REDOX

A guide for A level students

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

REDOX
INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...

www.argonet.co.uk/users/hoptonj/sci.htm
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REDOX
CONTENTS
• Definitions of oxidation and reduction • Calculating oxidation state • Use of H, O and F in calculating oxidation state • Naming compounds • Redox reactions • Balancing ionic half equations • Combining half equations to form a redox equation • Revision check list

REDOX
Before you start it would be helpful to… • Recall the layout of the periodic table • Be able to balance simple equations

OXIDATION & REDUCTION - Definitions

OXIDATION
GAIN OF OXYGEN
2Mg + O2 ——> 2MgO

magnesium has been oxidised as it has gained oxygen

REMOVAL (LOSS) OF HYDROGEN
C2H5OH ——> CH3CHO + H2

ethanol has been oxidised as it has ‘lost’ hydrogen

OXIDATION & REDUCTION - Definitions

REDUCTION
GAIN OF HYDROGEN
C2H4 + H2 ——> C2H6 ethene has been reduced as it has gained hydrogen

REMOVAL (LOSS) OF OXYGEN
CuO + H2 ——> Cu + H2O copper(II) oxide has been reduced as it has ‘lost’ oxygen However as chemistry became more sophisticated, it was realised that another definition was required

OXIDATION & REDUCTION - Definitions
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
Oxidation and reduction are not only defined as changes in O and H
...

OXIDATION REDUCTION

Removal (loss) of electrons ‘OIL’ species will get less negative or more positive Gain of electrons ‘RIG’ species will become more negative or less positive

REDOX

When reduction and oxidation take place

OXIDATION & REDUCTION - Definitions
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
Oxidation and reduction are not only defined as changes in O and H
...

OXIDATION REDUCTION

Removal (loss) of electrons ‘OIL’ species will get less negative or more positive Gain of electrons ‘RIG’ species will become more negative or less positive

REDOX

When reduction and oxidation take place

OIL - Oxidation Is the Loss of electrons RIG - Reduction Is the Gain of electrons

OXIDATION STATES
Used to... tell if oxidation or reduction has taken place work out what has been oxidised and/or reduced construct half equations and balance redox equations

ATOMS AND SIMPLE IONS
The number of electrons which must be added or removed to become neutral atoms cations anions Na in Na = Na in Na+ = Cl in Cl¯ = 0 +1 -1 neutral already ... no need to add any electrons need to add 1 electron to make Na+ neutral need to take 1 electron away to make Cl¯ neutral

OXIDATION STATES
Used to... tell if oxidation or reduction has taken place work out what has been oxidised and/or reduced construct half equations and balance redox equations

ATOMS AND SIMPLE IONS
The number of electrons which must be added or removed to become neutral atoms cations anions Na in Na = Na in Na+ = Cl in Cl¯ = 0 +1 -1 neutral already ... no need to add any electrons need to add 1 electron to make Na+ neutral need to take 1 electron away to make Cl¯ neutral

Q.

What are the oxidation states of the elements in the following? a) C d) O2b) Fe3+ e) He c) Fe2+ f) Al3+

OXIDATION STATES
Used to... tell if oxidation or reduction has taken place work out what has been oxidised and/or reduced construct half equations and balance redox equations

ATOMS AND SIMPLE IONS
The number of electrons which must be added or removed to become neutral atoms cations anions Na in Na = Na in Na+ = Cl in Cl¯ = 0 +1 -1 neutral already ... no need to add any electrons need to add 1 electron to make Na+ neutral need to take 1 electron away to make Cl¯ neutral

Q.

What are the oxidation states of the elements in the following? a) C (0) d) O2- (-2) b) Fe3+ (+3) e) He (0) c) Fe2+ (+2) f) Al3+ (+3)

OXIDATION STATES
MOLECULES
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to ZERO ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS H in H2 = 0 +4 -2 both are the same and must add up to Zero

C in CO2 = O in CO2 =

1 x +4 and 2 x -2 = Zero

OXIDATION STATES
MOLECULES
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to ZERO ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS H in H2 = 0 +4 -2 both are the same and must add up to Zero

C in CO2 = O in CO2 =

1 x +4 and 2 x -2 = Zero Explanation

• because CO2 is a neutral molecule, the sum of the oxidation states must be zero • for this, one element must have a positive OS and the other must be negative

