< NIKHIL KALAMKAR 201

< SHIVRAJ JADHAV - 202
< ROHIT KHUDABADI - 204
< AMAR KOTWAL 205
< SONALI KSHIRSAGAR - 206
,989
< By deIinition, solar energy is energy radiated Irom the Sun
in the Iorm oI heat and light and harnessed as solar power.
< So basically, solar power is power Irom the Sun.
< This energy is converted into other Iorms oI energy as heat
and electricity.
< Thermal energy is used to heat water in homes, buildings
and swimming pools.
< It is used to heat spaces such as homes, greenhouses and
other buildings.
< Lastly, it is used Ior heating Iluids at a high temperature to
work turbines to create electricity.
< Solar Energy Converted into Electricity in 2 ways:
W !hotovoltaic
<
W Concentrating Solar !ower !lants
< !hotovoltaic (!V) is the change oI sunlight directly into
electricity. Single !V cells are clustered into panels and placed in
proper order oI panels that are used in a wide range oI
applications.
< For example, single small cells that charge calculator and watch
batteries, to system that power single homes, to a large power
plant covering many acres.
< Concentrating solar power plants generates electricity by using
the heat Irom thermal collectors to heat Iluids that produce steam
that is used to power the generator.
< There are 11 known concentrating solar power generating units
operating in the US. Nine oI these are in CaliIornia, one in
Arizona, and one in Nevada.
< Solar energy has two main beneIits: it does not produce any
air pollutants or carbon-dioxide and when solar panels are
located on buildings, they don`t have a big impact on the
environment.
< Because the sun doesn`t deliver much energy to one place
at one time, a large surIace is required to harness energy at a
useIul rate.
< The amount oI sunlight that comes to Earth`s surIace is not
the same every time. It varies depending on the season, time
oI day, location, and the weather conditions
< A photovoltaic cell, also known as a solar cell or !V, is
the technology used to convert solar energy straight
into electrical power.
< A photovoltaic cell is a non-mechanical device that is
usually made Irom silicon alloys.
< The !V cell is the building block Ior a !V system.
< Single cells can vary in size Irom 0.5 inches to almost 4 inches
across.
< One cell only produces 1 or 2 watts; that isn`t enough power Ior
most applications.
< To increase the output oI power, cells are electrically connected to
a packaged weather-tight module.
< Modules are Iurther connected to Iorm an array, which means, to
the entire generating plant, whether it`s made oI one or several
thousand modules.
< The number oI modules connected together in an array depends
solely on the amount oI power output needed.
< The perIormance oI a !V array depends upon sunlight.
< Climate conditions have a big eIIect on the amount oI solar power
received by a !V.
< Modern modules are 10° eIIicient in converting sunlight.
< The simplest photovoltaic systems power small wrist
watches and small calculators used in everyday liIe.
< Other complicated systems provide electricity to pump
water, power communications equipment, and it provides
electricity to homes.
< !hotovoltaic cells are like batteries, as already said.
< They generate direct currents (DC), which is used Ior small
loads or electronic equipment.
< When DCs Irom !V cells are used Ior commercial reasons
or sold to electric utilities using the electric grid, it must
convert to alternating currents (AC) using inverters, a
device that converts DC power to AC.
< !arabolic trough
< Solar dish
< Solar power tower
< !arabolic troughs are used in the largest solar power Iacility in
the world, and it`s located in the Mojave Desert at Kramer
Junction, CaliIornia.
< A parabolic trough collector has a long parabolic-shaped
reIlector that Iocuses the sun`s rays on a receiver pipe located
at the center oI the parabola.
< It tilts with the sun when the sun moves away Irom the east
and the west to make sure that the sun is always Iocused on
the receiver.
< Because oI its shape, a trough can Iocus the sun at 30 to 100
times its normal intensity on the receiver pipe located on the
Iocal line, going over 750 degrees Fahrenheit.
< A solar Iield has several parallel rows oI solar parabolic trough
collectors on the north horizontal axis.
< A heat transIer Iluid is heated as it circulates through the
receiver pipes and returns to a series oI heat exchangers at a
central location.
< AIter made into steam it is Ied to a conventional steam
turbine and able to produce electricity.
< When the hot Iluid passes through the heat exchangers, it
cools down, and is then recirculated through the solar Iield to
heat up again.
< The plant is usually designed to operate at Iull power using
solar energy alone.
< However, all parabolic trough power plants can use Iossil
Iuel combustion to supplement the solar output during
periods oI low solar energy, such as on cloudy days.
< A solar dish system uses concentrating solar collectors to track
the sun, so they always point to the sun and concentrate the
solar energy at the Iocal point oI a dish.
< Solar dishes reach temperatures over 1380 degrees Fahrenheit.
< The operating equipment, used with a solar dish can be
mounted at the Iocal point oI the dish, making it well suited Ior
remote operations, the energy might be collected Irom a
number oI installations and converted onto electricity.
< The engine in a solar dish system converts heat into mechanical
power by adding pressure when a Iluid is cold, heat the
compressed working Iluid, and then expanding the Iluid
through a turbine or with a piston to produce work.
< The engine is coupled to an electric generator to convert the
mechanical power to electric power.
< A solar power tower generates electricity Irom sunlight by
Iocusing concentrated solar energy on a heat exchanger
mounted on a tower.
< This uses hundreds oI thousands oI heliostats, Ilat sun tracking
mirrors, to reIlect and concentrate the sun`s energy onto a
solar power tower. The energy can be concentrated as much as
1,500 times that oI the energy coming Irom the sun.
< Energy losses Irom thermal energy transport are minimized as
solar energy that is transIerred by reIlection oI the heliostats to
a single receiver.
< !ower towers are large and economical.
< Along with a number oI electricity utilizes, the U.S.
Department oI Energy, built and operated solar power tower
near Barstow, CaliIornia, during the 1990s.
THANk YOU,

