CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept.

11, 2003 1
Chapter 7. CDMA Technologies
for Cellular Phone System

Công nghệ CDMA cho hệ thống điện thoại tổ
ong.
Sources:1) July 7th, 2004 - Takashi INOUE –KDDI R&D Laboratories Inc.
2) IS-95 - ECE 371VV - Erik Stauffer Yu Li Yan Sun
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 2

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 3

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 4

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 5
Contents
• Introduction (giới thiệu)
• Spread Spectrum Technology
(công nghệ trải phổ)
• DS-CDMA
• Spreading Codes
(mã trải phổ)
• Features of CDMA
Đặc tính của cdma
– RAKE Receiver (bộ thu rake)
– Power Control (điều khiển công suất)
– Frequency Allocation (cấp phép tần số)
– Soft Handoff (chuyển giao mềm)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 6
Contents
• CDMA Links
– Forward Link (cdma đường xuống)
– Reverse Link (cdma đường lên)
• Special Features of IS-95 CDMA
(đặc tính đặc biệt của cdma is-95)
• Brief Comparison to other second-
generation standards

• Possible Improvements
• Conclusion
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 7
7.1. Introduction (giới thiệu)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 8
Modern Wireless Systems(hệ thống ko dây hiện
đại)
• Outdoor voice/data communication (thoại ngoài trời, giao tiếp dữ
liệu)
– Cellular phone, PCS (điện thoại tổ ong, PCS)
– Paging, Satellite (tìm gọi, vệ tinh)
• Indoor data communication (giao tiếp dữ liệu trong nhà)
– Cordless phone
– WLAN
– Low cost low power: Bluetooth, Zigbee, UWB
• Outdoor data broadcast (quảng bá dữ liệu ngoài trời)
– Wide area wireless data service (dịch vụ dữ liệu ko day băng
rộng)
– Broadband wireless access: WLL, LMPD (truy nhập không
dây băng hẹp)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 9
7.1. Introduction
Evolution of Cellular Systems (phát triển của hệ
thống điện thoại tổ ong)
1st.Generation
(1980s)(thế hệ thứ nhất)
Analog
NMT CT0
TACS CT1
AMPS
3rd. Generation
(2000s)
2nd. Generation
(1990s)
Digital
GSM DECT
DCS1800 CT2
PDC PHS
IS-54
IS-95
IS-136
UP-PCS
IMT-2000
CDMA2000
W-CDMA
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 10
Cellular System
• Two-way voice/data communication with large
coverage (hai đường thoại/dữ liệu với vùng phủ
sóng rộng)
• Spectrum efficiency: frequency reuse (since power
falls off with distance) (hiệu quả phổ, tần số tái sử
dụng) (công suất tỉ lệ nghịch với khoảng cách)
– Macrocells and microcells: trade-off among
capacity, interference, cost (tính thương mại giữa
dung lượng, nhiễu, giá cả)
– System is interference limited (hệ thống giới hạn
nhiễu)
• advaced techniques for interference reduction can
enhance performance: cell sectoring, directional/smart
antennas, multi-user detection, dynamic resource
allocation (công nghệ tiên tiến giảm nhiễu có thể thực
hiện bằng cách sector hóa, hướng/anten thông minh,
hướng đa thuê bao, cấp phép tài nguyên động)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 11
• 1G Cellular network (mạng tổ ong thế hệ thứ nhất)
– AMPS: FDMA/FDD
• 2G Cellular network (mạng tổ ong thế hệ thứ 2)
– TDMA/FDD, or CDMA/FDD
• GSM, 8 users/200KHz channel, TDMA
• IS-136, 3 users/30kHz channel, TDMA
• IS-95 (CDMA One): 64 users/1.25MHz channel, CDMA
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 12
• 2.5G Cellular Network (thế hệ 2,5G)
– General objective: support packet data service
with higher data rate (tính năng chung: hỗ trỡ dịch
vụ dữ liệu gói với tốc độ cao hơn)
– GPRS: 170 kbps (max), TDMA (enhanced GSM
by channel aggregating)
– EDGE: >384 kbps, TDMA (enhanced GSM by
high-level modulation)(nâng cấp GSM bởi điều
chế mức cao hơn)
– IS-95B: 115 kbps, CDMA (enhance IS-95 by
aggregating spreading codes) (nâng cấp IS-95 bởi
mã trải phổ)

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 13
• 3G Cellular Network (thế hệ thứ 3)
– Objective: support higher data rate: from 384kbps
(pedestrian) or 144 kbps (vehicular) to 2 Mbps
(indoor)( hỗ trợ tốc độ dữ liệu cao)
– General: work in 2GHz band, ~2Mbps, FDD/TDD
– WCDMA (UTRA), evolved from GSM (phát triển từ
GSM)
• Always on (packet radio), 2Mbps, ~8Mbps future, 5MHz
bandwidth(băng thông 5M)
– CDMA 2000, evolved from IS-95 CDMA
• Use the same 1.25MHz bandwidth as IS-95(sử dụng
cùng băng thông 1.25 như IS-95)
• Multi-carrier mode 3xTT (đa sóng mang)
• 5 MHz bandwidth (băng thông 5M)
• 2 Mbps and higher (tốc độ 2M và cao hơn)

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 14
– 3G incompatible with 2G, need much investment
for deployment, such as the cost for buying
spectrum( thế hệ thứ 3 tương thích với thế hệ thứ
2 phải đầu tư phát triển giống như chi phí mua
phổ tần số)
– 3G first deployed in Japan (thế hệ 3G đầu tiên
được triển khai ở Nhật)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 15
Introduction
• Spread Spectrum Communications(giao tiếp trải phổ)
• Multiple Access Technique(công nghệ đa truy nhập)
– Direct Sequence DS-CDMA (trực tiếp tuần tự)
• CDMA standards(chẩn cdma)
– CDMAOne (2G) – IS 95A, (2.5G) IS-95B
– CDMA 2000 and WCDMA (3G) – IMT2000
• 4G in the future (tương lai thế hệ thứ 4
• Conclusions (kết luận)

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 16
Requirements for 3G mobile systems
• High Capacity (dung lượng cao)
• Tolerance for interference (loại bỏ
nhiễu)
• Privacy( bảo mật)
• Tolerance for fading(giảm pha đing)
• Ability to various data rate
transmission(có khả năng truyền với tốc
độ dữ liệu thay đổi)
• Flexible QoS (đảm bảo hệ số dịch vụ)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 17
IMT-2000 systems approved by ITU-R
Popular
name
Access
method
Body of
Technical
Spec
production
IMT-DS IMT-MC IMT-TC IMT-SC
IMT-FT
(Direct Sequence) (Multi Carrier) (Time Code) (Single Carrier) (Frequency Time)
W-CDMA CDMA2000
UTRA-TDD
UWC-136 DECT
CDMA-FDD CDMA-TDD CDMA-FDD TDMA-TDD TDMA-FDD
3GPP(FDD) 3GPP2 3GPP(TDD)
CWTS
IS-136 DECT
ESTI
ESTI
TIA
TTA
T1
CWTS
ARIB/TTC ARIB/TTC
CWTS
TTA
ESTI
TTA
T1
CWTS
TIA
Approved in 2000 as ITU-R M.1457
TD-CDMA
TD-SCDMA
Organization
Partners
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 18
What is CDMA ?
Sender bộ gửi Receiver bộ thu
Code A
A
Code B
B
A
B
A
B
C
B
C
A
Code A
A
B
C
Time
B
C
B
A
Base-band Spectrum
băng cơ bản)
Radio Spectrum phổ
vô tuyến
spread spectrum
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 19
Summary of Multiple Access
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
p
o
w
e
r

p
o
w
e
r

p
o
w
e
r

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 20
7.2. Features of CDMA Systems đặc
tính của hệ thống cdma
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 21

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 22
IS-95 CDMA - Radio Aspects
• Spread spectrum techniques adapted from military (used since 1950)
—Narrowband signal is multiplied by very large bandwidth signal
(spreading signal)(tín hiệu băng hẹp được ghép bởi tín hiệu băng rộng)
—All users, each with own pseudorandom codeword approximately
orthogonal to all other codewords, can transmit simultaneously with
same carrier frequency(tất cả thuê bao, mỗi người có một mã giả ngẫu
nhiên và trực giao với nhau có thể truyền đồng thời trên cùng một tần
số sóng mang)
—Receiver performs a time correlation operation to detect only desired
codeword (bộ nhận thực hiện một lần tương quan để chỉ xác định mã
mong muốn)
—All other codewords appear as noise due to decorrelation(tất cả các
mã khác xuất hện như là nhiễu do bộ giải mã tương quan)
—Receiver needs to know only codeword used by transmitter
(bộ nhận chỉ cần biết mã hóa sử dụng ở bộ phát)
—In other words, users are separated by their
codes rather than frequency and time slot (Nói một cách khác, mỗi
người dùng được phân biệt bởi mã hơn là tần só và thời gian)


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 23

IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 24
IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 25
IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 26

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 27
Drawbacks of CDMA

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 28

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 29

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 30

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 31

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 32
Drawbacks of CDMA
So far, CDMA looks like a step backwards:
Tight synchronization is required to use orthogonal
codes, which then break in a multipath channel anyway
Quasi-orthogonal codes cause self-interference, which
dominates the performance in most CDMA systems
Near-far problem is a serious hindrance, requiring fast
and accurate power control (that uses up bits we could
otherwise send information with)
And for all this, the required bandwidth is now J times
larger than it was before, so there doesn‘t appear to be
a capacity gain

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 33
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
OF WIRELESS
CHANNELS thuộc tính vật
lý của kênh vô tuyến
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 34
<------
----------->
<---------------
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Recall the Model
Now we’ll focus attention on the channel.
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 35
General Comments (các
chú thích)
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 36

Noise nhiễu
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 37
f
0
White Noise nhiễu
trắng
• The spectrum of a random process specifies how the process’ energy
is distributed as a function of frequency.Phổ của ngẫu nhiên cho thấy
xử lý phân bố năng lượng như một chức năng của tần số.
• The integral under the spectrum over any given band of frequencies
equals the amount of energy in that band.Toàn bộ vùng dưới phổ được
tạo ra bở băng tần số bằng tổng năng lượng trong băng đó.
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 38
• A key parameter of the noise is the spectral height or noise level,
often designated as N
o
/2.
Tham số chính của nhiễu là độ cao của phổ hoặc mức nhiễu
thường định nghĩa là No/2
• A key parameter of the signal is the received energy per bit,
usually designated by E
b
.
Tham số chính của tín hiệu là năng lương thu được trên bit thường
định nghĩa là Eb
• The ratio E
b
/N
o
(“ebno”) is a measure of signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR), and is a key parameter in determining the quality of a
communications link.
Tỉ lệ Eb/No là SNR đây là tham số chính để xác định chất lượng
tuyến giao tiếp.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) tỉ số tín
hiệu trên nhiễu
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 39
• The performance of a digital link can be measured in part
by the bit-rate; but performance depends also on the quality
of transmission, as measured by the bit-error rate (BER).
Thực hiện tuyến số có thể đo bởi tốc độ bit nhưng phụ thuộc
vào chất lượng truyền dẫ đo bở tốc độ bit lỗi BER
• The BER (also known as the “probability of bit error”) is,
as its name implies, the rate at which errors are introduced
into the transmitted data stream by the channel.
BER còn được biết như là xác suất bit lỗi.
• E
b
/N
o
determines the rate of bit errors caused by white
noise.
Tỉ lệ này xác định tốc độ lỗi nguyên nhân do nhiễu trắng
• This varies with modulation type.
Điều này thay đổi tùy thuộc vào loại điều chế.