OXIDATION STATES
MOLECULES
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to ZERO ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS H in H2 = 0 +4 -2 both are the same and must add up to Zero

C in CO2 = O in CO2 =

1 x +4 and 2 x -2 = Zero

HOW DO YOU DETERMINE WHICH IS THE POSITIVE ONE? • the more electronegative species will have the negative value • electronegativity increases across a period and decreases down a group • O is further to the right than C in the periodic table so it has the negative value

OXIDATION STATES
MOLECULES
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to ZERO ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS H in H2 = 0 +4 -2 both are the same and must add up to Zero

C in CO2 = O in CO2 =

1 x +4 and 2 x -2 = Zero

HOW DO YOU DETERMINE THE VALUE OF AN ELEMENT’S OXIDATION STATE? • from its position in the periodic table and/or • the other element(s) present in the formula

OXIDATION STATES
COMPLEX IONS
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to THE CHARGE e.g. NO3SO42NH4+ sum of the oxidation states sum of the oxidation states sum of the oxidation states = = = -1 -2 +1

Examples
in SO42the oxidation state of S = +6 O = -2 +6 + 4(-2) = -2 there is ONE S there are FOUR O’s so the ion has a 2- charge

OXIDATION STATES
COMPLEX IONS
The SUM of the oxidation states adds up to THE CHARGE e.g. NO3SO42NH4+ sum of the oxidation states sum of the oxidation states sum of the oxidation states = = = -1 -2 +1

Examples
What is the oxidation state (OS) of Mn in MnO4¯ ? • • • • • • the oxidation state of oxygen in most compounds is there are 4 O’s so the sum of its oxidation states overall charge on the ion is therefore the sum of all the oxidation states must add up to the oxidation states of Mn four O’s must therefore equal therefore the oxidation state of Mn in MnO4¯is -2 -8 -1 -1 -1 +7 +7 + 4(-2) = - 1

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 1
Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state In compounds, certain elements are used as benchmarks to work out other values

HYDROGEN OXYGEN

+1 -2

except

0 -1 0 -1 +2 0

atom (H) and molecule (H2) hydride ion, H¯ in sodium hydride NaH atom (O) and molecule (O2) in hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 in F2O atom (F) and molecule (F2)

except

FLUORINE

-1

except

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 1
Many elements can exist in more than one oxidation state In compounds, certain elements are used as benchmarks to work out other values

HYDROGEN OXYGEN

+1 -2

except

0 -1 0 -1 +2 0

atom (H) and molecule (H2) hydride ion, H¯ in sodium hydride NaH atom (O) and molecule (O2) in hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 in F2O atom (F) and molecule (F2)

except

FLUORINE

-1

except

Q.

Give the oxidation state of the element other than O, H or F in... SO2 NH3 NO2 NH4+ IF7 Cl2O7 NO3¯ NO2¯ SO32S2O32S4O62MnO42-

What is odd about the value of the oxidation state of S in S4O62- ?

OXIDATION STATES

A.
SO2 NH3 NO2 NH4+ IF7 Cl2O7 NO3¯ NO2¯ SO32S2O32S4O62-

The oxidation states of the elements other than O, H or F are O = -2 H = +1 O = -2 H = +1 F = -1 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2 2 x -2 = - 4 3 x +1 = +3 2 x -2 = - 4 4 x +1 = +4 7 x -1 = - 7 7 x -2 = -14 3 x -2 = - 6 2 x -2 = - 4 3 x -2 = - 6 3 x -2 = - 6 6 x -2 = -12 4 x -2 = - 8 overall neutral overall neutral overall neutral overall +1 overall neutral overall neutral overall -1 overall -1 overall -2 overall -2 overall -2 overall -2 S = +4 N=-3 N = +4 N=-3 I = +7 Cl = +7 N = +5 N = +3 S = +4 S = +2 Mn = +6 (4/2) S = +2½ ! (10/4) (14/2)

MnO42-

What is odd about the value of the oxidation state of S in S4O62- ? An oxidation state must be a whole number (+2½ is the average value)

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 2
The position of an element in the periodic table can act as a guide METALS • have positive values in compounds • value is usually that of the Group Number • where there are several possibilities the values go no higher than the Group No. Al is +3 Sn can be +2 or +4 Mn can be +2,+4,+6,+7 Cl Cl usually -1 +1 +3 +5 or +7

NON-METALS

• mostly negative based on their usual ion • can have values up to their Group No.

