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Software Engineering

Presentation Title
Rational Unified Process - UML (including Class Diagram, Use Case Diagram, Collaboration diagram)

Introduction to RUP

Outlines
What is RUP? RUP Phases
Inception Elaboration Construction Transition

What is RUP?
Shows how you can apply best practices of software engineering, and how you can use tools to automate your software engineering process Rational Unified Process is created to be:
Iterative incremental
Risks, changes, continuous integration, etc.

Architecture centric
Understand the purpose, skeleton of the system, foster reuse, technical risks, etc.

Use case driven


Develop use-case by use-case, traceability, etc.

RUP uses UML


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Best Practices
Develop iteratively
In a waterfall lifecycle, you cannot verify whether you have stayed clear of a risk until late in the lifecycle In an iterative lifecycle, you will select what increment to develop in an iteration based on a list of key risks

Benefits:
Accommodating changes Mitigating risks Increasing reuse Learning Higher quality

Inception Goals
Establishing the project's software scope and boundary conditions, including:
an operational vision acceptance criteria what is intended to be in the product what is not.

Discriminating
the critical use cases of the system the primary scenarios of operation that will drive the major design trade-offs.

Exhibiting, and maybe demonstrating, at least one candidate architecture against some of the primary scenarios

Inception Goals (Cont.)


Estimating
the overall cost and schedule for the entire project and more detailed estimates for the elaboration phase that will immediately follow

Estimating potential risks (the sources of unpredictability) Preparing the supporting environment for the project.
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Inception Essential Activities


Formulating the scope of the project. Planning and preparing a business case. Synthesizing a candidate architecture. Preparing the environment for the project.

Inception Artifacts
Vision: The project's core requirements, key features, and main constraints are documented. Stakeholders Glossary: defines important terms used by the project. Business Case: provides the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not this project is worth investing in. Software Development Plan: all information required to manage the project. (Risk, time and durations, needed tools, changes, documentations) Use-case model: a model of the system's intended functions and its environment, and serves as a contract between the customer and the developers.

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Elaboration Goals
To ensure stability of:
Architecture; Requirements; Plans.

To be able to predictably determine:


Cost; Schedule.

To address all significant risks of the project, and to ensure all of them will be mitigated. To establish a baseline architecture
Derived from addressing the architectural significant scenarios

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Elaboration Goals (Cont.)


To produce an evolutionary prototype Verify baseline architecture
Demonstrate that the architecture will support requirements of the system at a reasonable cost and time.

To establish a supporting environment.

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Elaboration Activities
Defining, validating the baseline architecture. Refining the Vision. Creating detail of iteration plans for the construction phase. Refining the development case and putting in place the development environment Refining the architecture and selecting components.

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Elaboration Artifacts
Software Architecture Document: provides a comprehensive architectural overview of the system, using a number of different architectural views to depict different aspects of the system. Prototypes: One or more executable architectural prototypes have been created to explore critical functionality and architecturally significant scenarios. Design model: an object model describing the realization of use cases, and serves as an abstraction of the implementation model and its source code. Data model: a subset of the implementation model which describes the logical and physical representation of persistent data in the system. Testing Mechanisms and refining previous Iterations artifacts.
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Construction Goals
Minimizing development costs by optimizing resources and avoiding unnecessary scrap and rework. Achieving adequate quality as rapidly as practical Achieving useful versions (alpha, beta, and other test releases) Completing the analysis, design, development and testing of all required functionality. To decide if the software, the sites, and the users are all ready for the application to be deployed. To achieve some degree of parallelism in the work of development teams.

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Construction Activities
Resource management, control and process optimization Complete component development and testing against the defined evaluation criteria Assessment of evaluation of product releases against acceptance criteria for the vision.
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Construction Artifacts
The System: The executable system itself, ready to begin "beta" testing. Training materials: the material that is used in training programs or courses to assist the end-users with product use, operation and/or maintenance. Testing results and refining previous Iterations artifacts.
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Transition Goals
Beta testing to validate the new system against user expectations Beta testing and parallel operation relative to a legacy system that it's replacing Training of users and maintainers Roll-out to the marketing, distribution and sales forces Tuning activities such as bug fixing, enhancement for performance and usability
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Transition Goals (Cont.)