Bit Error Rate (BER)bit lỗi
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 40
BERs for Binary Modulation BER cho
điều chế nhị phân
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 41

BERs of Higher-Order Modulation BER với
điều chế mức cao hơn
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 42
Error Rates of M-ary Modulation tốc độ lỗi
của điều chế mảng M

COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 43
Propagation Effects hiệu
tứng xác suất
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 44

Large Scale Propagation Effects hiệu
ứng xác suất tỉ lệ lớn
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 45
Multipath
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 46
• Multiple copies of the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver due to
reflections (off buildings, walls, etc.).nhiều tín hiệu của bộ phát đến bộ thu
bằng các đường khác nhau nhờ phản xạ
• The destructive and constructive interference of the different paths causes
fading; i.e., fluctuations in E
b
: Phá hủy và khôi phục nhiễu của các đường khác
nhau là nguyên nhân fading.
– Superposition of widely separated paths causes frequency-selective
fading; modeled via a channel impulse response.
Sự chồng của các đường với kc rộng nguyên nhân bởi fading lựa chọn
tần số
– Superposition of many closely separated paths causes flat fading;
modeled as independent Gaussian random variables in I and Q
channels (so-called Rayleigh fading).
Sự chồng của nhiều đường với kc gần nhau bởi fading mỏng.
• Mobility adds dynamism to the fading:
– slow fading is steady over many symbol intervals
– fast fading changes very rapidly (bad!)
Multipath Fading(đa
đường)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 47
• The use of wideband signals (e.g., spread spectrum),
allows different paths to be resolved and added
constructively. (The technique for this is called a
RAKE receiver.)
Sử dụng tín hiệu băng rộng cho phép các đường khác
nhau được quyết định và thêm vào để khôi phục tín
hiệu (cộng nghệ này được gọi là bộ thu RAKE)
• With narrowband signals, frequency-selective fading is
an impairment; i.e., it negatively effects
performance.với tín hiệu băng hệ fading lựa chọn tần só
là một sự suy yếu.
Frequency-Selective Fading fading
lựa chọn tần số
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 48

Multipath: Dispersion đa
đường: phân tán
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 49

Interference nhiễu
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 50

Multiple Access Capabilities

• Multiple wireless terminals
(WT) receive and send to the
base station (BS)
- WT near to the base station
receive with higher quality than
WT that a far away
- Different quality in terms of bit
error probability
- To overcome unfairness and
achieve a higher system
capacity power control is
applied

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 51

Interference Averaging dung lượng đa
truy nhập


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 52

Interference from neighboring cells (CCI and ICI)
nhiễu từ các cell lân cận


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 53

Dynamism
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 54

Further Issues các lỗi
khác
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 55
Mobile Propagation Environment
Multi-path Fading
The peaks and bottoms of received power appear,
in proportion to Doppler frequency.
Base Station (BS)
Mobile Station (MS)
multi-path propagation
Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r

path-2
path-2
path-3
path-3
path-1
path-1
Time
P
o
w
e
r

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 56

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 57

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 58
Fading in non-CDMA System
Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r

path-1
path-2
path-3
With low time-resolution,
different signal paths cannot be discriminated.
•••
These signals sometimes strengthen,
and sometimes cancel out each other,
depending on their phase relation.
••• This is ―fading‖.
•••
In this case, signal quality is damaged
when signals cancel out each other.
In other words, signal quality is dominated
by the probability for detected power
to be weaker than minimum required level.
This probability exists with less than two paths.
Time
P
o
w
e
r

Detected Power
In non-CDMA system, ―fading‖ damages signal quality.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 59
Fading in CDMA System ...
Because CDMA has high time-resolution,
different path delay of CDMA signals
can be discriminated.
•••
Therefore, energy from all paths can be summed
by adjusting their phases and path delays.
••• This is a principle of RAKE receiver.
Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r

path-1
path-2
path-3
CDMA
Receiver
CDMA
Receiver




S
y
n
c
h
r
o
n
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

A
d
d
e
r

Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r

CODE A
with timing of path-1
path-1
P
o
w
e
r

path-1
path-2
path-3
Path Delay
P
o
w
e
r

CODE A
with timing of path-2
path-2
interference from path-2 and path-3




CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 60
Fading in CDMA System (continued)
In CDMA system, multi-path propagation improves
the signal quality by use of RAKE receiver.
Time
P
o
w
e
r

Detected Power
RAKE
receiver
Less fluctuation of detected power,
because of adding all energy .
P
o
w
e
r

path-1
path-2
path-3
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 61

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 62
Demodulation (Correlator)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Pick the
largest
Cross
Correlation
Metrics
received
signal
r(t)
c1(t)
c2(t)
ck(t)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
r1
r2
rk
output
bits
b(n)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 63
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS)
1
m (t)
1
S (t)
E
t
1
t
k
1
PN (t)
K
PN (t)
c 1
cos(2 f t ) t + ¢
r(t)
c k
cos(2 f t ) t + ¢
m
k
(t)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 64
Principles of operation-transmitter
• The narrowband message signal
m
i
(t) is multiplied by a pseudo noise
code sequence that has a chip rate >>
data rate of message.
• All users use the same carrier frequency
and may transmit simultaneously. The k-
th transmitted signal is given by:
k s s k k c k
S (t) (2E / T )1/ 2m (t)p (t) cos(2 f t ) = t +¢
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 65
CDMA Receiver
c k
cos(2 f t ) t + ¢
r(t)
k
m (t)
}(.)dt
>
<
k
i
Z (t)
K
PN (t)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 66
Principles of operation-receiver
At the receiver, the received signal is
correlated with the appropriate signature
sequence to produce desired variable.
1
1
iT
1
i 1 1 c 1 1
(i 1)T
Z (t) r(t)p (t )cos[2 f (t ) ]dt
+t
÷ +t
= ÷t t ÷t +¢
}
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 67
Message Signal
• m(t) is a time sequence of non-overlapping
pulses of duration T, each of which has an
amplitude (+/-) 1.
• The PN waveform consists of N pulses or
chips for message symbol period T.
NT
C
= T
where T
C
is the chip period.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 68

Example:

Assume N=4
PN Wave for N =4
1
-1
-1
1
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 69
Correlator output for first user




•The multiplied signal will be p
2
(t) = 1 for the
correct signal and will yield the dispersed
signal and can be demodulated to yield the
message signal m
i
(t).
1
1
iT
1
i 1 1 c 1 1
(i 1)T
Z (t) r(t)p (t )cos[2 f (t ) ]dt
+t
÷ +t
= ÷t t ÷t +¢
}
1/ 2
1 s s 1 1 c 1
S (t) (2E / T ) m (t)p (t) cos(2 f t ) = t + ¢
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 70
Probability of bit error xác suất của bít lỗi
• Probability of bit error
P
e
= Q {1/ [(K –1)/3N + (N
0
/2E
b
)]
1/2
}
K = Number of users số người sử dụng
N = Number of chips/ symbol số chip/ký tự

• When E
b
/N
o
 ·
P
e
= Q{[3N/(K-1)]
1/2
}
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 71

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 72

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 73

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 74
Concept of CDMA Systems Diversity
• IS-95 Air Interface Standards
• Space diversity
• Frequency diversity
• Path diversity
• Time diversity
• Macro-diversity
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 75

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 76

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 77

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 78

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 79
Near-Far Problem
CODE B
CDMA
Transmitter
DATA B
CODE A
CDMA
Receiver
CODE A
CDMA
Transmitter
DATA A
P
• Desired Signal Power = P/Lp-a
• Interfered Signal Power =
P/Lp-b/(processing gain )
Demodulated DATA
P
Lp-a
Lp-b
When user B is close to the receiver and
user A is far from the receiver,
Lp-a could be much bigger than Lp-b.
In this case, desired signal power is
smaller than the interfered power.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 80

The Near-Far Problem

• Users may be received with
very different powers:
- Users near the base station
are received with high power
- Users far from the base
station are received with low
power
- For a path loss exponent of 4
and a cell size of 1 km,
example:

• Nearby users will completely
swamp far away users
• Solution: Power Control

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 81

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 82

Power Control


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 83
Power Control …
• Power control adjust power level while conveying data to the
base station in that way that all received signals at the base
station have the same signal strength (not trivial)
• This process needs time to adjust in case of changing in the cell
in terms of power/interference

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 84
Power Control …
• In case of misadjusted power control entities some WTS might have
better/worse quality conditions
• The highest cell capacity can be achieved all WTs have exactly the same
power level
• For support of heterogeneous QoS support the power control is a viable
option
• All signals (even the undesired ones) from the base station will receive the
WT with the same strength (some path)

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 85
Power Control …
• IS-95 Air Interface Standards
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 86

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 87
Power Control...


Time
D
e
t
e
c
t
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

from A
from B
When all mobile stations transmit the signals at the same power (MS),
the received levels at the base station are different from each other,
which depend on the distances between BS and MSs.
Moreover, the received level fluctuates quickly due to fading.
In order to maintain the received level at BS, power control technique must be
employed in CDMA systems.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 88
Power Control (continued)


Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control
estimating path
loss
calculating
transmission
power
transmit
measuring
received power
transmit receive
decide
transmission
power
transmit
measuring
received power
power control
command
about 1000 times
per second


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 89
Effect of Power Control


Time
D
e
t
e
c
t
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

from MS B
from MS A
Effect of Power Control
• Power control is capable of compensating the fading fluctuation.
• Received power from all MS are controlled to be equal.
... Near-Far problem is mitigated by the power control.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 90
Frequency Allocation (1/2)
In FDMA or TDMA,
radio resource is allocated not to interfere among neighbor cells.
f1
f2
f3
f4
f5
f6
f7
cell :
a ―cell‖ means covered area by one base station.
• Neighbor cells cannot use the
same (identical) frequency
band (or time slot).
• The left figure shows the
simple cell allocation with
seven bands of frequency.
• In actual situation, because of
complicated radio
propagation and irregular cell
allocation, it is not easy to
allocate frequency (or time
slot) appropriately.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 91
Frequency Allocation (2/2)
In CDMA,
identical radio resource can be used among all cells,
because CDMA channels use same frequency simultaneously.
• Frequency allocation in CDMA
is not necessary.
• In this sense, CDMA cellular
system is easy to be designed.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 92

Handoff in CDMA

• Two types of handoffs
—hard handoff
—Soft handoff
• Hard handoff is needed when the call is
moved from one frequency to another and
when the mobile moves the coverage area
of another MSC

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 93

Soft handoff

• Two base stations receive signals from the mobile.
The signals are sent to the MSC that decides which
one has lowest bit error rate.
Vocoder in CDMA is in the switch.
• Mobile receives signals from two base stations and
combine them before decoding. Uses rake receiver.
Each tunes to one base station.
• This requires synchronization of the base stations.
All base stations are equipped with GPS and receive
information from it, including lat.., long and time.
• It also requires that the mobile dedicates one
correlator for searching other pilot channels.


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 94
Soft Handoff (1/2)
Handoff :
• Cellular system tracks mobile stations in order to maintain their
communication links.
• When mobile station goes to neighbor cell, communication link switches from
current cell to the neighbor cell.
Hard Handoff :
• In FDMA or TDMA cellular system, new communication establishes after
breaking current communication at the moment doing handoff.
Communication between MS and BS breaks at the moment switching
frequency or time slot.
Hard handoff : connect (new cell B) after break (old cell A)
switching
Cell B
Cell A
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 95
Soft Handoff (2/2)
Σ
Cell
B
Cell A
Soft handoff : break (old cell A) after connect (new cell B)
transmitting same signal from both BS A and
BS B simultaneously to the MS
Soft Handoff :
•In CDMA cellular system, communication does not break even at
the moment doing handoff, because switching frequency or time
slot is not required.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 96
Soft Handoff
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 97

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 98
CDMA and Soft Handover
• A unique advantage of CDMA is
soft handover  more reliable
– All cells use same carrier
– Mobile contact with 6~7
nearby cells simultaneously
– No need to stop contact with
cell 1 before switching to cell
2
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 99
Soft-Handover
• IS-95 Air Interface Standards
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 100

Mobility Management in CDMA

• Five type of registration
—Periodic
—Power up
—Power down
—Zone change
—Distance. When the distance between the
current base station and the previously
registered base station exceeds a certain
limit.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 101
Capacity of CDMA Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 102

Voice Activity

• In TDMA and FDMA systems:
- If a user doesn‘t have anything to send, the time/frequency
slot allocated to them is wasted
- It is typically very difficult to dynamically allocate time and
frequency slots

• In CDMA systems:
- If a user doesn‘t have anything to send, it causes less
interference to other users of the system
- Typically, each user needs to transmit less than half the time
- Since interference-limited, this doubles the capacity

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 103

Sectorized Antennas

• Cells can use directional
antennas to ―sectorize‖ the cell
• At right, 120 degree antennas
create 3-sector cells – very common
• For CDMA, this reduces the
interference by a factor of three
- Capacity is increased by a
factor of three!
• FDMA/TDMA also use sectored
antennas, but just to decrease
reuse distance

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 104
Uplink Single-cell System Model
BTS
...
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
User 1
User 2
User k
User K
u