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 2
The position of an element in the periodic table can act as a guide METALS • have positive values in compounds • value is usually that of the Group Number • where there are several possibilities the values go no higher than the Group No. Al is +3 Sn can be +2 or +4 Mn can be +2,+4,+6,+7 Cl Cl usually -1 +1 +3 +5 or +7

NON-METALS

• mostly negative based on their usual ion • can have values up to their Group No.

Q.

What is the theoretical maximum oxidation state of the following elements? Na P Li Ba Br Pb Sr S O Mn B Cr N +1 What will be the usual and the maximum oxidation state in compounds of?

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 2
The position of an element in the periodic table can act as a guide

A.

What is the theoretical maximum oxidation state of the following elements?

Na +1

P +5

Ba +2

Pb +4

S +6

Mn +7

Cr +6

What will be the usual and the maximum oxidation state in compounds of?

USUAL MAXIMUM

Li +1 +1

Br -1 +7

Sr +2 +2

O -2 +6

B +3 +3

N -3 or +5 +5

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 2

Q.

What is the oxidation state of each element in the following compounds/ions ? CH4 PCl3 NCl3 CS2 ICl5 BrF3 PCl4+ H3PO4 NH4Cl H2SO4 MgCO3 SOCl2

OXIDATION STATES
CALCULATING OXIDATION STATE - 2

Q.

What is the oxidation state of each element in the following compounds/ions ? CH4 PCl3 NCl3 CS2 ICl5 BrF3 PCl4+ H3PO4 NH4Cl H2SO4 MgCO3 SOCl2 C=-4 P = +3 N = +3 C = +4 I = +5 Br = +3 P = +4 P = +5 N = -3 S = +6 H = +1 Cl = -1 Cl = -1 S = -2 Cl = -1 F = -1 Cl = -1 H = +1 H = +1 H = +1 O = -2 Cl = -1 O = -2 O = -2 O = -2

Mg = +2 H = +4 S = +4 Cl = -1

OXIDATION STATES
THE ROLE OF OXIDATION STATE IN NAMING SPECIES
To avoid ambiguity, the oxidation state is often included in the name of a species manganese(IV) oxide shows that sulphur(VI) oxide for SO3 dichromate(VI) for Cr2O72phosphorus(V) chloride for PCl5 phosphorus(III) chloride for PCl3 Mn is in the +4 oxidation state in MnO2 S is in the +6 oxidation state Cr is in the +6 oxidation state P is in the +5 oxidation state P is in the +3 oxidation state

Q.

Name the following... PbO2 SnCl2 SbCl3 TiCl4 BrF5

OXIDATION STATES
THE ROLE OF OXIDATION STATE IN NAMING SPECIES
To avoid ambiguity, the oxidation state is often included in the name of a species manganese(IV) oxide shows that sulphur(VI) oxide for SO3 dichromate(VI) for Cr2O72phosphorus(V) chloride for PCl5 phosphorus(III) chloride for PCl3 Mn is in the +4 oxidation state in MnO2 S is in the +6 oxidation state Cr is in the +6 oxidation state P is in the +5 oxidation state P is in the +3 oxidation state lead(IV) oxide tin(II) chloride antimony(III) chloride titanium(IV) chloride bromine(V) fluoride

Q.

Name the following... PbO2 SnCl2 SbCl3 TiCl4 BrF5

REDOX REACTIONS
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
Oxidation and reduction are not only defined as changes in O and H REDOX OXIDATION When reduction and oxidation take place Removal (loss) of electrons ‘OIL’
species will get less negative or more positive

REDUCTION

Gain of electrons ‘RIG’
species will become more negative or less positive

O X I D A T I O N

+7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

R E D U C T I O N

REDOX REACTIONS
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
Oxidation and reduction are not only defined as changes in O and H REDOX OXIDATION When reduction and oxidation take place Removal (loss) of electrons ‘OIL’
species will get less negative or more positive

REDUCTION

Gain of electrons ‘RIG’
species will become more negative or less positive

REDUCTION in O.S.