Achieving user self-supportability Achieving stakeholder concurrence that deployment baselines are complete

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Transition Activities
Executing deployment plans Finalizing end-user support material Testing the deliverable product at the development site Creating a product release Getting user feedback Fine-tuning the product based on feedback Making the product available to end users
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Transition Artifacts
Product. Release Notes: identify changes and known bugs in a version of a build or deployment unit that has been made available for use. Installation Artifacts: refer to the software and documented instructions required to install the product. End-User Support Material: Materials that assist the end-user in learning, using, operating and maintaining the product. Testing results and refining previous Iterations artifacts.
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RUP should be customized

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Introduction to Use Case

Use Cases Definition


A Use Case is a way of using a system
o A scenario that describes limited interaction between a system and actors in the field

In a Use Case, you describe the use of a system for a given work task
o You consider a complete work task, initiated by an actor o You utilise company language in describing the work task o The aggregate Use Cases display the aggregate actor use of the system

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The purpose of use cases


The purpose for using use cases is to
o Uncover and describe all tasks that need doing in a
system (of both human and system actors) o To analyse what functionality that need developing

for the system


o The use of use cases must mean that the right functional requirements are made of the IT system

(the requirements of the business!)


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Why use use cases?


Use case strengths are
o That they work well as an analytical tool o That the notation is simple and easy to pick up o That they are easy to understand, both for the business and from the technological aspect

o It is a widely recognised market standard


o That customer and supplier or operators and technicians can jointly work out and understand the operational functionality o They bring structure, and ensure complete analysis

The challenge, then, is to find and describe all use cases!


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UML - Use case diagram


Definition:
o diagram which provides an overview of system functionality o Shows which use cases the individual actor uses
No. and use case name

Construction elements:

Use case

Purpose:
o To analyse the functionality the system must include o To give an overview of the functionality and how it is linked o To analyse how the actors should use the system

Communication arrow

extends

Extends a use case

<<include>>

Includes a use case

Challenges:
o To simplify the complex
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UML use cases Actors


Actor:
o Person (or system), which uses the system (think in terms of roles)

Construction elements:

Purpose:
o To analyse which actors will use the system o To analyse how the use of the actors is linked Actor
Aktr

Challenges:
o It is NOT an organisational chart (no organisational linkages required) Specialisation / Generalisation
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Example of use case diagram


Actor (person) Web store Free search Find an item Customer

Structured search

<<include>>

Order an item

<<extend>>

Order fast delivery

Actor (system)

Check order Registered customer

use case
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Introduction to Class Diagram

What is a Class Diagram?


A class diagram describes the types of classes in the system and the various kinds of static relationships that exist among them. A central modeling technique that runs through nearly all object-oriented methods. The richest notation in UML.
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Essential Elements of Class Diagram


Class Attributes Operations Relationships
Associations Generalization Dependency Realization

Constraint Rules and Notes


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Classes
A class is the description of a set of objects having similar attributes, operations, relationships and behavior.

Class Name

Person
name:string height:Integer talk() walk()
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Attributes
Operations

Associations
A semantic relationship between two or more classes that specifies connections among their instances. A structural relationship, specifying that objects of one class are connected to objects of a second (possibly the same) class. Example: An Employee works for a Company
Employee Department Company

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Associations (cont.)
Multiplicity Indicators

Exactly one Zero or more (unlimited) One or more Zero or one (optional association) Specified range Multiple, disjoint ranges

1 * (0..*) 1..* 0..1 2..4 2, 4..6, 8


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Visibility
Private members can only be referenced in the same class where they are declared.(-) Protected members can be referenced in the same class or any descendants of that class.(#) Package scope members can be referenced by any classes in the same UML package only.(~) Public members can be referenced directly by any class( in the same or other package).(+)

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Aggregation
A special form of association that models a whole-part relationship between an aggregate (the whole) and its parts.
Models a is a part-part of relationship.
Car 2..*

Door

1..*

House

Whole

Part

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Composition
A strong form of aggregation
The part classes used to make up the whole class cannot exist on their own. Multiplicity on the whole side must be zero or one. The life time of the part is dependent upon the whole. The destruction of the whole class means destruction of the part classes.

Table Query

0..* 1..*

Database
1

Circle

Point
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Generalization
Indicates that objects of the specialized class (subclass) are substitutable for objects of the generalized class (superclass).
is kind of relationship.
An abstract class Generalization relationship Circle Shape
{abstract}

Super Class

Sub Class
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Introduction to Collaboration Diagram

Collaboration Diagram
A Collaboration Diagram is a diagram that shows object interactions organized around the objects and their links to each other. Unlike a Sequence Diagram, a Collaboration Diagram shows the relationships among the objects. Sequence diagrams and collaboration diagrams express similar information, but show it in different ways.
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Collaboration Diagram
Sequence diagram is time ordered Like activity diagrams but shows association with other objects in the system

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Sequence Diagram
Horizontal object shows life of represented object Vertical axis represents sequence of invocation of object

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Sequence Diagram

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Collaboration Diagram

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