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Fiber Optics

Module-III
Optical fiber is a long thin strand of transparent dielectric
material (glass or plastic) about the diameter of a human hair.
Optical fiber carries electromagnetic waves of visible and
infrared frequencies from one end to the other end of the fiber
by means of Total Internal Reflection.
Optical fibers are arranged in bundles called optical cables that
can transmit large amounts of information at the speed of light.

Introduction: Optical fiber
Structure of an Optical fiber
Poly urethane protective jacket
Cladding
Core
plastic jacket glass or plastic
cladding
fiber core
Polyurethane is a unique
material that offers elasticity of
rubber combined with toughness
and durability of metal


1) Core: It is an inner cylindrical material made up of glass or plastic.

2) Cladding: It is a cylindrical shell of glass or plastic material in which
Core is inserted.

3) Protective Jacket: The Cladding is enclosed in polyurethane jacket
and it protects the fiber from surroundings.

NOTE: The refractive index of core is slightly greater than the
refractive index of Cladding. The normal standard values are 1.48 and
1.46 respectively.
Optical fiber consists of three sections
Fiber Optic Cables
How Does Optical Fiber Transmit Light??
Principle: Optical fiber works on the principle of Total internal reflection.
Once light ray enters into core, it propagates by means of multiple total
internal reflection s at core-cladding interface.

The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core
(hallway) by constantly bouncing from the cladding (mirror
lined walls), a principle called total internal reflection.


Because the cladding does not absorb any light
from the core, the light wave can travel great
distances.

However, some of the light signal degrades
within the fiber, mostly due to impurities in the
glass. The extent that the signal degrades
depends on the purity of the glass and the
wavelength of the transmitted light

Total Internal Reflection
; sin
90 sin sin
90
sin sin
1
2
0
1
2
0
2 1
n
n
n
n
ref raction of angle is
incidence of angle is where
n n
c
c
r c
r
i
r i
=
=
= =
=
u
u
u u u
u
u
u u
Critical Angle
The critical angle is the angle of incidence above which total
internal reflection occurs

From Snells law of refraction the angles of incidence and
refraction are related to each other & to the refractive indices of
the mediums as :
1
2
sin
n
n
Arc
c
= u
Transmission of a light ray in a perfect
optical fiber
Any discontinuities or imperfections at the corecladding interface would probably
result in refraction rather than total internal reflection, with the subsequent loss of
the light ray into the cladding.
Acceptance angle
Numerical Aperture
Modes

Core-Cladding interface
Fiber axis
Core n
1
Cladding n
2
A
B
C

r

i

r


Incident light ray n
1
>n
2
Acceptance angle
The maximum angle of incidence at the end face of an
Optical fiber for which the light ray can be propagated
along Core-Cladding interface is known as Acceptance
angle. (The Max value of for which the internal rays
will strikes at critical angle)
It is also called Acceptance cone half angle.
i
) 2 .........( cos sin
cos sin
) 90 sin( sin
90
90
) 1 ....( .......... sin sin
0
1
1 0
0
1 0
0
0
1 0
u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
u u
n
n
n n
n n
ABC triangle angle right the from
n n
i
i
i
r
r
r i
=
=
=
=
= +
=
Note: n
0
is the refractive index of the medium from which the light
ray enters the fiber
Applying Snell s law of refraction at the point of entry of the ray into the core
) 4 ..( .......... cos
1 sin 1 cos
sin
90 sin sin
90
sin sin
) 3 ......( .......... cos sin
) (
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
0
1
2
0
2 1
0
1
max
n
n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
r i
r n i n
refraction of law to according
n
n
angle critical when
c
c c
c
c
c
c m
i c

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
=
= =
=
=
= =
u
u u
u
u
u
u u
u u u u
For core-cladding
interface
2
2
2
1
1
max
2
2
2
1 max
0
1
2
2
2
1
0
1
max
sin
sin
1 ,
sin
) 3 ( ) 4 (
n n
n n
n then air is fiber the g surroundin medium the if
n
n n
n
n
in equation substitute
=
=
=

u
u
u
Which is the required expression for Acceptance Angle in
optical fibers.
Acceptance cone

Rotating the Acceptance angle about the fiber axis describes
the Acceptance Cone of the fiber.

Light launched at the fiber end within this Acceptance Cone
alone will be accepted and propagated to the other end of the
fiber by total internal reflection.
max
max
Acceptance Cone
Numerical Aperture

The light gathering capacity of an
optical fiber is known as Numerical
Aperture and it is proportional to
Acceptance Angle.

It is numerically equal to sine of
Acceptance Angle.
A =
A =
~
+ A =

= A
+ =
=

=
=
2
2
) (
) )( (
sin
sin
1
2
1
2 1
2 1 1
1
2 1
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
1
max
max
n NA
n NA
n n
n n n NA
n
n n
n n n n NA
n n NA
n
n n
NA
u
u
The ratio between the difference
in refractive indices of Core and
Cladding to that of core is called the
fractional change .