Species has been REDUCED e.g. Cl is reduced to Cl¯ (0 to -1)

O X I D A T I O N

INCREASE in O.S.

Species has been OXIDISED e.g. Na is oxidised to Na+ (0 to +1)

+7 +6 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

R E D U C T I O N

REDOX REACTIONS
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
REDUCTION in O.S. Species has been REDUCED INCREASE in O.S. Species has been OXIDISED

Q.

State if the changes involve oxidation (O) or reduction (R) or neither (N)

Fe2+ I2 F2 C2O42H2O2 H2O2

—> —> —> —> —> —>

Fe3+ I¯ F2O CO2 O2 H2O Cr3+ CrO42SO2

Cr2O72- —> Cr2O72- —> SO42—>

REDOX REACTIONS
OXIDATION AND REDUCTION IN TERMS OF ELECTRONS
REDUCTION in O.S. Species has been REDUCED INCREASE in O.S. Species has been OXIDISED

Q.

State if the changes involve oxidation (O) or reduction (R) or neither (N)

Fe2+ I2 F2 C2O42H2O2 H2O2

—> —> —> —> —> —>

Fe3+ I¯ F2O CO2 O2 H2O Cr3+ CrO42SO2

O R R O O R R N R

+2 to +3 0 to -1 0 to -1 +3 to +4 -1 to 0 -1 to -2 +6 to +3 +6 to +6 +6 to +4

Cr2O72- —> Cr2O72- —> SO42—>

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side Example 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Fe2+ +2 Fe2+ Iron(II) being oxidised to iron(III) Fe3+ +3 Fe3+

——> ——>

+

now balanced

An electron (charge -1) is added to the RHS of the equation... this balances the oxidation state change i.e. (+2) ——> (+3)

+ (-1)

As everything balances, there is no need to proceed to Steps 4 and 5

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution

Example 2

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution MnO4¯ ———> Mn2+ No need to balance Mn; equal numbers

Example 2 Step 1

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution MnO4¯ +7 ———> Mn2+ +2

Example 2 Step 1 Step 2

Overall charge on MnO4¯ is -1; sum of the OS’s of all atoms must add up to -1 Oxygen is in its usual oxidation state of -2; four oxygen atoms add up to -8 To make the overall charge -1, Mn must be in oxidation state +7 ... [+7 + (4x -2) = -1]

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution MnO4¯ +7 MnO4¯ + 5e¯ ———> ———> Mn2+ +2 Mn2+

Example 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3

The oxidation states on either side are different; To balance; add 5 negative charges to the LHS You must ADD 5 ELECTRONS to the LHS of the equation

+7 —> +2

(REDUCTION)

[+7 + (5 x -1) = +2]

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution MnO4¯ ———> +7 MnO4¯ + 5e¯ ———> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ———> Mn2+ +2 Mn2+ Mn2+

Example 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

Total charges on either side are not equal; Balance them by adding 8 positive charges to the LHS

LHS = 1- and 5RHS = 2+

=

6-

[ 6- + (8 x 1+) = 2+ ]

You must ADD 8 PROTONS (H+ ions) to the LHS of the equation

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
1 2 3 4 Work out formulae of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges 5 If equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side MnO4¯ being reduced to Mn2+ in acidic solution MnO4¯ +7 MnO4¯ + 5e¯ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ———> ———> ———> ———> Mn2+ +2 Mn2+ Mn2+ Mn2+ +

Example 2 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

4H2O LHS = 4 LHS = 8

now balanced

Everything balances apart from oxygen and hydrogen

O H

RHS = 0 RHS = 0

You must ADD 4 WATER MOLECULES to the RHS; the equation is now balanced

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
Watch out for cases when the species is present in different amounts on either side of the equation ... IT MUST BE BALANCED FIRST

Example 3
Step 1

Cr2O72- being reduced to Cr3+ in acidic solution Cr3+ 2Cr3+ 2 @ +3 there are two Cr’s on LHS both sides now have 2 both Cr’s are reduced 2Cr3+ 2Cr3+ 2Cr3+ + 7H2O now balanced each Cr needs 3 electrons

