ --- n+
the drain and source.
Induced
n channel
•The n-channel thus formed is
p-type substrate called induced n-channel or
n-type inversion layer.
N channel Enhancement MOSFET •As VGS ,no.electrons in
the channel , ID .

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• The minimum gate source voltage which produces the
induced n-channel is called threshold voltage VGS(th)
when VGS < VGS (th), ID=0.

• Drain current starts only VGS >VGS (th).

• For a given value of VDS as VGS is increased , more and


more electrons accumulate under the gate and ID
increases.

EC302.35 to 36 18
• So the conductivity of the channel is enhanced

by the positive bias on the gate, the device is

known as enhancement mode MOSFET.

• The n-channel MOSFET can never operate

with a negative gate voltage.

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• Drain characteristics
•It is observed that the drain
Id(Ma) current has been enhanced on
application of negative gate
-10
V gs=-20 voltage.
-8 •This is the reason for calling it
-16
as enhancement MOSFET.
-6
-12
•By increasing the gate
-4
potential, pinch off voltage and
drain currents are increased.
-2
•The curves are similar to drain
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 characteristics of JFET.
Vds (v)
EC302.35 to 36 20
SUMMARY

we discussed that
• In enhancement MOSFETs there is absence of channel
between source &drain terminals.

• No drain current flows in the channel without gate voltage

• The channel is enhanced by means of gate potential.

• Drain current increases with gate voltage.

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QUIZ

1. Pick of the wrong statement

(c) The BJT have larger voltage gain the

JFET for same supply voltage.

(b) MOSFETs is a voltage driven device

(c) MOSFET essentially require dual polarity

power supply to turn them ON & OFF.

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QUIZ

1. Which statement about MOSFET is false? It can


operate in

(A) depletion mode.


(B)enhancement mode
(C) depletion and enhancement modes
(D) depletion-only mode

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• For enhancement only n-channel MOSFET, polarity of
VGS is

(A) negative
(B) positive
(C) zero.
(D) dependent the application of the device

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Draw the structural diagram of enhancement


MOSFET?
2. Draw the SYMBOLS of N- type enhancement
MOSFET?
3. Draw the SYMBOLS of p-type enhancement
MOSFET?

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Frequently Asked Questions

• Explain the working of n-channel enhancement


MOSFET.
• Explain the working of p-channel enhancement
MOSFET.
• Draw the drain characteristics of enhancement
MOSFET.

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