#   < $'#'
  < # %&
  < # %   < $ $#$#
 
<

989 ..

985.80.902507.931:/8.8.9  %072.70.03078:80/940.730880/.9.90/174290$:3 3901472410.088:.97.75407  $4-.90734208 -:/38 .97.3/.7540785407174290$:3  %803078.0790/394490714728410307.43.9./.3/00.3/9.884.9 .9.9  . 84.89 98:80/1470.9:7094 479:7-30894.3/82235448 98:80/940...< < < < < < /013943 84.3/ 4907-:/38  ..9000.84208 70034:808.70307803077.

730743..8 !494.49.0790/3940.< $4.0397.398 .93. W < W 43.97.7!407!.93$4.

< < < < !494.9384..97..0732.708  43.947.705407 5.49. -. 4303 743.917429072.98:80/945407900307.3041 .0397.30418:39/70.3/43030.97.70. .990708 94889029./.9384.93390&$ 30419080.4.91:/89.3.9-:83 900.55.08.40..0397..954078304208 94.308.:89070/3945.9...70:80/3.:.9394 00.9438  470.93:398 4507.9574/:.70.  .0890.0/3 57450747/07415.250 83082.90800.9478940.3089.9.9.3/.70343.703..089.3980307..754070307.2 9.43.1473.9 $30!'.../07.39.947  %070..3/5.. !' 890.754075.

.

7-43 /4/0.90  %0..3 .3/0384.730880307.43/9438 .08706:70/94.7432039  0. 4.07920 9.420894.70307...9430920 .0.0307944305.0 .08349 908.79 88:71.75.24:39418:399.907.39847.-25.90/43-:/38 90/43 9..9.:80908:3/4083 9/0.70 4..943 ..754:9.200.843 920 41/. :801:7.8942.708:71.0..9.3-0301989/408349574/:.072:.94390 03.308...< < < $4.708/0503/3439080...3/900.

5407 5494./017428.84.7.43.43.8..< < 5494.343 20..07984.48  ..98 :8:...08.9 39400.047!' 8 9090.09./0..2..0 .70307897..84343.49.344:80/94.3.97.49.

