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# DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

Name : A . Kishtanna.
Designation : Senior Lecturer in E C E.
Branch : Electronics & Commn. Engg.
Institute : 062,G P W, NIZAMABAD.
Semester : III semester.
Subject : Circuit Theory.
Subject Code : EC-303.
Topic : Circuit transients and linear wave Shaping.
Duration : 100Mts.
Sub topic : Initial, Steady state and transient condition.
Teaching Aids : PPT., Diagrams.
EC303.73 to74 1
Objectives
On completion of this period, you would be able to Know
the behaviour of circuits under :
•Transient conditions
•With Initial conditions Know the response of RC circuit for
step input
• Know the equation for current, voltage & power in RC
Components
• Problem solving
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Recap
• In the previous sessions we have learnt the behaviour of electrical
• The behaviour of circuit is totally different under transient
conditions or during switching or change over from one state to
other
• This condition of changeover is known as Transient and the study
of the same is known as Transient analysis
• Switching operation changes the current and Voltage in the
device.

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Introduction

## • Switching operation changes the current and Voltage in the

device.

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Electrical properties of passive components

## • A Pure resistive device will allow instantaneous change in

current and voltage.

## • When switching operation is performed in inductor &

capacitor, then current & voltage will take certain time to change.

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Initial condition

## • Initial condition in capacitor is : at t=0, v=0

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Transient response

## instant is taken as time origin i.e. t=0.

• The time t=0- is used to denote the time instant just prior to

switching.
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• The time t=0+ is used to denote the time instant immediately
after switching.

## there fore iR(0+) ≠ iR(0-) and vR(0+) ≠ vR(0-).

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• An inductor will not allow sudden change in current but
allow sudden change in voltage therefore iL(0+) = iL(0-)
and vL(0+) ≠ vL(0-).

## • A capacitor will allow sudden change in current but

will not allow sudden change in voltage therefore
iC(0+) ≠ iC(0-) and vC(0+) = vC(0-).

## • The response due to stored energy in capacitor and

inductor is called as "natural or free response“.

## • The response due to external source is called as

"forced response” . EC303.73 to74 9
• In time domain analysis the voltage current relation of

## source and attains a steady state value at t=∞. 10

EC303.73 to74
R-C transient Series Circuit
S R

+
i C
V
_

Applying KVLFig.74.1
to the Fig74.1 after closing the switch resu

## differential equation. EC303.73 to74 11

• R i+1/C∫ I dt = 0----(1).

## • Now differentiating equation (1) with respect to t,

• R di/dt +i/C = 0.

## • The letter D is called as Del operator.

`
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• (D + 1/RC)i = 0-------(2).

(d-a) y = R.

## • I = C e-t/RC -----(3). EC303.73 to74 13

• To find the constant C consider the initial condition.

## • Hence for short time, capacitor is short circuited.

• I0 = V/R at t = 0.

## • Substitute I = I0 = V/R at t = 0 in equation (3).

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• V/R = Ce-0/RC.
= C(1).
There fore C = V/R.
Hence i = (V/R)e-t/RC ------(4).

## • The equation (4) has a form of exponential decay as shown below.

i
V/R i=(V/R)e-t/RC

1 2 5 RC t
15
Fig74.2(Current vs.to74time
EC303.73
• The corresponding transient voltages are

## VR = R .i = R .(V/R)e-t/RC = V .e-t/RC ----(5).

VC = V – VR.

= V – Ve-t/RC.

= V (1 –e-t/RC ) ---------(6).

## • There fore VT = VR + VC.

= Ve-t/RC + V( 1-e-t/RC).
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=V -----(7).
Voltage
V ..
VR=Ve-t/RC

Time constant RC
Fig 74.3(Voltage across resister vs. time constant).
Voltage
V
VC=V(1-e-t/RC)

Time constant RC
Fig74.4(Voltage across capacitor vs. time constant).
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Instantaneous power in a Resistor is given by
PR = VR . I.

## = (V2/R) e-2t/RC -------(8).

Power in Resistor
V2/R

PR=(V2/R)e-t/RC
Time constant RC

## Fig 74.5 (Power in resistor versus time constant ).

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Instantaneous power in a capacitor is given by
PC = VC . I.
=V(1 – e-t/RC) . (V/R)e-t/RC.
=V2/R( e-t/RC – e-2t/RC).
Power in capacitor
V2/R
PC=V2/R(e-t/RC-e-2t/RC)

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Summary

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Summary

## • Power in capacitor (PC) = (V2/R){e-t/RC – e-2t/RC).

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QUIZ
• The time duration from the instant of switching to the attainment
of

## • The response of circuit due to stored energy is called free or

natural response.

## • The current at t=0- is equal to current at t=0+ in the component

Inductor.
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Quiz
• (1) The time duration from instant of switching till the
attainment of steady state is called

## (a) Initial condition

(b) Final condition
(c) Transient period
(d) None of the above

## (a) Natural response

(b) Forced response
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(d) All the abov
Questions…

4. What is a transient?

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Questions…

response ?

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