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Name of the faculty : T.Madhavi Kumari
Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Electronics & Communication Engg
Institute : Govt.Polytechnic ,Vijayawada
Semester : III Semester
Subject : Electronics –I
Subject Code : EE-305
Topic : Introduction to Amplifiers
Duration : 50 Minutes
Sub Topic : Necessity of proper biasing
for Transistor amplifier
Sub topic : PPT, visuals
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• Already we discussed about the

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After the completion of the topic student will be able

to know

• Selection of the “Q” point

• Bias stabilization

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• Cut-off point- point where the load line intersects the IB=0

• Saturation point - point at which the load line intersects the

IB(sat) curve

• Active region- The region between cutoff and saturation


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Selection of operating point

• Very important for amplifiers because wrong ‘Q’

point selection increases amplifier distortion

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Selection of the “Q” point
Q point near the saturation region


• Clipping at the positive peaks

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“Q” point near cut-off region

• Clipping at the negative peaks

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“Q” point at the centre of the load line

• No distortion at the output

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Bias stabilization

• The process of Making “Q” point independent of

temperature changes or variations in transistor
parameters ICO,,β, and VBE.

• Need to have a stable ‘Q’ point, meaning the operating

point should not be sensitive to variation to temperature
or BJT Parameters, which can vary widely

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Means of achieving operating point stability

• Stabilization techniques:

- Proper biasing circuits are used

- Permits such a variation of base current IB as to

maintain IC almost constant inspite of variations of
ICO,,β, and VBE.

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Compensation techniques:

- Temperature sensitive devices such as diodes,

transistors, thermistors are used.

- These devices produces compensating voltages and

currents in such a way that the operating point is
maintained stable

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Stability Factor (S)

• The rate of change of collector current IC w.r.t. Ico at constant

VBE and IB

• Ex: S=50 means that Ic changes 50 times as much as
any change in ICO

• Ideal valve of S is “1”

• High value of S indicates poor stability

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• Stability factor S′

Rate of change of IC with VBE, keeping ICO and β


• Stability factor S"or S β

Rate of change of IC with β ,keeping ICO and VBE


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• Expression of a stability factor S for CE configuration

The value of dIB/dIC depends on the type of biasing

arrangement EE-305.58 14

We have discussed about

• Proper selection of “Q” point

• Bias stabilization

• Stability factors

• Expression for stability factor

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1. Thermal variation causes change of following

parameters of a transistor

(a) ICBO and IC

(b) ICBO and VBE

(c) β and VBE

(d) ICBO ,β and VBE

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Frequently asked questions

1. What is meant by bias stabilization?

4. Define stability factors ?

3. Derive the expression for stability factor ‘S’ for CE


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