User n
Assumptions
• Total active users K
u


The intra-cell MAI can be
modeled as AWGN
• Perfect power control is
assumed
• Random sequences
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 105
• Coarse estimate of the reverse link (uplink) capacity
–Assumptions:
1. Single Cell.
2. The interference caused by other users in the cell can be
modeled as AWGN.
3. Perfect power control is used, i.e. the received power of
each user at the base station is the same.
If the received power of each user is Ps watts, and the
background noise can be ignored (ex: microcells), then the
total interference power (MAI) at the output of the desired
user’s detector is

where Ku is the total number of equal energy users in the cell.
Suppose each user can operate against Gaussian noise at a
bit-energy-to-noise density level of E
b
/I
o
. Let W be the entire
spread bandwidth, then the interference spectral density can
be expressed as:
( )
s u
P K I 1 ÷ ~
) ( /
0
sided one Hz Watts
W
I
I ÷ =
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 106
Interference
limited
Also, the bit energy E
b
is

Thus,
b
s
b
R
P
E =
0
0
1
I E
R W
R E
W I
P
I
K
b
b
b b s
u
=
·
·
= = ÷
{
Now, if we consider the factors of voice activity (G
v
),
sectorized antenna gain (G
A
), and other-cell interface factor (f),
where
– G
v
~ 1/v = 2.67
– G
A
(three sectors) ~ 2.4
– f = (Interference form other cells)/(Interference from
given cell) ~ 0.6
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 107
In this case, Ku can be approximated by



Ex: If Gv ~ 2.67, G
A
~ 2.4, f ~ 0.6



If (E
b
/I
o
) required is 6 dB (i.e. E
b
/I
o
= 4)



which will be larger than the TDMA or FDMA systems in
the cellular environment.
( ) f
G G
I E
R W
K
A v
b
b
u
+
·
· ~
1
0
( )
( )
o b
b
u
I E
R W
K
·
~ ¬
4
b
u
R
W
K ~ ¬
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 108

Capacity Comparison

• Comparing the capacity of TDMA/FDMA/CDMA is
very controversial
• In 1991, a famous (notorious?) Qualcomm paper
claimed that due to voice activity, frequency reuse,
and sectorization, CDMA increased capacity by:
- Factor of 18 relative to AMPS
- Factor of 6 relative to US TDMA (and similar for
GSM)
• This turned out to be optimistic, about 1/3 of this
gain actually happened (still depends who you ask)
• Still, twice as many users is nothing to snear at!
• All 3G systems use CDMA for multiple access

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 109

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 110

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 111
7.3. Direct Spread Spectrum Technology
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 112
Spread Spectrum Technique
• Low power spectral density
• Rejection to jamming signal and interference
• Pseudorandom sequence
– Randomness and noise properties
– Walsh, M-sequence, Gold, Kasami, Z4
– Provide signal privacy
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 113

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 114

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 115
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
• Spreading
– Source signal is multiplied by a PN signal
• Processing Gain:



• Despreading
– Spread signal is multiplied by the spreading code
DataRate
ChipRate
T
T
T
T
G
b
c
c
b
p
= = =
1
1
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 116
Spreading & Despreading
• Polar {±1} signal representation
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 117

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 118
System Block Diagram
Jammer/Noise/Interference
j(t)
BPSK
Modulator
BPSK
Matched
Filter
Channel
Pseudorandom
Sequence
Generator
Pseudorandom
Sequence
Generator
Source
Data
Output
Data
(to detector)
b(t)
c(t)
s(t) x(t) u(t)
c(t)
y(t)
rn
y(t) = j(t) + x(t)
u(t) = s(t) + j(t)c(t)
rn = bn + jammer projection
s(t) = b(t)cos(wot)
x(t) = s(t)c(t)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 119
How to spread spectrum...
Direct Sequence (DS)
Modulation
(primary modulation)
user data
S
p
r
e
a
d
i
n
g

(
s
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y

m
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
o
n
)

Tx
Base-band
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Radio
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

TIME
data rate
10110100
spreading sequence
(spreading code)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 120
Demodulating DS Signals (1/2)
If you know the correct spreading sequence (code) ,
Radio
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

received signal
spreading sequence
(spreading code)
you can find the
spreading timing
which gives the
maximum detected
power, and
Accumulate for
one bit duration
Demodulated data
Base-band
Frequency
gathering energy !
10110100
10110100 10110100 10110100
TIME
01001011 10110100 10110100
0 0 1
11111111 00000000 00000000
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 121
Demodulating DS Signals (2/2)
If you don‘t know the correct spreading sequence (code) •••
Base-band
Frequency
received signal
spreading sequence
(spreading code)
you cannot find
the spreading
timing
without correct
spreading code,
and
Accumulate for
one bit duration
Demodulated data
Radio
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

01010101 01010101 01010101
10101010 10101010 10101010
TIME
01001011 10110100 10110100
No data can be detected
- - -
10110100 10110100 10110100
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 122
Feature of SS
Privacy, Security
Radio
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Power density of SS-signals could be lower than the noise density.
transmitted SS-signal







Noise
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

Radio
Frequency
Noise







received signal de-
modulator
Base-band
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

With incorrect code
(or carrier frequency),
SS-signal itself
cannot be detected.
They cannot perceive the existence of communication,
because of signal behind the noise.
With correct code
(and carrier frequency),
data can be detected.
Base-band
Frequency
P
o
w
e
r

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 123
Feature of SS
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 124

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum:
Transmission Technique


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 125
Cross-Correlation
Cross-Correlation
between Code A and Code B = 6/16
Self-Correlation
for each code is 1.
one data bit duration
Spreading Code A
1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
one data bit duration
Spreading Code A
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
Spreading Code A
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Spreading Code B
1 0 0

1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 126
Preferable Codes
In order to minimize mutual interference in DS-CDMA ,
the spreading codes
with less cross-correlation should be chosen.
Synchronous DS-CDMA :
Orthogonal Codes are appropriate. (Walsh code etc.)

Asynchronous DS-CDMA :
• Pseudo-random Noise (PN) codes / Maximum sequence
• Gold codes
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 127
Multiplexing using Walsh Code
C o d e f o r 0 0
C o d e f o r 0 1
C o d e f o r 1 0
C o d e f o r 1 1
D a t a
M o d u l a t o r
C o d e f o r 0 1
C o d e f o r 1 0
C o d e f o r 1 1
0
d t
T
}
S e l e c t
m a x i m u m
v a l u e
C o d e f o r 0 0
0
d t
T
}
0
d t
T
}
0
d t
T
}
D e m o d u l a t o r
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 128
Synchronous DS-CDMA
Forward Link
(Down Link)
Synchronous Chip Timing










A
A
Signal for B Station
(after re-spreading)
Less Interference for A station
Synchronous CDMA Systems realized in Point to Multi-point System.
e.g., Forward Link (Base Station to Mobile Station) in Mobile Phone.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 129
Asynchronous DS-CDMA
In asynchronous CDMA system, orthogonal codes have bad cross-correlation.
Reverse Link
(Up Link)
B
A
Signal for B Station
(after re-spreading)
Big Interference
from A station
Asynchronous Chip
Timing
Signals from A and B are
interfering each other.
A


B
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 130
CDMA
• Code Division Multiple Access
• Start with data signal rate D (Called bit data rate)
• Break each bit into k chips by multiplying by a k bit user
code (known as a Walsh code)
• Channel has chip data rate kD chips per second
• User code (Walsh code) is orthogonal to all other
possible user codes
– User code 1 * User code 2 = 0
– User code 1 * User code 1 = signal for user 1
• Signals for several users can be added and sent as a
single signal within the same band (multiplexed)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 131
CDMA user code and data
Stallings 2003: Figure 9.10
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 132
CDMA Explanation
• Consider a user communicating with a base station
• Base station knows user A‘s code
• Assume communication already synchronized
• Base station receives a message from A and wants to
decode it. To extract the signal from A the basestation
multiplies the signal by A‘s code
• Decoder ignores other sources by using A‘s code to
decode
– For all other stations code station I * code station A =
0 so only the signal for station A remains
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 133
CDMA for DSSS
• When the basestation sends messages to n
users each message multiplied by a different
orthogonal Walsh code sequence, those
signals are added before transmission.
• At each receiving station, the signal for that
station is extracted by multiplying by that
stations Walsh code.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 134
CDMA: two-senders, eight bit Walsh codes
Walsh
Code 2
Walsh
Code 1
Data
Station 1
Data
Station 2
Data multiplied by Walsh Code
Data multiplied by Walsh Code
(Sum of all stations)
Transmitted data
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 135
CDMA: eight bit Walsh codes
Walsh Code 1
Received Data multiplied
by Walsh Code
Decoded Received Data
Station 1
-2 -2 -2
2
-2
2 2 2
Receive Data (Sum)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 136
Summary of Channel Partitioning
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
• Used mostly in wireless broadcast channels such as cellular
phones
• All users share same frequency band. Information from each user
is spread throughout that frequency band
• Each user has their own orthogonal Walsh code ‗chipping‘
sequence to encode data.
• encoded signal = (original data) X (Walsh code)
• Encoded signals from each channel are added, the summed
signal is transmitted
• The orthogonal property of Walsh codes guarantees that (ignoring
transmission errors) multiplying the received signal by a Walsh
code will extract the data for the channel encoded using that
Walsh code from the received (summed) signal.
• Decoded signal = (received summed signal X Walsh code)
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 137
CDMA in a DSSS Environment
Stallings 2003: Figure 9.11
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 138
7.4. DS-CDMA Systems
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 139
DS-CDMA System Overview
(Forward link)
Freq. Freq.
BPF
Despreader
Code B
Freq. Freq.
BPF
Despreader
Code A
CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum.
Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code
Data B
Code B
BPF
Freq.
Freq.




Data A
Code A
BPF
Freq.
Freq.
MS-A




MS-B
BS
Data A
Data B
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 140
DS-CDMA System Overview
(Reverse Link)
Freq. Freq.
BPF
Despreader
Code B
Freq. Freq.
BPF
Despreader
Code A
CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum.
Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code
Data B
Code B
BPF
Freq.
Freq.




Data A
Code A
BPF
Freq.
Freq.




MS-B
MS-A
BS
Data A
Data B
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 141

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 142

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 143

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 144

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 145
7.5. IS-95 CDMA SYSTEMS
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 146
IS-95 CDMA SYSTEMS

- Interim Standard 95 – CDMA

- Viterbi, Qualcomm
Outline

- Forward Link

- Reverse Link

- Special Features of IS-95 CDMA

- Brief Comparison to other second-generation standards

- Possible Improvements

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 147
2G: IS-95A (1995)
• Known as CDMAOne
• Chip rate at 1.25Mbps
• Convolutional codes, Viterbi Decoding
• Downlink (Base station to mobile):
– Walsh code 64-bit for channel separation
– M-sequence 2
15
for cell separation
• Uplink (Mobile to base station):
– M-sequence 2
41
for channel and user
separation
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 148
2G: IS-95A (1995)
Standard IS-95, ANSI J-STD-008
Multiple Access CDMA
Uplink Frequency 869-894 MHz
Downlink Frequency 824-849 MHz
Channel Separation 1.25 MHz
Modulation Scheme BPSK/QPSK
Number of Channel 64
Channel Bit Rate 1.25 Mbps (chip rate)
Speech Rate 8~13 kbps
Data Rate Up to 14.4 kbps
Maximum Tx Power 600 mW
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 149
2.5G: IS-95B (1998)
• Increased data rate for internet applications
– Up to 115 kbps (8 times that of 2G)
• Support web browser format language
– Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 150
MC-CDMA
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 151
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
Mobile Station (MS)
-The Mobile Station (MS) is the subscriber‘s
interface with the CDMA network.
-Both hand-held MS units having a low-
power radio transmitter and vehicle-
mounted MS units are permitted.
-The manufacturer assignes a unique 32-bit
Electronic Serial Number (ESN) to each
MS.
-ESN is a permanent and private
identification code of the mobile terminal.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 152
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
• Each Base Station has a unique pilot PN-offset, a delay applied
to a random number sequence (PN Short Code) at the base
station.
• This sequence is applied to forward direction transmissions that
enables the terminals in a cell to decode the desired signal and
reject the signals from other base stations.
• Pilot PN offsets ensure that the received signal from one cell
does not correlate with the signal from a nearby cell.
• It is possible for adjacent cells to use the same CDMA radio
channel frequency (f 1).
• Reusing the same frequency in every cell eliminates the need
for frequency planning in a CDMA system.
• Pilot PN-offset planning must be done in stead.
• In an area where the ranges of two cells overlap, there is an
increased interference, but this only reduces the number of
users that can share the radio channel.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 153
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
• The BTS comprises several base radio
transceivers.
• Each transceiver consists of a transmitter and a
receiver which has a duplicated front end to
match up with the two receiving antennas used in
the base antenna assembly.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 154
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
Base Station Controller (BSC)
• The BSC comprises control logic, data
communication facilities and multiplexing and
demultiplexing equipment.
• The BSC can control the radio power levels
of the various transceivers in the BTS, and
also can autonomously control the mobile
stations‘ radio transmitter power levels.
• A single BSC can control several BTS radio
equipment transmitters.