Cr2O72Cr2O72-

———> ———>

Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5

2 @ +6

Cr2O72- + 6e¯ Cr2O72- + 6e¯ + 14H+ Cr2O72- + 6e¯ + 14H+

——> ——> ——>

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
Q.
Balance the following half equations... Na Fe2+ I2 C2O42H2O2 H2O2 NO3NO3SO421 2 3 4 5

—> —> —> —> —> —> —> —> —>

Na+ Fe3+ I¯ CO2 O2 H2O NO NO2 SO

2 REMINDER Work out the formula of the species before and after the change; balance if required Work out the oxidation state of the element before and after the change Add electrons to one side of the equation so that the oxidation states balance If the charges on all the species (ions and electrons) on either side of the equation do not balance then add sufficient H+ ions to one of the sides to balance the charges If the equation still doesn’t balance, add sufficient water molecules to one side

BALANCING REDOX HALF EQUATIONS
Q.
Balance the following half equations... Na Fe2+ I2 C2O42H2O2 H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e+ 2e—> —> Na+ Fe3+ + + ee-

—> 2I¯ —> 2CO2 —> O2 + 2e2e-

+ 2H+ +

—> 2H2O NO NO2 SO2 + + + 2H2O H2O 2H2O

NO3- + 4H+ + 3e- —> NO3- + 2H+ + eSO42- + 4H+ + 2e —> —>

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II)

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II) Step 1 Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation Reduction

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II) Step 1 Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> 5Fe2+ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation Reduction multiplied by 5 multiplied by 1

Step 2

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II) Step 1 Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> 5Fe2+ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation Reduction multiplied by 5 multiplied by 1

Step 2

Step 3

MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ ——>

Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ + 5e¯

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II) Step 1 Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> 5Fe2+ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation Reduction multiplied by 5 multiplied by 1

Step 2

Step 3 Step 4

MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ ——>

Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides The reaction between manganate(VII) and iron(II) Step 1 Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> 5Fe2+ MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O Oxidation Reduction multiplied by 5 multiplied by 1

Step 2

Step 3 Step 4

MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ ——> MnO4¯ + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ ——>

Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+ + 5e¯ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

SUMMARY

COMBINING HALF EQUATIONS
A combination of two ionic half equations, one involving oxidation and the other reduction, produces a REDOX equation. The equations are balanced as follows... Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Write out the two half equations Multiply the equations so that the number of electrons in each is the same Add the two equations and cancel out the electrons on either side If necessary, cancel any other species which appear on both sides

Q.

Construct balanced redox equations for the reactions between... Mg and H+ Cr2O72- and Fe2+ H2O2 and MnO4¯ C2O42- and MnO4¯ S2O32- and I2 Cr2O72- and I¯

BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS

Mg ——> Mg2+ + 2e¯ H+ + e¯ ——> ½ H2 Mg + 2H+ ——> Mg2+ + H2 Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6e¯ ——> 2Cr3+ + 7H2O Fe2+ ——> Fe3+ + e¯ Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6Fe2+ ——> 2Cr3+ + 6Fe2+ + 7H2O MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> Mn2+ + 4H2O H2O2 ——> O2 + 2H+ + 2e¯ 2MnO4¯ + 5H2O2 + 6H+ ——> 2Mn2+ + 5O2 + 8H2O

(x1) (x2)

(x1) (x6)

ANSWERS

(x2) (x5)

MnO4¯ + 5e¯ + 8H+ ——> Mn2+ + 4H2O C2O42- ——> 2CO2 + 2e¯ 2MnO4¯ + 5C2O42- + 16H+ ——> 2Mn2+ + 10CO2 + 8H2O 2S2O32- ——> S4O62- + 2e¯ ½ I2 + e¯ ——> I¯ 2S2O32- + I2 ——> S4O62- + 2I¯

(x2) (x5)

(x1) (x2)

Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 6e¯ ——> 2Cr3+ + 7H2O ½ I2 + e¯ ——> I¯ (x6) Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 3I2 ——> 2Cr3+ + 6I ¯ + 7H2O

(x1)

REVISION CHECK

What should you be able to do?
Recall the definitions for oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen, hydrogen and electrons Write balanced equations representing oxidation and reduction Know the trend in electronegativity across periods Predict the oxidation state of elements in atoms, simple ions, compounds and complex ions Recognize, in terms of oxidation state, if oxidation or reduction has taken place Balance ionic half equations Combine two ionic half equations to make a balanced redox equation

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