You are on page 1of 25



Name : A . Kishtanna.
Designation : Senior Lecturer in E C E.
Branch : Electronics & Commn. Engg.
Institute : 062,G P W, NIZAMABAD.
Semester : III semester.
Subject : Circuit Theory.
Subject Code : EC-303.
Topic : Circuit transients and linear wave Shaping.
Duration : 100Mts.
Sub topic : Initial, Steady state and transient condition.
Teaching Aids : PPT., Diagrams.
EC303.73 to74 1
On completion of this period, you would be able to Know
the behaviour of circuits under :
•Steady State conditions
•Transient conditions
•With Initial conditions Know the response of RC circuit for
step input
• Know the equation for current, voltage & power in RC
• Problem solving
EC303.73 to74 2
• In the previous sessions we have learnt the behaviour of electrical
circuits under steady state conditions
• The behaviour of circuit is totally different under transient
conditions or during switching or change over from one state to
• This condition of changeover is known as Transient and the study
of the same is known as Transient analysis
• Switching operation changes the current and Voltage in the

EC303.73 to74 3

• Electrical devices are controlled by switches.

• When switch is closed Supply is connected to the device.

• When switch is open Supply is disconnected to the device.

• Switching operation changes the current and Voltage in the


EC303.73 to74 4
Electrical properties of passive components

• A Pure resistive device will allow instantaneous change in

current and voltage.

• An inductive device will not allow sudden change in current.

• A capacitive device will not allow sudden change in voltage.

• When switching operation is performed in inductor &

capacitor, then current & voltage will take certain time to change.

EC303.73 to74 5
Initial condition

• The state of the circuit element before switching the voltage

or current is called initial condition

• Initial condition must be known to evaluate the arbitrary

constants that show up in general solution of differential equation

• Initial condition in inductor is: at t=0, i=0

• Initial condition in capacitor is : at t=0, v=0

EC303.73 to74 6
Transient response

• Transient response is the response (output) of a circuit from

the instant of switching to attainment of steady state.

• To study the response with respect to time, the switching

instant is taken as time origin i.e. t=0.

• The time t=0- is used to denote the time instant just prior to

EC303.73 to74 7
• The time t=0+ is used to denote the time instant immediately
after switching.

• Even the time difference between t=0- to t=0+ is zero.

• It is necessary to define the three time instants 0-,

0 and 0+ because current and voltage in certain elements

may change suddenly.

• The resister will allow sudden change in current & voltage

there fore iR(0+) ≠ iR(0-) and vR(0+) ≠ vR(0-).

EC303.73 to74 8
• An inductor will not allow sudden change in current but
allow sudden change in voltage therefore iL(0+) = iL(0-)
and vL(0+) ≠ vL(0-).

• A capacitor will allow sudden change in current but

will not allow sudden change in voltage therefore
iC(0+) ≠ iC(0-) and vC(0+) = vC(0-).

• The response due to stored energy in capacitor and

inductor is called as "natural or free response“.

• The response due to external source is called as

"forced response” . EC303.73 to74 9
• In time domain analysis the voltage current relation of

circuit will be in the form of differential equation.

• The response of circuit is the solution of differential equation.

• The solution consists of two parts as shown below.

• Complementary function depends on the nature of the

circuit and its value is zero at t=∞.

• Particular solution depends on the nature of the exciting

source and attains a steady state value at t=∞. 10

EC303.73 to74
R-C transient Series Circuit

i C

Applying KVLFig.74.1
to the Fig74.1 after closing the switch resu

differential equation. EC303.73 to74 11

• R i+1/C∫ I dt = 0----(1).

• Now differentiating equation (1) with respect to t,

• R di/dt +i/C = 0.

• di/dt + i/RC = 0 Dividing the above equation with R.

• The term d/dt can be represented by a letter D.

• The letter D is called as Del operator.

EC303.73 to74 12
• (D + 1/RC)i = 0-------(2).

• Equation (2) is a first order ,linear differential equation of the type

(d-a) y = R.

• The solution to the above type homogeneous equation is .

• Y = C eax + eax ∫e-ax R dx.

• Since R = 0,then particular solution is zero.

• Hence the solution of equation (2) is given by.

• I = C e-t/RC -----(3). EC303.73 to74 13

• To find the constant C consider the initial condition.

• We know that when the switch is closed at t = 0 the voltage across

capacitor can not change suddenly.

• Hence for short time, capacitor is short circuited.

• I0 = V/R at t = 0.

• Substitute I = I0 = V/R at t = 0 in equation (3).

EC303.73 to74 14
• V/R = Ce-0/RC.
= C(1).
There fore C = V/R.
Hence i = (V/R)e-t/RC ------(4).

• The equation (4) has a form of exponential decay as shown below.

V/R i=(V/R)e-t/RC

1 2 5 RC t
Fig74.2(Current vs.to74time
• The corresponding transient voltages are

VR = R .i = R .(V/R)e-t/RC = V .e-t/RC ----(5).

VC = V – VR.

= V – Ve-t/RC.

= V (1 –e-t/RC ) ---------(6).

• The total voltage is the sum of VR + VC

• There fore VT = VR + VC.

= Ve-t/RC + V( 1-e-t/RC).
EC303.73 to74 16
=V -----(7).
V ..

Time constant RC
Fig 74.3(Voltage across resister vs. time constant).

Time constant RC
Fig74.4(Voltage across capacitor vs. time constant).
EC303.73 to74 17
Instantaneous power in a Resistor is given by
PR = VR . I.

= V . e-t/RC . (V/R) e-t/RC.

= (V2/R) e-2t/RC -------(8).

Power in Resistor

Time constant RC

Fig 74.5 (Power in resistor versus time constant ).

EC303.73 to74 18
Instantaneous power in a capacitor is given by
PC = VC . I.
=V(1 – e-t/RC) . (V/R)e-t/RC.
=V2/R( e-t/RC – e-2t/RC).
Power in capacitor

. Time constant RC.

Fig74.6 (PC vs. T C).

EC303.73 to74 19

• Voltage and current levels of the reactive components

just before the switching is called Initial condition.

• The complementary function part of the response which

becomes zero as t tends to infinity is called transient response .

• Particular solution part of the response which attains a steady

value as t tends to infinity is called steady state response.

EC303.73 to74 20

• We derived the equations for.

• Current (i)= (V/R)e-t/RC.

• Voltage across resister (VR) = Ve-t/RC .

• Voltage across capacitor (VC) = V(1-e-t/RC).

• Power in resister (PR) = (V2/R)e-2t/RC.

• Power in capacitor (PC) = (V2/R){e-t/RC – e-2t/RC).

EC303.73 to74 21
• The time duration from the instant of switching to the attainment

steady state is called transient period.

• The response of circuit due to stored energy is called free or

natural response.

• The complementary function is also called as natural response.

• The current at t=0- is equal to current at t=0+ in the component

EC303.73 to74 22
• (1) The time duration from instant of switching till the
attainment of steady state is called

(a) Initial condition

(b) Final condition
(c) Transient period
(d) None of the above

• (2) The complementary function is called as

(a) Natural response

(b) Forced response
(c) Steady state response
EC303.73 to74 23
(d) All the abov

4. What is a transient?

6. Why transient occurs in electric circuits?

8. What is free and forced response?

10. What is complementary function?

12. What is steady state response?

EC303.73 to74 24

5. Explain the DC response of a series RC corcuit (Mar/Apr’2006) ?

10 Define the terms initial condition, steady state and transient

response ?

EC303.73 to74 25