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 155
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
GPS Receiver
• CDMA ‗soft handover‘ (an MS establishes
contact with a new base station before giving
up its radio link to the original base station)
requires base stations to operate in
synchronism with one another.
• Therefore each base station contains a GPS
receiver.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 156
Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems
Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
• The MSC is a switching network that
interconnects calls between Mobile Stations
and between Mobile Stations and the Public
Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
• The MSC is also needed for ‗automatic
roaming‘ capabilities.


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 157
2G Network Architecture

Internet
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSC
M
S

MSC
MSC
T-1
T-1
T-1
T-1
EIR
VLR VLR
HLR/AC
PSTN
IWF
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 158
3G Network Architecture

Internet
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSC
M
S

MSC
MSC
T-1
T-1
T-1
EIR
VLR VLR
HLR/AC
PSTN
IWF
New
Switch
New
Switch
New
Switch
T-1 IP
IP
IP
IP
PDSN
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 159
-869 to 894 MHz (each channel is 1.25 MHz wide)

-Subdivided into 4 sub channels

1.Pilot:
a. Timing
b. Phase Reference for Coherent Demodulation
c. Means for Signal Strength Comparison

2.Sync
a. Broadcasts future state of the long code register

3.Paging
a. Call Control Information

4.Traffic
Voice Data (includes power control sub channel)
7.5.1. Forward Link
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 160

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 161

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 162

Forward Link Radio Transmission

• The forward link is by convention the transmission from
Base Station to Mobile Station (MS).

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 163
Forward Link Radio Transmission
Traffic Channel
• The traffic channel can accept data rates of 9600 bps,
4800 bps, 2400 bps and 1200 bps comming from a
variable-bit-rate speech coder (QCELP = Qualcomm
Code Excited Linear Prediction).
• Check digits and tail bits (convolutional encoder tail
sequence to drive the convolutional encoder into a known
state at the end of each frame) are included. The signals
are processed in frames of duration of 20 ms.
• A convolutional code, with constraint length K=9 and rate
½ protects each signal.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 164
Forward Link Radio Transmission
• When the rate is less than 19200 bps, the transmitter
repeats code bits (factor 1, 2, 4 or 8) to bring the rate
up to 19200 bps, corresponding to 384 bits in a
frame of 20 ms.
• An interleaver permutes the code bits in each frame.
This will spread the influence of burst errors, typical
for wireless communications.
• The baseband sequence is scrambled by the PN
sequence derived from a Long Code Generator (a
PN sequence with length 242 – 1 at a rate of 1.2288
Mbps) and Long Code Mask (a time-offset
determined by the ESN of the MS for traffic
channels).
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 165
Forward Link Radio Transmission
•The Long Code period is :



to match the rate of the Long Code sequence to the 19200
bps baseband rate, a decimator extracts 1 bit out of 64 bits
of the Long Code sequence.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 166

IS-95 CDMA Logic Channels

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 167
IS 95 CDMA Logic channels

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 168
Forward Link Radio Transmission
• The baseband symbol stream is spread by
multiplication with a Walsh sequence of length 64,
thus creating a baseband chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps.
• There are 64 orthogonal Walsh sequences of length
64, certain of which are assigned to different users of
the channel.
• All user‘s transmissions occur synchronously from the
base station, so these transmissions are also
synchronized at any individual subscriber‘s receiver
(synchronous CDMA).
• The use of a set of orthogonal sequences thus allows
perfect rejection of other-user interference associated
with any given transmission path within the cell.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 169
Forward Link Radio Transmission
• The same baseband sequence is duplicated on the I
and Q channels of an IQ-modulator. Then they are
spread with ‘different’ pilot sequences on the I and Q
channels.
• This pilot sequence or Short Code sequence has a
length of 215 chips. A ‗PN-offset‘ in the pilot
sequences is assigned to each base station and is
synchronized to Universal Coordinated Time (UCT).
• To demodulate a received signal, an MS
synchronizes its receiver with the assigned base
station and generates I-channel and Q-channel pilot
sequences with the value of ‗PN-offset‘ assigned to
the local base station.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 170
Forward Link Radio Transmission
• Signals received from other base stations, with
different values of ‗PN-offset‘, appear as low-
level noise in the receiver of the MS, due to the
correlation properties of the sequences.
• There are 512 possible ‗PN-offsets‘, with offset
i corresponding to a time delay of 64i chips ( a
delay of 64 chips @ 52 ms @ 15km).
• Since the period of the sequence is 215 chips,
there are 215 /26 = 29 = 512 possible offsets.


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 171

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 172
Forward Link Radio Transmission
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 173
Forward Link Radio Transmission
• The bandwidth of a CDMA signal is 1.23
MHz.
• The bandwidth of an AMPS channel (using
the same frequency band) is 30 kHz.
• Therefore the bandwidth of a CDMA signal
corresponds to an aggregate bandwidth of
41 AMPS channels.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 174

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 175

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 176
The pilot channel
• The pilot channel uses WALSH 0, a sequence of all 0s
(or 1s).
• The channel contains no information, only the PN pilot
sequence.
• It provides the MS with a beacon, timing and phase
reference (for coherent detection).
• The I and Q channels of the traffic channels
(containing the same information) can be despread
independently to determine the amplitude of the
channels.
• The pilot sequence can be employed for channels
sounding purposes to determine the amplitudes and
phases of various multipath components received at
the MS (RAKE receiver).

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 177

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 178
The sync channel
• The sync channel uses WALSH 32, a
sequence of 32 0s, followed by 32 1s.
• It provides the MS with critical time
synchronization data: system time (obtained
from GPS), the PN-offset of the pilot
sequence and the rate of the base station
paging channels (4.8 kbps or 9.6 kbps).

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 179

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 180

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 181
The paging channel
• A CDMA signal carries up to 7 paging
channels and using WALSH 2 to WALSH 7.

• The paging channels transmit information to
terminals that do not have calls in progress.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 182

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 183

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 184
Traffic channel
• Traffic channel on the forward direction has
three components
—user data
—power control (puncturing convolutional code)
—signaling message
• Traffic channel on the reverse direction has
two components
—user data
—signaling message

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 185

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 186

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 187
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 188
Output
data
Rate:
9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Audio
Compressor
R=1/2
K=9
24x16
array =
384 bits
19.2kbps
Data
Scrambling
2^14-1 Permutations

(14 bit maximum
length shift register)
1.2288 Mcbs
L=64
(takes
every 64
th

bit)
19.2kbps
L=6
(takes every 6
th

bit)
4bits @
800Hz =
3200bps
Power Control
Bit
Specifies Forward
Channel Id (0-63)

One of 64 possible
19.2kbps
1.2288Mcps
I-Channel
Pilot PN
Sequence

2^15-1
Q-Channel
Pilot PN
Sequence

2^15-1
1.2288Mcps
1.2288Mcps
Data to I
channel of
QPSK RF
modulator
Data to Q
channel of
QPSK RF
modulator
19.2kbps
Convolutional
Encoder
Block
Interleaver.
MUX
Long Code Generator Decimator
Decimator
Walsh Code Generator
PN Generator
PN Generator
1.2288Mbps
IS-95 Forward Link
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 189
- Adds redundancy to data transmitionsfor error robustness.
- Rate, r=1/2, where r = input bits / output bits,
- Maintains an output data rate of 19.2kbps regardless of input rate.
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
9 Element Shift
Register
From Audio
Compressor

Possible
rates:
9600bps
4800bps
2400bps
1200bps
752 octal =
111101011
XOR
G0
561 octal =
101110001
G1
Incoming Data
XOR
Note, while this is
easy to implement
at the transmitter,
it is nontrivial to
undue at the
receiver
Convolutional Encoder and Repetition
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 190
- Separates when consecutive data bits are sent, therefore adding to transmission
robustness.

- Provides Time Diversity

- 2 pages, one is being filled as one is emptied

- Each page contains all the data for one 20ms frame

24x16 bits = 384 bits
19.2kps * 20ms per frame = 384 bits!

- Data is read in as rows and out as columns.
Block Interleaver
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 191
- This sequence will be used to scramble the data and to code when to send a
power control bit.

- 42 bit maximum length shift register, corresponds to 2^42-1 possible
permutations

- Contents of shift register are XOR’d with a public or a private key (depending on
the stage of the call) to generate one output bit at a rate of 1.2288Mcps

- Takes a very long time to repeat.



- Used for Data Encryption. Make call more secure.

- Randomizes data. Prevents the transition of a long series of 1’s or 0’s
Long PN Sequence
Scrambler
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 192

- Dynamic, Decentralized, closed-loop power control scheme

- Control Scheme: BS decides what to do based on the measured Frame Error
Rate

FER < threshold  decrease mobile power by 1dB
FER > threshold  increase mobile power by 1dB

- One bit sent every 1.25ms = 800Hz or 16 power control bits per frame.

- The power control bit is sent in one of 16 possible locations coded by the 4 bit
output of the second decimator.

(decimator #2 output = 4bits * 800Hz = 3.2kbps. This was reduced by a
factor of 6 from the 19.2kbps at the scrambler)
Power Control Bit

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 193
- 64 Orthogonal Channels for all users, assuming negligible multi-path delays

- Provides some spreading

- 64 X 64 Walsh Matrix. 1 Row = 1 Walsh Code

- Each row of the matrix is exported at 19.2kHz (one row for each bit that is sent
from the scrambler)

- 64 bits per row * 19.2kHz per row = 1.2288Mbps (the output of the Walsh
generator)

- Channel 0 is assigned to the pilot and is given more power then the rest of the
channels

- Channel 32 is assigned to synchronization.

- Mobile Paging Channels are usually on the lower Walsh ID’s
Orthogonal Covering Via Walsh Codes
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 194

- Provides more spreading, as not all Walsh codes have sufficient spreading.

- Based on a 15 bits maximum length shift register (2^15-1 possible permutations)
-This is the pilot sequence if it’s modulated by Walsh code 0.

- PN generator outputs data at 1.2288Mbps. (The same rate as the Walsh code
generator)

- Different cells use different time offsets of the short code as to identify themselves
so that Walsh codes can be reused.

- The PN sequence for the I channel is based on a different polynomial then the Q
channel and they therefore evolve differently.

- The output I and Q channels are converted to analog and are modulated by an RF
carrier -> QPSK
Quadrature Modulation (Short Code)

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 195
• 824 to 849 MHz (each channel is 45 MHz away
from the forward counterpart)
• Access channel
– 4800 bps
– Initiate communication
– Respond to paging channel message
• Reverse voice traffic channel
– 9600, 4800, 2400, 1200 bps
• Very similar to forward link, but there are important
differences.
7.5.2. Reverse Link
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 196

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 197

The IS-95 Reverse Link

• The reverse link is quite different
- Instead of Walsh Codes, ―psuedorandom noise‖ (PN)
codes
- PN codes are deterministic Bernoulli sequences of {-
1,+1}
- While not orthogonal, they have low cross-correlation,
e.g.
<Ci, Ck > ≈ 1, unless i = k
<Ci, Ck > = J, if i = k

- These codes have good properties even when not
synchronized
- Very strong error correcting codes make up the
difference

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 198

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 199

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 200

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 201
PN Generator
Output data
Rate:

9600 bps
4800 bps
2400 bps
1200 bps
Audio
Compressor
R=1/
3
K=9
32 x 18
= 576
bits
28.8kbps
I-Channel
Pilot PN
Sequence

2^15-1
Q-Channel
Pilot PN
Sequence

2^15-1
1.2288Mcps
1.2288Mcp
s
Data to I
channel of
OQPSK RF
modulator
Data to Q
channel of
OQPSK RF
modulator
Convolutional
Encoder
Block
Interleaver.
Walsh Code
Generator
PN Generator
1.2288Mbps
1.2288Mbps
1.2288Mbps
64-ary
Orthogonal
Modulator

Codes 6 bits
Long Code PN
Generator
1.2288Mcps
Data Burst
Randomizer
D
307.2kbps
½ PN chip
= 409.6ns
IS-95 Reverse Link
Total spreading gain J = 128
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 202

– 64-ary orthogonal modulation using the same Walsh
function in the forward link
– Contrary to the forward link, used for orthogonal data
modulation
– One Walsh function is transmitted for six coded bits
– Modulated symbol rate
• 28.8 kbps*64 chips /6 coded bits = 307.2 kcps
– Increase interference tolerance (refer to ECE459)
Orthogonal Modulation
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 203

– Turns off the Transmitter when the data rate falls
below 9.6kbps so that each redundant bit is sent
only once.