3/24/:08  %03:2-074124/:08.!'88902  $30.4330..75407 70.90/94 ..38 94 90039700307.77...935.7000.0.55.4330.70..24:394154074:95:9300/0/  %05071472.983 9034:5407147 2489.70 011.< < < < < < < < < %0!'.08 .5.3.!' 4/07324/:08.7488  30.20.24893.0393.4330.07938:39 ./0503/8 8404390. 94:8. .43/9438.3../0503/8:5438:39 2..90.97.94390.80904:95:9415407 .0/-.73801742 3.77..07.0..3.907 9924/:0 4/:08.90/9409073.08.147.0/0./0414304780.3.9989.0890-:/3-4.043574/:.-0110.0894.90/941472.9438  %43.!'.041.08.43.24:394184.701:7907.77.0847.39 09079 82.

42207.08.:9908:839000.:770398  :833.9944208  !494./000./  %00307.889028540782.90/889028574.8438 4784/9400.943806:52039 .425.3/9574.:770398  .06:52039 0381742!'.09.990708 .907 5407.:.9..08.07994.70..700-.9478:80/30.49.9.93..49..789 .70:80/147.0798540794  ./8.422:3.10  907. /0.97.9.97.07/.97.< < < < < %08250895494.43.8:80/14782../08 00.9945:25 . 4.08.97./84700.43.90/70..3/82.9073..8..7/ 92:89 .70..9743..079078 .

-4.7/8 < $4.< !.974: < $4.7.754079407 .

314.08.0390741905.-4.50/ 7010.70.-4..75..390389439070.075504.708984.754071.075504.1473.843.814.8  ..974: .-4.5.7.. 8..9908:38.8..880.7.07  0.97.990.08:709..:8041988.7..974:.008079.0.:80/43 9070.40.70:80/390.-4.207 :3.9 94  9208983472.89 .0.  99989908:303908:324.7.94784390347947439.3/9 84.974:.90/4390 14.1742900.3/90089942.50 .947.435.90/ .0.:8908:3.< < < < < !.943 .93 9047/ .:808908:3 87.9479.07484184..70309  84.914.7.07.40.  5..974:8.30 434..-4.07 /07008.710/.7.90/3904.

.

430  40.7.843.:.943  19072..43.70307.890..997.42-:8943948:55020399084.974:54075.710/94 0.2 9:7-30.90.3078 9 .07 .70307 8:.075508.80708410.91:5407:83 84.0.97.3/890370.8 .3078.9.0397.448/43 .9  0390491:/5.7.90..3/709:73894..398:8:.29810/94.74:95:9/:73 5074/841484..7.5.3/.-4../0394890.-094574/:.90/974:9084.3 %05.4. .< < < < < 0.000./0830/944507.9:5.4://.90.89.8808974:900.381071:/80.03943.:.908974:90 70.398.3:801488 1:0.90/..

.0397.0397.902507.3./8  $4.3-0 24:390/.07990 20..97.99014.7/888902..43.3.3/90305.7/8.9438.. 3:2-0741389.99014.5407  .9  %003303.0307..047  %003308..5894394574/:.9090 84.3/.54394190/8 2.4:50/94.43.9438 90030729-0.43.< < < < < 84.90/1742.42570880/4731:/ .43.40.07 /07008.3/.300.84.97.40.94789497.990 .97.54079400.1:/8.//357088:7003.70309  %04507.8543994908:3..9384.9:7084.543941.7/80870..0790/439400..9306:52039 :80/9.7.07980.7/888902:808.3908:90/147 7024904507..84.. 908:3 8490. 5407-.9:7-30479.70307.939420.4/ 0.94794.43.3/3901:/ 974:.

.

/:7390 8 .702320/.. 84.70.:83.9:908 90& $  05.3/.3/4507.98 1.307 24:390/43.7894 .8 84.83070.0397.9894 .3810770/-7010...7.90/.0397.0.7030743.3:2-074100.8   92089.0397.4342.3 277478 947010.< < < < < 84.7540794070307.97.9.90/84.43.90.90908:3 803074394.82:.9407  %8:808:3/70/84194:8.07  !40794078.90800.  439.941900307.97..754079407 %00307.030797.917428:39- 14..3/8410489.94341900489.4231742908:3 3074880817429072.43.0.43.385479.3/0.1473.98:397.754079407 30.70.9897.703079.90/84.79203941307 -:9.3-0.

.

% & .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful