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General Muhammad Zia Ul Haq

Zia comes to the power General Zia and the army took control of Pakistan on 5th July 1977. Two days later martial law was declared and the assemblies were suspended. However Zia stressed that it was only until peace was restored. He promised elections for october 1977 and said that he hoped that Bhutto and PPP would participate. I will never he told an American Reporter, accept a political office . Infact there were no elections and it was not long before he was a president. His coup began an eleven-year period of military rule

Zulfiqar Ali Bhuttos execution Zulfiqar was accused of murdering a political opponent By sending FSF. A Trial in the Lahore High Court proved Zulfiqar guilty on 17th March 1978, He was sentenced to Death. There was widespread criticism on the Decision but Bhutto too decided not to defend himselves and did not plead for his life. Bhutto was hanged at district jail Rawalpindi on 4th April 1979. His supporters called it a JUDICIAL MURDER. Neither his wife nor his daughter, Benazir was permitted to attend his funeral. They were detained

Uprising in Balochistan
The 1970s military operation in Balochistan was a a five-year conflict in which a separatist movement in Balochistan, the largest province of Pakistan, engaged with the Pakistan Army after then-Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto ordered a military operation in the region in 1973. The movement, initiated by Baloch nationalists in the aftermath of the secession of East Pakistan, had been fuelled by Bhutto's dissolution of successive provincial governments. It was largely coordinated by the Baloch sardars, or tribal chiefs, against Bhutto's operation, which was led by General Tikka Khan and aided by Iran. The conflict led to unrecorded civilian casualties, as well as heavy losses for the insurgency, until July 1977, when the Bhutto government was deposed by General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. The incoming martial law administrator, Lieutenant General Rahimuddin Khan, declared an amnesty and oversaw a complete military withdrawal in 1978, by which time he assumed the province's governorship. He then embarked on an ambitious series of development policies and bloodless military action that broke the insurgency, and is also credited to have led to the province's stabilization. This period forms a pivotal chapter in the longstanding Balochistan conflict.

Cobra helicopters were supplied by Iran against the insurgency.

Hudood Ordinance Under Offenses Against Property (Enforcement of Hudood Ordinance 1979), the punishment of imprisonment or fine, or both, as provided in the existing Pakistan Penal Code for theft, was substituted by the amputation of the right hand of the offender from the joint of the wrist by a surgeon. For robbery, the right hand of the offender from the wrist and his left foot from the ankle should be amputated by a surgeon. Prohibition Order Drinking of wine (i.e. all alcoholic drinks) was not a crime at all under the Pakistan Penal Code. In 1977, however, the drinking and selling of wine by Muslims was banned in Pakistan and a sentence of imprisonment of six months or a fine of Rs. 5000/-, or both, was provided in that law. Under the Prohibition Order, these provisions of law were replaced by the punishment of eighty stripes, for which an ijma of the companions of Muhammad ever since the period of the Second Caliph Umar, was cited. However, the law does not apply to non-Muslims, who can possess a license to drink and/or manufacture alcoholic beverages from the government.

Islamization, Adultery and Blasphemey laws

Adultery (Zina) Ordinance Under the Zina Ordinance the provisions relating to adultery were replaced as that the women and the man guilty will be flogged, each of them, with a hundred stripes, if unmarried. And if they are married they shall be stoned to death. It was argued that the section 497 of the Pakistan Penal Code dealing with the offence of adultery provided certain safeguards to the offender in as much as if the adultery is with the consent or connivance of the husband, no offence of adultery was deemed to have been committed in the eye of law. The wife, under the prevailing law, was also not to be punished as abettor. Islamic law knows no such exception. Blasphemy Laws The Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code were amended, through ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986 to declare anything implying disrespect to Muhammad, Ahle Bait (family of the prophet), Sahaba (companions of the prophet) and Sha'ar-i-Islam (Islamic symbols), a cognizable offence. Blaspheming Muhammaad is punishable with "death, or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine." (Act III of 1986, Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, Section 2) while disrespecting the Quran is punishable by life imprisonment, and disrespecting the family of the Prophet or the Companions of the Prophet is punishable by prison up to three years, or a fine, or both.

Islamization of Economy
Zakat and Ushr Ordinance The Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated on June 20, 1980 to empower the government to deduct 2.5% Zakat annually from mainly interest-bearing savings and shares held in the National Investment Trust, the Investment Corporation of Pakistan and other companies of which the majority of shares are owned by the Muslims. Foreign Exchange Bearer Certificate scheme that offered fixed interest was exempted from the compulsory Zakat deduction. This ordinance drew sharp criticism from the Shia sect which was later exempted from the compulsory deduction of Zakat. Even Sunnis were critical of the compulsory deduction and the way Zakat was distributed. Riba Interest on loans or riba in Western-style banks was banned under Islamization. Zia enforced a blanket ban on interest based financial systems and the military under its own special investigative division conducted research and checks on business individuals suspected of indulging in interest/usury. Heavy punishments were often implemented upon offenders, with massive jail terms totalling years being standard practise. Qisas and Diyat Ordinance 1990 With the passing of the Qisas and Diyat Ordinance in 1990, the victim (or heirs of the victim) of a crime now have the right to inflict injuries on the offender identical to the ones sustained by the victim. The law also allows offenders to absolve themselves of the crime by paying compensation to the victim or their heirs if, and only if, the family of the victim is willing to accept it.

The Afghan Miracle!!!!!

The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving the Soviet Union, supporting the Marxist-Leninist government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan against the Afghan Mujahideen and foreign "ArabAfghan" volunteers. The mujahideen received unofficial military and/or financial support from a variety of countries including the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia and China. The initial Soviet deployment of the 40th Army in Afghanistan began on December 24, 1979 under Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev. The final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, and ended on February 15, 1989 under the last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the interminable nature of the war, the conflict in Afghanistan has sometimes been referred to as the "Soviet Union's Vietnam War.

Advantages for Pakistan

Western leaders were unhappy that Democracy was replaced with military dictatorship in Pakistan but the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan prooved to be a windfall for Zia Ul Haq. Suddenly Pakistan was the frontline state in halting Soviet agression and the spread of communism. Soviet invasion established Pakistan as a leading country in world politics. It also led to huge sums of money being poured into Pakistan to pay for the rehabilitation of refugees and to develop Pakistani military by buying new military equipment such as Lockheed Martin F-16 fighting falcon. Zia was able to increase the defence budget and build up such an effective military force that he was able to sell military assisstance to other countries. Pakistan became the second largest supplier of military manpower in the developing world.

Refugee Problems and Excessive Ammunition in the country

The soviet Invasion in Afghanistan led to more than 30,0000 refugees fleeing from the fighting into Pakistan. Such a massive and unplanned influx caused many problems. Tensions between refugees and Pakistanis sometimes led to voilence. There was resentment at the large sums of money being spent on helping the Afghans. The Afghan miracle had brought economic support to Pakistan, but at a cost. The west freely supplied eguns to help the Afghanis, but those guns now became on the streets of Pakistan (through smuggling), with a subsequent threat to law and order. Drug use and Drug trafficking also grew at alarming rates. Killing and violence became common on the streets of Karachi. Also the corruption was increasing inevitibly

On 12th August 1983, Zia announced that elections, national and provincial would finally be helid in March 1985. It was clear that Zia did not intend that the elections should be fought by political parties. The intention was that he should continue as president after the elections. Several parties formed MRD [ Movement for the Restoration of Democracy ]. soon gained popularity in Pakistan's smaller, poorer provinces, especially in Bhutto's home province, Sindh. Indira Gandhi, Indian PM raised concerns over this brutality and violation of human rights at the hands of Pakistan's military dictatorship. Zia eventually decided to hold elections in the country. But before handing over the power to the public representatives, he decided to secure his position as the head of state. A referendum was held on December 19, 1984 and the option was to elect or reject the General as the future President. The question asked in the referendum was whether the people of Pakistan wanted Islamic Sharia law enforced in the country . According to the official result, more than 95% of the votes were cast in favour of Zia, thus he was elected as President for the next five years. However, they were marred by allegations of widespread irregularities and technical violations of the laws and ethics of democratic elections[. Also, despite pressure from the government to vote, only 10% of those eligible to vote did so. Zia had the overwhelming majority of the votes cast, but in reality the referendum was an embarrassing failure

The Eighth Amendment and elections of 1985

After being elected President, Zia decided to hold elections in the country in February 1985 on a non-party basis. Most of the opposing political parties decided to boycott the elections but election results showed that many victors belonged to one party or the other. To make things easier for himself, the General nominated the Prime Minister from amongst the Members of the Assembly. To many, his nomination of Muhammad Khan Junejo as the Prime Minister was because he wanted a simple person at the post who would act as a puppet in his hands. Before handing over the power to the new Government and lifting martial law, Zia got the new legislature to retroactively accept all of Zia's actions of the past eight years, including his coup of 1977. He also managed to get several amendments passed, most notably the Eighth Amendment, which granted "reserve powers" to the president to dissolve the National Assembly. However, this amendment considerably reduced the power he'd previously granted himself to dissolve the legislature, at least on paper. The text of the amendment permitted Zia to dissolve the Assembly only if the Cabinet had been toppled by a vote of no confidence and it was obvious that no one could form a government or the government could not function in a constitutional manner.

Ojhri Camp is located in Rawalpindi. It was used as an ammunition depot for Afghan Mujahideen fighting against Soviet forces from Afghanistan. The camp exploded on April 10, 1988, killing more than 1,000 people in Rawalpindi and Islamabad as a result of rockets and other munitions expelled by the US officials blamed sabotage for the explosion. There was speculation that the explosion was done by Pakistani agents to cover up a pilferage of the weapons stocks, including Stinger missiles. The true cause of the explosion remains a mystery.

Tensions between Zia And Junejo

The blast happened during tension between Pakistani President Mohammad Zia ul-Haq and Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo. Zia had chosen Junejo as Prime Minister for his weak political personality, but deftly as head of an elected government over such issues as top military appointments and Afghanistan. First, they clashed over Zia's refusal to sign the Geneva Accords. Junejo had also organized a round table conference of opposition leaders to get his way. Secondly, Junejo challenged the appointment of two generals and also demanded that General Zia should quit as the army chief of staff, a position he held since 1976. General Akhtar Abdur Rahman had urged the Junejo government to relocate the Ojhri ammunition depot outside the city but Junejo refused to provide the money for the transfer. General Akhtar Abdur Rahman was the front-man in conducting the war in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union and was the second most powerful man in Pakistan at that time.

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To subvert the blame, Junejo demanded punishment for the army generals who he deemed responsible for the catastrophe while General Zia - who kept the portfolio of the Army Commander-in-Chief even after the lifting of martial law by extending his own term of office - could not afford to antagonize his constituency. Junejo blamed General Akhtar Abdur Rahman, and rumors were spread that the dump, which served as a store for US supplied arms for the Afghan "mujahedeen", had been blown up deliberately just before the arrival of a US defense audit team, to cover up the fact that some Stinger missiles had been sold off to other countries. The final showdown took place on May 29, 1988.[President General Zia, under article 58(2B) of the amended constitution, dismissed Prime Minister Junejo's government and dissolved the national and provincial assemblies. In sacking Prime Minister Muhammad Khan Junejo, who had just returned from Manila after a foreign tour. General Zia made the following allegations against the Junejo government: Law and order in the country had broken down to an alarming extent resulting in tragic loss of human lives. Life, property, honor and security of the citizens was rendered totally unsafe. The integrity and ideology of Pakistan have been seriously endangered and doubts generated in this regard. The president's conscience always pricked that he had not fulfilled his promises regarding the enforcement of Islam made to the people in the referendum of 1984. Public morality had deteriorated to an unprecedented level.

Zia dies
Zia died in a plane crash on 17 August 1988. After witnessing a US M1 Abrams tank demonstration in Bahawalpur, Zia had left the small town in the Punjab province by C-130 Hercules aircraft. Shortly after smooth takeoff, the control tower lost contact with the aircraft. Witnesses who saw the plane in the air afterward claim it was flying erratically, then nosedived and exploded on impact. In addition to Zia, 31 others died in the plane crash, including Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee General Akhtar Abdur Rahman, close associate of Zia, Brigadier Siddique Salik, the American Ambassador to Pakistan Arnold Lewis Raphel and General Herbert M. Wassom, the head of the U.S. Military aid mission to Pakistan.[ Ghulam Ishaq Khan, the Senate Chairman announced Zia's death on radio and TV. The manner of his death has given rise to many conspiracy theories. There is speculation that America, India, the Soviet Union (as retaliation for US-Pakistani supported attacks in Afghanistan) or an alliance of them and internal groups within Zia's military were behind the attack. A board of inquiry was set up to investigate the crash. It concluded the most probable cause of the crash was a criminal act of sabotage perpetrated in the aircraft. It also suggested that poisonous gases were released which incapacitated the passengers and crew, which would explain why no Mayday signal was given.

Development, Research, Editing and above all, Presented to you by : Muhammad Mubashir Other Group Members : Faizan Qadir, Aurengzeb Malik, Talha Ahmed Class:10th C Rose Beaconhouse School System Wah Cantt

Hoping that you will like it.