– Used to reduce interference to other users

– Each 20ms frame is divided into 16 1.25ms slots
which are selected as a function of the long PN
code

Data burst randomizer

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 204
Notations of Cellular Systems
• Cellular network
– A radio network made up
of many cells each with a
fixed base station to
serve a number of mobile
stations
– Advantages: increased
capacity, reduced power,
better coverage
MSC
PSTN
BS
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 205
• PSTN
– Public switched telephone network
– Almost entirely digital now, convergent with
Internet
• MSC
– Mobile switching center
– Manage communication between mobile phones
and PSTN
– Functions: deliver calls to subscribers, connecting
calls to mobile subscribers or PSTN, arranging
handovers from BS to BS and from MSC to other
MSCs, collecting billing information

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 206
• BS: base station
– Low-power, multi-channel, two-
way radios in a fixed location
– Handling traffic between MS
and MSC
– Many BSs connected to one
central MSC
• MS: mobile station
– All user equipment and
software needed for wireless
networks, such as cell phone
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 207
• Channel types in cellular system
– Control channel: transmit control information about
a call
• Usually has only a few for each cell site
– Forward channel: used for transmission from BS
to MS
– Reverse channel: used for transmission from MS
to BS
– Paging channel: used to broadcast brief message
over entire service area
• Usually one channel for the entire network
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 208
• Main channels in a cell
– Four channel types
• FVC: forward voice channel
• FCC: forward control channel
• RVC: reverse voice channel
• RCC: reverse control channel
– Voice channel: high rate, multiple
– Control channel: low rate, fewer
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 209
• Special working mode
– Handoff: transfer a call or data session
from one channel to another, or from one
BS to another, or from one MSC to
another.
• Handover: the process of transferring a call
• Hard handover: the process needs to drop the
call for a short time, e.g., GSM handover
• Soft handover: MS simultaneously use multiple
BS, no need to drop the call when adding new
BS, e.g., CDMA system
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 210
– Roaming:
• Extend connectivity service to locations other
than home location
• Regional roaming, national roaming,
international roaming
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 211
Cell System Operation Procedure
• Turn on
– Scan FCC for best base station
– Register into network

PSTN
MSC
BS
MS
1. FCC
2. RCC
Relay
Ack
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 212
• MS receiving calls from PSTN

PSTN
MSC
BS
MS
1 (MIN)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
3: FCC (page)
4: ACK
5: relay ACK
6: Verify channel
7: FCC (channel info)
8,9,10: Voice

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 213
• MS initializing calls (to PSTN, or to another MS)
PSTN MSC
BS
MS
MS
1
2
3
4
4
5 5
1. RCC: req. (MIN)
2. Relay
3. Verify (channel)
4. FCC (assign channel)
5. voice
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 214
-Bandwidth Recycling
Enhancing the system capacity due to the increase of reuse
efficiency.
Achieving higher bandwidth efficiency (interference
limited) and simplifying the system planning.
Achieving flexibility due to the bandwidth on demand.

-Power Control
Reducing the interference and increasing the talk time of
mobile station by using the efficient power control scheme.

-Soft handoffs
Contributing to the achievement of the diversity and
reduce the chance of loss of link midway through the
conversation.
7.5.3. Special Features of IS-95 CDMA System
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 215
-Diversity
Taking advantage of multiple levels of diversity: frequency
diversity (spreading), spatial diversity (multiple antennas), path
diversity (rake receiver) and time diversity (block interleaver), all of
which reduce the interference and improve speech quality.

-Variable Rate Vocoder
Offering high speed coding and reducing background noise and
system interference based on the detection of the voice activity.

-Coding Technique
÷Enhancing the privacy and security.
Special Features of IS-95 CDMA System
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 216
7.5.4. A Comparison between IS-95 and other 2nd
Generation Cellular Phone Systems

IS-54/136 GSM IS-95
TDMA/FDMA CDMA
Hard Handoff Soft Handoff
Open-loop and Slow Power
Control
Close-loop and Faster Power
Control
Fixed Rate Vocoder Variable Rate Vocoder


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 217

- Increasing the channel bandwidth beyond 1.25MHz.

- Directional antennas on mobile stations.

- Better power control algorithms.

- Using MANET technology.

- Adaptive filtering.


7.5.5. Possible Improvements on IS-95

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 218
2G: IS-95A (1995)
• Known as CDMAOne
• Chip rate at 1.25Mbps
• Convolutional codes, Viterbi Decoding
• Downlink (Base station to mobile):
– Walsh code 64-bit for channel separation
– M-sequence 2
15
for cell separation
• Uplink (Mobile to base station):
– M-sequence 2
41
for channel and user
separation
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 219
2G: IS-95A (1995)
Standard IS-95, ANSI J-STD-008
Multiple Access CDMA
Uplink Frequency 869-894 MHz
Downlink Frequency 824-849 MHz
Channel Separation 1.25 MHz
Modulation Scheme BPSK/QPSK
Number of Channel 64
Channel Bit Rate 1.25 Mbps (chip rate)
Speech Rate 8~13 kbps
Data Rate Up to 14.4 kbps
Maximum Tx Power 600 mW
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 220
2.5G: IS-95B (1998)
• Increased data rate for internet applications
– Up to 115 kbps (8 times that of 2G)
• Support web browser format language
– Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)


CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 221
MC-CDMA
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 222
Conclusions
• CDMA can increase the capacity of mobile
system
• Goals of next generation cellular
– Further increase data rate
– Reduce interference among users
• Future research:
– Search for good non-binary sequences
• Ideal 2-level autocorrelation
• Low cross correlations

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 223
7.6. Conclusion
• CDMA is based on the spread spectrum
technique which has been used at military field.
• CDMA cellular system is deemed superior to the
FDMA and TDMA cellular systems for the time
being.
• Therefore, CDMA technique becomes more
important in radio communication systems.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 224
Conclusions
• CDMA can increase the capacity of mobile
system
• Goals of next generation cellular
– Further increase data rate
– Reduce interference among users
• Future research:
– Search for good non-binary sequences
• Ideal 2-level autocorrelation
• Low cross correlations

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003 225
Reference:

1.T. S. Rappaport, “Wireless communications principles&practice”, Prentice Hall, 1996
2.C. Y. Lin and J. Shieh, “IS-95 North American strandard-a CDMA based digital cellular
system”, IEEE Website.
3.A. J. Viterbi, “CDMA principles of spread spectrum communication”, Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, 1995.
4.R. Paul and K. V. Shah, “An objective comprison of second generation cellular systems -
GSM, IS-136 and IS-95”, IEEE, 1997.
5.Motorola, Inc. “CDMA Technology & Benefits: An introduction to the benefits of
CDMA for wireless technology”, 1996.
6.S. G. Glisic and P. A. Leppanen, “Code division multiple access communications”,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.
7.C. Tsui, S. Cheng and C. Ling, “Using transformation to reduce power consumption of
IS-95 CDMA receiver”, International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and
Design,
1999.
8.R. Prasad, “An overvies of CDMA evolution toward Wideband CDMA”, IEEE, 1998.
9.V. R. Raveendran and J. F. Doherty, “Performance characteristics of the IS-95 standard
for CDMA spread spectrum mobile communication systems”, IEEE, 1997.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

2

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

3

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

4

Sept. 2003 5 .Contents • Introduction (giới thiệu) • Spread Spectrum Technology (công nghệ trải phổ) • DS-CDMA • Spreading Codes (mã trải phổ) • Features of CDMA Đặc tính của cdma – RAKE Receiver (bộ thu rake) – Power Control (điều khiển công suất) – Frequency Allocation (cấp phép tần số) – Soft Handoff (chuyển giao mềm) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

2003 6 . Sept.Contents • CDMA Links – Forward Link (cdma đường xuống) – Reverse Link (cdma đường lên) • Special Features of IS-95 CDMA (đặc tính đặc biệt của cdma is-95) • Brief Comparison to other secondgeneration standards • Possible Improvements • Conclusion CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Sept.7. 11. Introduction (giới thiệu) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 7 .1.

LMPD (truy nhập không dây băng hẹp) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 8 . PCS) – Paging. UWB • Outdoor data broadcast (quảng bá dữ liệu ngoài trời) – Wide area wireless data service (dịch vụ dữ liệu ko day băng rộng) – Broadband wireless access: WLL. PCS (điện thoại tổ ong. vệ tinh) • Indoor data communication (giao tiếp dữ liệu trong nhà) – Cordless phone – WLAN – Low cost low power: Bluetooth. 11. Sept. Zigbee.Modern Wireless Systems(hệ thống ko dây hiện đại) • Outdoor voice/data communication (thoại ngoài trời. Satellite (tìm gọi. giao tiếp dữ liệu) – Cellular phone.

2003 9 . Generation (1990s) 1st. Sept.1.Generation (1980s)(thế hệ thứ nhất) Analog NMT CT0 TACS CT1 AMPS IMT-2000 CDMA2000 W-CDMA Digital GSM DECT DCS1800 CT2 PDC PHS IS-54 IS-95 IS-136 UP-PCS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Introduction Evolution of Cellular Systems (phát triển của hệ thống điện thoại tổ ong) 3rd.7. 11. Generation (2000s) 2nd.

hướng CDMA thuê bao. tần số tái sử dụng) (công suất tỉ lệ nghịch với khoảng cách) – Macrocells and microcells: trade-off among capacity. 2003 10 . nhiễu. giá cả) – System is interference limited (hệ thống giới hạn nhiễu) • advaced techniques for interference reduction can enhance performance: cell sectoring. hướng/anten thông minh. directional/smart antennas. cấp phép tài nguyên động) đa Technologies for Cellular Phone System . cost (tính thương mại giữa dung lượng. Sept. dynamic resource allocation (công nghệ tiên tiến giảm nhiễu có thể thực hiện bằng cách sector hóa. 11. multi-user detection. interference.Cellular System • Two-way voice/data communication with large coverage (hai đường thoại/dữ liệu với vùng phủ sóng rộng) • Spectrum efficiency: frequency reuse (since power falls off with distance) (hiệu quả phổ.

25MHz channel.• 1G Cellular network (mạng tổ ong thế hệ thứ nhất) – AMPS: FDMA/FDD • 2G Cellular network (mạng tổ ong thế hệ thứ 2) – TDMA/FDD. CDMA CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. TDMA • IS-136. 3 users/30kHz channel. TDMA • IS-95 (CDMA One): 64 users/1. Sept. 8 users/200KHz channel. or CDMA/FDD • GSM. 2003 11 .

Sept. 11.• 2.5G) – General objective: support packet data service with higher data rate (tính năng chung: hỗ trỡ dịch vụ dữ liệu gói với tốc độ cao hơn) – GPRS: 170 kbps (max). 2003 12 . CDMA (enhance IS-95 by aggregating spreading codes) (nâng cấp IS-95 bởi mã trải phổ) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . TDMA (enhanced GSM by high-level modulation)(nâng cấp GSM bởi điều chế mức cao hơn) – IS-95B: 115 kbps.5G Cellular Network (thế hệ 2. TDMA (enhanced GSM by channel aggregating) – EDGE: >384 kbps.

25 như IS-95) • Multi-carrier mode 3xTT (đa sóng mang) • 5 MHz bandwidth (băng thông 5M) • 2 Mbps and higher (tốc độ 2M và cao hơn) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 5MHz bandwidth(băng thông 5M) – CDMA 2000.25MHz bandwidth as IS-95(sử dụng cùng băng thông 1. ~8Mbps future. 2Mbps. 2003 13 . Sept. ~2Mbps. evolved from IS-95 CDMA • Use the same 1. FDD/TDD – WCDMA (UTRA).• 3G Cellular Network (thế hệ thứ 3) – Objective: support higher data rate: from 384kbps (pedestrian) or 144 kbps (vehicular) to 2 Mbps (indoor)( hỗ trợ tốc độ dữ liệu cao) – General: work in 2GHz band. evolved from GSM (phát triển từ GSM) • Always on (packet radio).

