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Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engg
Institute : SGPR Govt Polytechnic, Kurnool.
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Analog Communication
Subject Code : EC305
Topic : Introduction to Communication Systems
Duration : 50 Mts
Sub Topic : Frequency Spectrum – Use of Different
Teaching Aids : DiagramsEC305.3 1

• Up on the completion of this topic the student will be able

to know the frequency spectrum of signals and different

frequency of signals used in communication systems.

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• The frequency of a signal is defined as number of cycles

per second.( cycles/sec)

• It is measured in Hertz.

• In communication systems information is sent by

different signals with different frequencies.

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EC305.3 4
Range of Frequency-Wave Length
Class Frequency Range Wavelength
Low Frequency (VLF) 10 KHz-30 KHZ 3 X104-104 m

Low Frequency (LF) 30 KHz-300 KHz 104-103 m

Medium Frequency (MF) 300 KHz-3 MHz 103-102 m

High Frequency (HF) 3 MHz-30 MHZ 102-10 m

Ultra High Frequency 30 MHz–300 MHz 10 m – 1m

Microwaves Above 300 MHz Below 1m

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Radio Communication Band

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Propagation Types

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Frequency Bands and application

Band Range Propagation Application

VLF 3–30 KHz Ground Long-range radio navigation

Radio beacons and
LF 30–300 KHz Ground
navigational locators
MF 300 KHz–3 MHz Sky AM radio
Citizens band (CB),
HF 3–30 MHz Sky
ship/aircraft communication
Sky and VHF TV,
VHF 30–300 MHz
line-of-sight FM radio
UHF TV, cellular phones,
UHF 300 MHz–3 GHz Line-of-sight
paging, satellite

SHF 3–30 GHz Line-of-sight Satellite communication

EHF 30–300 GHz Line-of-sight Long-range radio navigation

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• The very low frequency (VLF) and low frequency (LF) are
referred to as long waves, where length being
comparatively longer.

• On Similar basis, HF frequencies are called short waves.

• The medium wave range used for broadcasting purposes

lies between 500 kHz and 1600 kHz and is known as
broadcast band.

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Wireless transmission waves

• Radio waves are used for multicast

communications, such as radio and television, and
paging systems.

• Microwaves are used for unicast communication

such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and
wireless LANs.

• Infrared signals can be used for short-range

communication in a closed area using line-of-sight
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process of modulation and demodulation
• Since the base band signal must be transmitted through a
communication channel such as Space using electromagnetic
waves, an appropriate procedure is needed to shift the range of
base band frequencies to other frequency ranges suitable for
transmission, and a corresponding shift back to the original
frequency range after reception.
• Base band signal: The frequency range occupied by the
message signal

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• For example, an AM radio system transmits
electromagnetic waves with frequencies of around a few
hundred kHz (MF band)

• The FM radio system must operate with frequencies in the

range of 88-108 MHz (VHF band)

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• What is the frequency range of audio signals ?

Ans: 20Hz—20KHz

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2.What is the FM broadcasting range ?

Ans: 88MHz-108MHZ

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3.Frequency is defined as ………..
Ans: No.of Cycles/Sec

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4.What is the frequency range of MF ?
Ans: 300KHz-3MHz

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Examination Question

• Classify the signals depending upon the range of

frequencies and their wave length.

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• From this topic it is observed that low frequency signals

have more wave length and high frequency signals have
less wave length.

• Hence frequency in inversely proportional to wave


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