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ANDHRA PRADESH

Name : A . Kishtanna.

Designation : Senior Lecturer in E C E.

Branch : Electronics & Commn. Engg.

Institute : 062,G P W, NIZAMABAD.

Semester : III semester.

Subject : Circuit Theory.

Subject Code : EC-303.

Topic : Circuit transients and linear wave Shaping.

Duration : 100Mts.

Sub topic : Initial, Steady state and transient condition.

Teaching Aids : PPT., Diagrams.

EC303.73 to74 1

Objectives

On completion of this period, you would be able to Know

the behaviour of circuits under :

•Steady State conditions

•Transient conditions

•With Initial conditions Know the response of RC circuit for

step input

• Know the equation for current, voltage & power in RC

Components

• Problem solving

EC303.73 to74 2

Recap

• In the previous sessions we have learnt the behaviour of electrical

circuits under steady state conditions

• The behaviour of circuit is totally different under transient

conditions or during switching or change over from one state to

other

• This condition of changeover is known as Transient and the study

of the same is known as Transient analysis

• Switching operation changes the current and Voltage in the

device.

EC303.73 to74 3

Introduction

device.

EC303.73 to74 4

Electrical properties of passive components

current and voltage.

capacitor, then current & voltage will take certain time to change.

EC303.73 to74 5

Initial condition

EC303.73 to74 6

Transient response

• The time t=0- is used to denote the time instant just prior to

switching.

EC303.73 to74 7

• The time t=0+ is used to denote the time instant immediately

after switching.

EC303.73 to74 8

• An inductor will not allow sudden change in current but

allow sudden change in voltage therefore iL(0+) = iL(0-)

and vL(0+) ≠ vL(0-).

will not allow sudden change in voltage therefore

iC(0+) ≠ iC(0-) and vC(0+) = vC(0-).

inductor is called as "natural or free response“.

"forced response” . EC303.73 to74 9

• In time domain analysis the voltage current relation of

EC303.73 to74

R-C transient Series Circuit

S R

+

i C

V

_

Applying KVLFig.74.1

to the Fig74.1 after closing the switch resu

• R i+1/C∫ I dt = 0----(1).

• R di/dt +i/C = 0.

`

EC303.73 to74 12

• (D + 1/RC)i = 0-------(2).

(d-a) y = R.

• To find the constant C consider the initial condition.

• I0 = V/R at t = 0.

EC303.73 to74 14

• V/R = Ce-0/RC.

= C(1).

There fore C = V/R.

Hence i = (V/R)e-t/RC ------(4).

i

V/R i=(V/R)e-t/RC

1 2 5 RC t

15

Fig74.2(Current vs.to74time

EC303.73

• The corresponding transient voltages are

VC = V – VR.

= V – Ve-t/RC.

= V (1 –e-t/RC ) ---------(6).

= Ve-t/RC + V( 1-e-t/RC).

EC303.73 to74 16

=V -----(7).

Voltage

V ..

VR=Ve-t/RC

Time constant RC

Fig 74.3(Voltage across resister vs. time constant).

Voltage

V

VC=V(1-e-t/RC)

Time constant RC

Fig74.4(Voltage across capacitor vs. time constant).

EC303.73 to74 17

Instantaneous power in a Resistor is given by

PR = VR . I.

Power in Resistor

V2/R

PR=(V2/R)e-t/RC

Time constant RC

EC303.73 to74 18

Instantaneous power in a capacitor is given by

PC = VC . I.

=V(1 – e-t/RC) . (V/R)e-t/RC.

=V2/R( e-t/RC – e-2t/RC).

Power in capacitor

V2/R

PC=V2/R(e-t/RC-e-2t/RC)

EC303.73 to74 19

Summary

EC303.73 to74 20

Summary

EC303.73 to74 21

QUIZ

• The time duration from the instant of switching to the attainment

of

natural response.

Inductor.

EC303.73 to74 22

Quiz

• (1) The time duration from instant of switching till the

attainment of steady state is called

(b) Final condition

(c) Transient period

(d) None of the above

(b) Forced response

(c) Steady state response

EC303.73 to74 23

(d) All the abov

Questions…

4. What is a transient?

EC303.73 to74 24

Questions…

response ?

EC303.73 to74 25

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