– 3G incompatible with 2G. 2003 14 . Sept. need much investment for deployment. 11. such as the cost for buying spectrum( thế hệ thứ 3 tương thích với thế hệ thứ 2 phải đầu tư phát triển giống như chi phí mua phổ tần số) – 3G first deployed in Japan (thế hệ 3G đầu tiên được triển khai ở Nhật) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

(2.5G) IS-95B – CDMA 2000 and WCDMA (3G) – IMT2000 • 4G in the future (tương lai thế hệ thứ 4 • Conclusions (kết luận) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.Introduction • Spread Spectrum Communications(giao tiếp trải phổ) • Multiple Access Technique(công nghệ đa truy nhập) – Direct Sequence DS-CDMA (trực tiếp tuần tự) • CDMA standards(chẩn cdma) – CDMAOne (2G) – IS 95A. Sept. 2003 15 .

Requirements for 3G mobile systems • High Capacity (dung lượng cao) • Tolerance for interference (loại bỏ nhiễu) • Privacy( bảo mật) • Tolerance for fading(giảm pha đing) • Ability to various data rate transmission(có khả năng truyền với tốc độ dữ liệu thay đổi) • Flexible QoS (đảm bảo hệ số dịch vụ) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 16 . Sept. 11.

Sept.IMT-2000 systems approved by ITU-R IMT-FT IMT-SC (Direct Sequence) (Multi Carrier) (Time Code) (Single Carrier) (Frequency Time) IMT-MC IMT-TC Popular name Access method W-CDMA CDMA2000 UTRA-TDD TD-CDMA TD-SCDMA CDMA-TDD CWTS ESTI T1 TTA UWC-136 DECT IMT-DS CDMA-FDD ARIB/TTC CWTS ESTI T1 TTA 3GPP(FDD) CDMA-FDD ARIB/TTC CWTS TIA TTA TDMA-FDD TDMA-TDD Organization Partners TIA ESTI Body of Technical Spec production 3GPP2 3GPP(TDD) CWTS IS-136 DECT Approved in 2000 as ITU-R M.1457 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 17 .

What is CDMA ? spread spectrum Base-band Spectrum băng cơ bản) Code B Radio Spectrum phổ vô tuyến B B Code A A Code A A C A C B A B A B A C B C B Sender bộ gửi Time Receiver bộ thu CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 18 . Sept. 11.

2003 19 . Sept.Summary of Multiple Access FDMA power TDMA power CDMA power CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

11.7. Features of CDMA Systems đặc tính của hệ thống cdma CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 20 .2. Sept.

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 21 . 11.

Sept. each with own pseudorandom codeword approximately orthogonal to all other codewords. users are separated by their codes rather than frequency and time slot (Nói một cách khác.IS-95 CDMA . mỗi người dùng được phân biệt bởi mã hơn là tần só và thời gian) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 22 . can transmit simultaneously with same carrier frequency(tất cả thuê bao. mỗi người có một mã giả ngẫu nhiên và trực giao với nhau có thể truyền đồng thời trên cùng một tần số sóng mang) —Receiver performs a time correlation operation to detect only desired codeword (bộ nhận thực hiện một lần tương quan để chỉ xác định mã mong muốn) —All other codewords appear as noise due to decorrelation(tất cả các mã khác xuất hện như là nhiễu do bộ giải mã tương quan) —Receiver needs to know only codeword used by transmitter (bộ nhận chỉ cần biết mã hóa sử dụng ở bộ phát) —In other words.Radio Aspects • Spread spectrum techniques adapted from military (used since 1950) —Narrowband signal is multiplied by very large bandwidth signal (spreading signal)(tín hiệu băng hẹp được ghép bởi tín hiệu băng rộng) —All users. 11.

2003 23 . Sept.IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept. 2003 24 .

2003 25 . 11. Sept.IS-95 CDMA Interesting Features CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11. 2003 26 .

Drawbacks of CDMA CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 27 . 11. Sept.

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 28 .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 29 . 11.

11. Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 30 .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 31 . Sept. 11.

Drawbacks of CDMA So far. CDMA looks like a step backwards: 􀂾 Tight synchronization is required to use orthogonal codes. 2003 32 . requiring fast and accurate power control (that uses up bits we could otherwise send information with) 􀂾 And for all this. so there doesn‘t appear to be a capacity gain CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. which dominates the performance in most CDMA systems 􀂾 Near-far problem is a serious hindrance. which then break in a multipath channel anyway 􀂾 Quasi-orthogonal codes cause self-interference. the required bandwidth is now J times larger than it was before. Sept.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WIRELESS CHANNELS thuộc tính vật lý của kênh vô tuyến COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11. 2003 33 .

Recall the Model -----------> | | | | | | | <------ <--------------- Now we’ll focus attention on the channel. Sept. 2003 34 . COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Sept. 2003 35 .General Comments (các chú thích) COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Noise nhiễu COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept. 2003 36 .

White Noise nhiễu trắng

0
• The spectrum of a random process specifies how the process’ energy is distributed as a function of frequency.Phổ của ngẫu nhiên cho thấy xử lý phân bố năng lượng như một chức năng của tần số. • The integral under the spectrum over any given band of frequencies equals the amount of energy in that band.Toàn bộ vùng dưới phổ được COS598u: Pervasive Phone System trong băng tạo ra bở băng tầnCDMAbằng tổngCellularInformation Systemsđó. số Technologies for năng lượng , Sept. 11, 2003

f

37

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) tỉ số tín hiệu trên nhiễu
• A key parameter of the noise is the spectral height or noise level, often designated as No/2. Tham số chính của nhiễu là độ cao của phổ hoặc mức nhiễu thường định nghĩa là No/2 • A key parameter of the signal is the received energy per bit, usually designated by Eb. Tham số chính của tín hiệu là năng lương thu được trên bit thường định nghĩa là Eb • The ratio Eb/No (“ebno”) is a measure of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and is a key parameter in determining the quality of a communications link. Tỉ lệ Eb/No là SNR đây là tham số chính để xác định chất lượng tuyến giao tiếp.
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

38

Bit Error Rate (BER)bit lỗi
• The performance of a digital link can be measured in part by the bit-rate; but performance depends also on the quality of transmission, as measured by the bit-error rate (BER). Thực hiện tuyến số có thể đo bởi tốc độ bit nhưng phụ thuộc vào chất lượng truyền dẫ đo bở tốc độ bit lỗi BER • The BER (also known as the “probability of bit error”) is, as its name implies, the rate at which errors are introduced into the transmitted data stream by the channel. BER còn được biết như là xác suất bit lỗi. • Eb/No determines the rate of bit errors caused by white noise. Tỉ lệ này xác định tốc độ lỗi nguyên nhân do nhiễu trắng • This varies with modulation type. Điều này thay đổi tùy thuộc vào loại điều chế.
COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003
39

BERs for Binary Modulation BER cho điều chế nhị phân

COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

40

Sept.BERs of Higher-Order Modulation BER với điều chế mức cao hơn COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 41 .

Sept. 2003 42 .Error Rates of M-ary Modulation tốc độ lỗi của điều chế mảng M COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

2003 43 . 11. Sept.Propagation Effects hiệu tứng xác suất COS598u: Pervasive Information Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

11.Large Scale Propagation Effects hiệu ứng xác suất tỉ lệ lớn CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 44 .

2003 45 .Multipath CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

modeled as independent Gaussian random variables in I and Q channels (so-called Rayleigh fading). etc. 11. walls.Multipath Fading(đa đường) • Multiple copies of the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver due to reflections (off buildings. modeled via a channel impulse response. 2003 .nhiều tín hiệu của bộ phát đến bộ thu bằng các đường khác nhau nhờ phản xạ • The destructive and constructive interference of the different paths causes fading. Sự chồng của các đường với kc rộng nguyên nhân bởi fading lựa chọn tần số – Superposition of many closely separated paths causes flat fading.. • Mobility adds dynamism to the fading: – slow fading is steady over many symbol intervals CDMA Technologies for rapidly System . Sự chồng của nhiều đường với kc gần nhau bởi fading mỏng. – Superposition of widely separated paths causes frequency-selective fading.e. i. 46 – fast fading changes veryCellular Phone(bad!)Sept. fluctuations in Eb: Phá hủy và khôi phục nhiễu của các đường khác nhau là nguyên nhân fading.).

) Sử dụng tín hiệu băng rộng cho phép các đường khác nhau được quyết định và thêm vào để khôi phục tín hiệu (cộng nghệ này được gọi là bộ thu RAKE) • With narrowband signals. spread spectrum).. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 47 . 11. (The technique for this is called a RAKE receiver. allows different paths to be resolved and added constructively. i.Frequency-Selective Fading fading lựa chọn tần số • The use of wideband signals (e.với tín hiệu băng hệ fading lựa chọn tần só là một sự suy yếu. Sept.g.. it negatively effects performance.e. frequency-selective fading is an impairment.

2003 48 . 11.Multipath: Dispersion đa đường: phân tán CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

2003 49 .Interference nhiễu CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11.

Multiple Access Capabilities
• Multiple wireless terminals (WT) receive and send to the base station (BS) - WT near to the base station receive with higher quality than WT that a far away - Different quality in terms of bit error probability - To overcome unfairness and achieve a higher system capacity power control is applied

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

50

Interference Averaging dung lượng đa truy nhập

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

51

Interference from neighboring cells (CCI and ICI) nhiễu từ các cell lân cận

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

52

Dynamism

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

53

2003 54 .Further Issues các lỗi khác CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

Sept.Mobile Propagation Environment Multi-path Fading Power multi-path propagation path-1 path-2 path-3 Path Delay path-2 path-1 path-3 Mobile Station (MS) Base Station (BS) Power The peaks and bottoms of received power appear. 2003 55 . 11. Time CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . in proportion to Doppler frequency.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 56 . Sept.

2003 57 . 11. Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

2003 58 . Sept. and sometimes cancel out each other. Power In non-CDMA system. In other words. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . signal quality is dominated by the probability for detected power to be weaker than minimum required level. 11. This probability exists with less than two paths. signal quality is damaged when signals cancel out each other. ••• This is ―fading‖. different signal paths cannot be discriminated. depending on their phase relation.Fading in non-CDMA System Power path-1 path-2 path-3 Path Delay Detected Power Time With low time-resolution. ―fading‖ damages signal quality. ••• These signals sometimes strengthen. ••• In this case.

. ••• Therefore. Power path-1 interference from path-2 and path-3 CDMA Receiver CODE A with timing of path-1 CDMA Receiver CODE A with timing of path-2 path-3 Power Synchronization Adder Path Delay path-2 path-1 Power path-2 ••• Path Delay ••• CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . ••• This is a principle of RAKE receiver. Power path-1 path-2 path-3 Path Delay Because CDMA has high time-resolution. 11. Sept.Fading in CDMA System . energy from all paths can be summed by adjusting their phases and path delays. 2003 59 . different path delay of CDMA signals can be discriminated..

Sept.Fading in CDMA System (continued) In CDMA system. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 60 . because of adding all energy . 11. path-3 Power path-2 path-1 Power Detected Power RAKE receiver Time Less fluctuation of detected power. multi-path propagation improves the signal quality by use of RAKE receiver.

2003 61 . Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

rk output bits b(n) received signal r(t) Pick the largest Cross Correlation Metrics ck(t) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . . . . . . . Sept. 2003 62 . . . 11. . . . .Demodulation (Correlator) c1(t) r1 c2(t) r2 . . . . . . . .

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) S1 (t) m1 (t) PN1 (t) 1 cos(2fc t  1 )  r(t) mk(t) PNK (t) k cos(2fc t  k ) 63 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept. 2003 .

• All users use the same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously. Sept.Principles of operation-transmitter • The narrowband message signal mi(t) is multiplied by a pseudo noise code sequence that has a chip rate >> data rate of message. The kth transmitted signal is given by: Sk (t)  (2Es / Ts )1/ 2mk (t)p k (t)cos(2fc t  k ) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 64 .

)dt   mk (t) cos(2fc t  k ) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.CDMA Receiver Z ik (t) r(t) PNK (t) (. Sept. 2003 65 .

2003 66 . 11. Zi1 (t)  iT 1 (i 1)T 1  r(t)p1(t  1 )cos[2fc (t  1 )  1 ]dt CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. the received signal is correlated with the appropriate signature sequence to produce desired variable.Principles of operation-receiver At the receiver.

NTC = T where TC is the chip period. Sept. • The PN waveform consists of N pulses or chips for message symbol period T.Message Signal • m(t) is a time sequence of non-overlapping pulses of duration T. 2003 67 . CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. each of which has an amplitude (+/-) 1.

11. 2003 PN Wave for N =4 68 . Sept.Example: Assume N=4 1 -1 1 -1 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

S1 (t)  (2E s / Ts ) m1 (t)p1 (t)cos(2fc t  1 ) 1/ 2 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Correlator output for first user iT 1 Zi1 (t)  (i 1)T 1  r(t)p1(t  1 )cos[2fc (t  1 )  1 ]dt •The multiplied signal will be p2(t) = 1 for the correct signal and will yield the dispersed signal and can be demodulated to yield the message signal mi(t). 11. 2003 69 . Sept.

Sept. 2003 70 .Probability of bit error xác suất của bít lỗi • Probability of bit error Pe = Q {1/ [(K –1)/3N + (N0/2Eb)]1/2} K = Number of users số người sử dụng N = Number of chips/ symbol số chip/ký tự • When Eb/No   Pe = Q{[3N/(K-1)]1/2 } CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

11. 2003 71 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 72 .

2003 73 . 11. Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

11. Sept.Concept of CDMA Systems Diversity • Space diversity • Frequency diversity • Path diversity • Time diversity • Macro-diversity • IS-95 Air Interface Standards CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 74 .

11. Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 75 .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 76 . 11. Sept.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 77 . Sept. 11.

11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 78 . Sept.

11. In this case.Near-Far Problem P Lp-a DATA A CDMA Transmitter CODE A P CDMA Receiver Lp-b Demodulated DATA CODE A DATA B CDMA Transmitter CODE B • Desired Signal Power = P/Lp-a • Interfered Signal Power = P/Lp-b/(processing gain ) When user B is close to the receiver and user A is far from the receiver. desired signal power is smaller than the interfered power. 2003 79 . Lp-a could be much bigger than Lp-b. Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

Sept. example: • Nearby users will completely swamp far away users • Solution: Power Control CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .The Near-Far Problem • Users may be received with very different powers: . 2003 80 . 11.Users near the base station are received with high power .For a path loss exponent of 4 and a cell size of 1 km.Users far from the base station are received with low power .

2003 81 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11.

Sept.Power Control CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 82 . 11.

2003 83 . Sept.Power Control … • Power control adjust power level while conveying data to the base station in that way that all received signals at the base station have the same signal strength (not trivial) • This process needs time to adjust in case of changing in the cell in terms of power/interference CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Power Control … • • • • In case of misadjusted power control entities some WTS might have better/worse quality conditions The highest cell capacity can be achieved all WTs have exactly the same power level For support of heterogeneous QoS support the power control is a viable option All signals (even the undesired ones) from the base station will receive the WT with the same strength (some path) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11. 2003 84 .

11. Sept.Power Control … • IS-95 Air Interface Standards CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 85 .

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 86 . 11.

In order to maintain the received level at BS. 2003 87 .Power Control. the received level fluctuates quickly due to fading. Detected Power from A from B Time B A CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Moreover. which depend on the distances between BS and MSs.. Sept. the received levels at the base station are different from each other. When all mobile stations transmit the signals at the same power (MS). power control technique must be employed in CDMA systems.. 11.

2003 88 . 11.Power Control (continued) Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control ① ② measuring received power estimating path loss transmit ① decide transmission power ② transmit power control command about 1000 times per second calculating transmission power measuring received power transmit receive CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

Sept. • Received power from all MS are controlled to be equal.Effect of Power Control Effect of Power Control • Power control is capable of compensating the fading fluctuation.. 11. Detected Power from MS B from MS A Time B A CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 89 . . Near-Far problem is mitigated by the power control..

• Neighbor cells cannot use the same (identical) frequency band (or time slot). radio resource is allocated not to interfere among neighbor cells. • The left figure shows the simple cell allocation with seven bands of frequency.Frequency Allocation (1/2) In FDMA or TDMA. because of complicated radio propagation and irregular cell allocation. 11. • In actual situation. 2003 90 . f3 f4 f5 f6 f2 f1 f7 cell : a ―cell‖ means covered area by one base station. Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . it is not easy to allocate frequency (or time slot) appropriately.

2003 91 . • In this sense. identical radio resource can be used among all cells. CDMA cellular system is easy to be designed. because CDMA channels use same frequency simultaneously. • Frequency allocation in CDMA is not necessary. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11.Frequency Allocation (2/2) In CDMA.

Handoff in CDMA • Two types of handoffs —hard handoff —Soft handoff • Hard handoff is needed when the call is moved from one frequency to another and when the mobile moves the coverage area of another MSC CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 92 . 11. Sept.

• Mobile receives signals from two base stations and combine them before decoding. The signals are sent to the MSC that decides which one has lowest bit error rate. long and time. 2003 93 ... Sept. including lat. 11. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Vocoder in CDMA is in the switch. All base stations are equipped with GPS and receive information from it. • This requires synchronization of the base stations. Each tunes to one base station. Uses rake receiver.Soft handoff • Two base stations receive signals from the mobile. • It also requires that the mobile dedicates one correlator for searching other pilot channels.

switching Cell B Cell A Hard handoff : connect (new cell B) after break (old cell A) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Soft Handoff (1/2) Handoff : • Cellular system tracks mobile stations in order to maintain their communication links. Hard Handoff : • In FDMA or TDMA cellular system. Sept. 11. • When mobile station goes to neighbor cell. 2003 94 . new communication establishes after breaking current communication at the moment doing handoff. communication link switches from current cell to the neighbor cell. Communication between MS and BS breaks at the moment switching frequency or time slot.

11. 2003 95 . transmitting same signal from both BS A and BS B simultaneously to the MS Σ Cell B Cell A Soft handoff : break (old cell A) after connect (new cell B) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. communication does not break even at the moment doing handoff.Soft Handoff (2/2) Soft Handoff : •In CDMA cellular system. because switching frequency or time slot is not required.

Sept.Soft Handoff CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 96 . 11.

Sept. 2003 97 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Sept. 2003 98 .CDMA and Soft Handover • A unique advantage of CDMA is soft handover  more reliable – All cells use same carrier – Mobile contact with 6~7 nearby cells simultaneously – No need to stop contact with cell 1 before switching to cell 2 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

2003 99 . Sept. 11.Soft-Handover • IS-95 Air Interface Standards CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

2003 100 .Mobility Management in CDMA • Five type of registration —Periodic —Power up —Power down —Zone change —Distance. Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . When the distance between the current base station and the previously registered base station exceeds a certain limit. 11.

2003 101 . Sept. 11.Capacity of CDMA Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

Since interference-limited. 2003 102 .Typically. it causes less interference to other users of the system . 11.It is typically very difficult to dynamically allocate time and frequency slots • In CDMA systems: . this doubles the capacity CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. the time/frequency slot allocated to them is wasted .If a user doesn‘t have anything to send.Voice Activity • In TDMA and FDMA systems: . each user needs to transmit less than half the time .If a user doesn‘t have anything to send.

Sept. 120 degree antennas create 3-sector cells – very common • For CDMA. but just to decrease reuse distance CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 103 .Sectorized Antennas • Cells can use directional antennas to ―sectorize‖ the cell • At right. 11. this reduces the interference by a factor of three .Capacity is increased by a factor of three! • FDMA/TDMA also use sectored antennas.

User Ku BTS . • Total active users Ku • The intra-cell MAI can be modeled as AWGN • Perfect power control is assumed • Random sequences User n CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 104 . ...Uplink Single-cell System Model User 2 Assumptions . User 1 User k . 11. . . .. .. Sept.

Let W be the entire spread bandwidth.e. then the interference spectral density can be expressed as: I I0  W Watts / Hz (one  sided ) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 105 . Sept. 2. If the received power of each user is Ps watts. and the background noise can be ignored (ex: microcells). 3. then the total interference power (MAI) at the output of the desired user’s detector is I  K u  1Ps where Ku is the total number of equal energy users in the cell. the received power of each user at the base station is the same. The interference caused by other users in the cell can be modeled as AWGN. Single Cell. 11.• Coarse estimate of the reverse link (uplink) capacity –Assumptions: 1. i. Perfect power control is used. Suppose each user can operate against Gaussian noise at a bit-energy-to-noise density level of Eb/Io.

the bit energy Eb is Thus.Interference limited  Also. and other-cell interface factor (f).67 – GA (three sectors)  2.6 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . sectorized antenna gain (GA). Eb  Ps Rb Ku  1  I  W W Rb I  0  Ps Eb  Rb Eb I 0 Now. where – Gv  1/v = 2. 2003 106 . Sept. 11. if we consider the factors of voice activity (Gv).4 – f = (Interference form other cells)/(Interference from given cell)  0.

Sept.In this case. f  0. 11. Ku can be approximated by W Rb Gv  G A Ku   Eb I 0 1  f  Ex: If Gv  2.e. GA  2. 2003 107 . Eb/Io = 4) which will be larger than the TDMA or FDMA systems in the cellular environment.4.67. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .6 4  W Rb   Ku  Eb I o   W Ku  Rb If (Eb/Io) required is 6 dB (i.

a famous (notorious?) Qualcomm paper claimed that due to voice activity. about 1/3 of this gain actually happened (still depends who you ask) • Still. CDMA increased capacity by: . Sept. and sectorization. 11.Factor of 18 relative to AMPS .Capacity Comparison • Comparing the capacity of TDMA/FDMA/CDMA is very controversial • In 1991. 2003 108 .Factor of 6 relative to US TDMA (and similar for GSM) • This turned out to be optimistic. twice as many users is nothing to snear at! • All 3G systems use CDMA for multiple access CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . frequency reuse.

11. 2003 109 . Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 110 . 11. Sept.

Direct Spread Spectrum Technology CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .3. 11. Sept. 2003 111 .7.

Sept. Kasami. Z4 – Provide signal privacy CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 112 . 11. M-sequence. Gold.Spread Spectrum Technique • Low power spectral density • Rejection to jamming signal and interference • Pseudorandom sequence – Randomness and noise properties – Walsh.

Sept. 2003 113 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 114 . Sept.

11.Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum • Spreading – Source signal is multiplied by a PN signal • Processing Gain: 1 Tb Tc ChipRate Gp    1 Tc DataRate Tb • Despreading – Spread signal is multiplied by the spreading code CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 115 .

Spreading & Despreading • Polar {±1} signal representation CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 116 . 11. Sept.

2003 117 . Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

System Block Diagram Jammer/Noise/Interference j(t) s(t) = b(t)cos(wot) x(t) = s(t)c(t) Channel b(t) Source Data BPSK Modulator s(t) x(t) y(t) u(t) BPSK Matched Filter rn Output Data (to detector) y(t) = j(t) + x(t) u(t) = s(t) + j(t)c(t) rn = bn + jammer projection c(t) Pseudorandom Sequence Generator c(t) Pseudorandom Sequence Generator CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 118 . 11.

Sept. 11.How to spread spectrum. Direct Sequence (DS) Power Density user data TIME Modulation (primary modulation) Base-band Frequency data rate Spreading (secondary modulation) spreading sequence (spreading code) Power Density 10110100 Radio Frequency Tx CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .. 2003 119 ..

Power Density received signal TIME 10110100 01001011 10110100 spreading sequence (spreading code) Radio Frequency 10110100 gathering energy ! you can find the spreading timing which gives the maximum detected power.Demodulating DS Signals (1/2) If you know the correct spreading sequence (code) . and 10110100 10110100 10110100 Accumulate for one bit duration 00000000 11111111 00000000 Demodulated data Base-band Frequency 0 1 0 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11. 2003 120 .

Demodulating DS Signals (2/2) If you don‘t know the correct spreading sequence (code) ••• Power Density received signal TIME 10110100 01001011 10110100 spreading sequence (spreading code) Radio Frequency 01010101 01010101 01010101 you cannot find the spreading timing without correct spreading code. 11. Sept. 2003 - - - 121 . and Accumulate for one bit duration 10101010 10101010 10101010 10110100 10110100 10110100 No data can be detected Demodulated data Base-band Frequency CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

11. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. SS-signal itself cannot be detected. They cannot perceive the existence of communication. Security Power density of SS-signals could be lower than the noise density. 2003 Power Density Base-band Frequency 122 .Feature of SS Privacy. because of signal behind the noise. Power Density Power Density Power Density Noise Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Base-band Frequency •••••• •••••• transmitted SS-signal received signal demodulator With correct code (and carrier frequency). Noise With incorrect code (or carrier frequency). data can be detected.

Sept. 11.Feature of SS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 123 .

Sept. 2003 124 .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum: Transmission Technique CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

0 00 0 01 0 1 1 01 0 0 01 0 Cross-Correlation between Code A and Code B = 6/16 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 125 . 11. Sept.Cross-Correlation Spreading Code A Spreading Code A 1 00 1 11 0 0 0 11 0 1 00 1 1 01 0 11 0 0 0 11 0 1 00 1 one data bit duration one data bit duration Spreading Code A Spreading Code B 1 01 0 11 0 0 0 11 0 1 00 1 1 01 0 10 0 1 1 10 0 1 01 1 0 00 0 00 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 Self-Correlation for each code is 1.

the spreading codes with less cross-correlation should be chosen. 11. (Walsh code etc.) Asynchronous DS-CDMA : • Pseudo-random Noise (PN) codes / Maximum sequence • Gold codes CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. Synchronous DS-CDMA : Orthogonal Codes are appropriate.Preferable Codes In order to minimize mutual interference in DS-CDMA . 2003 126 .

Multiplexing using Walsh Code Modul ator Code for 00 Code for 01 Data Code for 10 Demodulator Code for 11 Code for 00  dt T 0 Code for 01  dt T 0 Select maximum value Code for 10  dt T 0 Code for 11  Tdt 0 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 127 . 11. Sept.

Sept.Synchronous DS-CDMA Synchronous CDMA Systems realized in Point to Multi-point System. Forward Link (Base Station to Mobile Station) in Mobile Phone. Forward Link (Down Link) Synchronous Chip Timing A A A Less Interference for A station B Signal for B Station (after re-spreading) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .g. e. 2003 128 .. 11.

Asynchronous DS-CDMA Reverse Link (Up Link) A Asynchronous Chip Timing Big Interference from A station A B B Signal for B Station (after re-spreading) Signals from A and B are interfering each other. In asynchronous CDMA system. orthogonal codes have bad cross-correlation. 2003 129 . CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

CDMA • • • • • Code Division Multiple Access Start with data signal rate D (Called bit data rate) Break each bit into k chips by multiplying by a k bit user code (known as a Walsh code) Channel has chip data rate kD chips per second User code (Walsh code) is orthogonal to all other possible user codes – User code 1 * User code 2 = 0 – User code 1 * User code 1 = signal for user 1 Signals for several users can be added and sent as a single signal within the same band (multiplexed) • CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 11. 2003 130 .

Sept. 2003 131 . 11.10 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .CDMA user code and data Stallings 2003: Figure 9.

2003 132 . 11. To extract the signal from A the basestation multiplies the signal by A‘s code • Decoder ignores other sources by using A‘s code to decode – For all other stations code station I * code station A = 0 so only the signal for station A remains CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.CDMA Explanation • Consider a user communicating with a base station • Base station knows user A‘s code • Assume communication already synchronized • Base station receives a message from A and wants to decode it.

Sept. those signals are added before transmission. the signal for that station is extracted by multiplying by that stations Walsh code.CDMA for DSSS • When the basestation sends messages to n users each message multiplied by a different orthogonal Walsh code sequence. 2003 133 . CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. • At each receiving station.

CDMA: two-senders. eight bit Walsh codes Data Station 1 Walsh Code 1 Data Station 2 Walsh Code 2 Data multiplied by Walsh Code Data multiplied by Walsh Code (Sum of all stations) Transmitted data CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 134 . 11. Sept.

2003 135 . Sept.CDMA: eight bit Walsh codes Received Data multiplied by Walsh Code Receive Data (Sum) 2 2 2 2 -2 -2 -2 -2 Walsh Code 1 Decoded Received Data Station 1 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.

Information from each user is spread throughout that frequency band • Each user has their own orthogonal Walsh code ‗chipping‘ sequence to encode data. 2003 136 . the summed signal is transmitted • The orthogonal property of Walsh codes guarantees that (ignoring transmission errors) multiplying the received signal by a Walsh code will extract the data for the channel encoded using that Walsh code from the received (summed) signal. 11. • Decoded signal = (received summed signal X Walsh code) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Summary of Channel Partitioning CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) • Used mostly in wireless broadcast channels such as cellular phones • All users share same frequency band. • encoded signal = (original data) X (Walsh code) • Encoded signals from each channel are added. Sept.

11. 2003 137 . Sept.11 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .CDMA in a DSSS Environment Stallings 2003: Figure 9.

DS-CDMA Systems CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 138 .7.4. 11. Sept.

Freq. Freq. Sept. Data B BPF BPF Despreader Data B Code B MS-B Code B BS Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Freq. 2003 ••• ••• 139 . Data A BPF BPF Despreader Data A Code A MS-A Code A Freq. Freq. Freq. Freq.DS-CDMA System Overview (Forward link) CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum. Freq. 11.

Freq. Freq.DS-CDMA System Overview (Reverse Link) CDMA is a multiple spread spectrum. Freq. 11. Freq. Data B BPF BPF Despreader Data B ••• BS Difference between each communication path is only the spreading code CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 ••• MS-B Code B Code B 140 . Freq. Sept. Freq. Data A BPF BPF Despreader Data A MS-A Code A Code A Freq. Freq.

11. Sept. 2003 141 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 142 . 11.

11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 143 .

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 144 . 11.

7.5. Sept. IS-95 CDMA SYSTEMS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 145 .

11. 2003 146 . Qualcomm Outline  Forward Link  Reverse Link  Special Features of IS-95 CDMA  Brief Comparison to other second-generation standards  Possible Improvements CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .IS-95 CDMA SYSTEMS  Interim Standard 95 – CDMA  Viterbi. Sept.

2003 147 .25Mbps Convolutional codes. Viterbi Decoding Downlink (Base station to mobile): – Walsh code 64-bit for channel separation – M-sequence 215 for cell separation • Uplink (Mobile to base station): – M-sequence 241 for channel and user separation CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.2G: IS-95A (1995) • • • • Known as CDMAOne Chip rate at 1. Sept.

2003 .2G: IS-95A (1995) Standard Multiple Access IS-95.4 kbps 600 mW 148 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.25 MHz BPSK/QPSK 64 1.25 Mbps (chip rate) 8~13 kbps Up to 14. ANSI J-STD-008 CDMA Uplink Frequency Downlink Frequency Channel Separation Modulation Scheme Number of Channel Channel Bit Rate Speech Rate Data Rate Maximum Tx Power 869-894 MHz 824-849 MHz 1. Sept.

Sept.2. 11. 2003 149 .5G: IS-95B (1998) • Increased data rate for internet applications – Up to 115 kbps (8 times that of 2G) • Support web browser format language – Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

MC-CDMA CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept. 2003 150 .

Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems Mobile Station (MS) -The Mobile Station (MS) is the subscriber‘s interface with the CDMA network. -Both hand-held MS units having a lowpower radio transmitter and vehiclemounted MS units are permitted. 11. 2003 151 . -ESN is a permanent and private identification code of the mobile terminal. -The manufacturer assignes a unique 32-bit Electronic Serial Number (ESN) to each MS.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . • In an area where the ranges of two cells overlap.Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems Base Station Subsystem (BSS) • Each Base Station has a unique pilot PN-offset. • It is possible for adjacent cells to use the same CDMA radio channel frequency (f 1). • Pilot PN-offset planning must be done in stead. 11. there is an increased interference. a delay applied to a random number sequence (PN Short Code) at the base station. • Pilot PN offsets ensure that the received signal from one cell does not correlate with the signal from a nearby cell. • This sequence is applied to forward direction transmissions that enables the terminals in a cell to decode the desired signal and reject the signals from other base stations. 2003 152 . • Reusing the same frequency in every cell eliminates the need for frequency planning in a CDMA system. but this only reduces the number of users that can share the radio channel. Sept.

11. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 153 .Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems Base Transceiver Station (BTS) • The BTS comprises several base radio transceivers. • Each transceiver consists of a transmitter and a receiver which has a duplicated front end to match up with the two receiving antennas used in the base antenna assembly.

• A single BSC can control several BTS radio equipment transmitters. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . data communication facilities and multiplexing and demultiplexing equipment. and also can autonomously control the mobile stations‘ radio transmitter power levels.Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems Base Station Controller (BSC) • The BSC comprises control logic. Sept. 11. 2003 154 . • The BSC can control the radio power levels of the various transceivers in the BTS.

• Therefore each base station contains a GPS receiver. 2003 155 . Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems GPS Receiver • CDMA ‗soft handover‘ (an MS establishes contact with a new base station before giving up its radio link to the original base station) requires base stations to operate in synchronism with one another.

Sept. 2003 156 . 11.Network Architecture of IS-95 CDMA Systems Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) • The MSC is a switching network that interconnects calls between Mobile Stations and between Mobile Stations and the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . • The MSC is also needed for ‗automatic roaming‘ capabilities.

2003 157 . Sept. 11.2G Network Architecture MS MSC BTS T-1 T-1 VLR HLR/AC EIR VLR MSC IWF BTS T-1 BSC T-1 BSC PSTN BTS Internet CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

2003 158 .3G Network Architecture MSC BTS T-1 IP T-1 IP New BSC Switch MS VLR HLR/AC EIR VLR MSC Switch New BTS T-1 IP T-1 IP PDSN IWF BSC Switch PSTN New Internet BTS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

7. Means for Signal Strength Comparison 2.1. Broadcasts future state of the long code register 3.5.Traffic Voice Data (includes power control sub channel) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Timing b. Forward Link 869 to 894 MHz (each channel is 1.Sync a.Paging a. 11.25 MHz wide) Subdivided into 4 sub channels 1. Call Control Information 4. Phase Reference for Coherent Demodulation c. 2003 159 .Pilot: a. Sept.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 160 . 11. Sept.

2003 161 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

Sept. 2003 162 . 11.Forward Link Radio Transmission • The forward link is by convention the transmission from Base Station to Mobile Station (MS). CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

• A convolutional code. 4800 bps. The signals are processed in frames of duration of 20 ms. Sept. 2400 bps and 1200 bps comming from a variable-bit-rate speech coder (QCELP = Qualcomm Code Excited Linear Prediction). 2003 163 .Forward Link Radio Transmission Traffic Channel • The traffic channel can accept data rates of 9600 bps. • Check digits and tail bits (convolutional encoder tail sequence to drive the convolutional encoder into a known state at the end of each frame) are included. 11. with constraint length K=9 and rate ½ protects each signal. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

Forward Link Radio Transmission • When the rate is less than 19200 bps. 2. typical for wireless communications. 11. 2003 164 . CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . This will spread the influence of burst errors. the transmitter repeats code bits (factor 1. 4 or 8) to bring the rate up to 19200 bps. corresponding to 384 bits in a frame of 20 ms. • The baseband sequence is scrambled by the PN sequence derived from a Long Code Generator (a PN sequence with length 242 – 1 at a rate of 1. • An interleaver permutes the code bits in each frame. Sept.2288 Mbps) and Long Code Mask (a time-offset determined by the ESN of the MS for traffic channels).

11. 2003 165 .Forward Link Radio Transmission •The Long Code period is : to match the rate of the Long Code sequence to the 19200 bps baseband rate. Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . a decimator extracts 1 bit out of 64 bits of the Long Code sequence.

11. Sept.IS-95 CDMA Logic Channels CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 166 .

11.IS 95 CDMA Logic channels CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 167 . Sept.

Forward Link Radio Transmission
• The baseband symbol stream is spread by multiplication with a Walsh sequence of length 64, thus creating a baseband chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps. • There are 64 orthogonal Walsh sequences of length 64, certain of which are assigned to different users of the channel. • All user‘s transmissions occur synchronously from the base station, so these transmissions are also synchronized at any individual subscriber‘s receiver (synchronous CDMA). • The use of a set of orthogonal sequences thus allows perfect rejection of other-user interference associated with any given transmission path within the cell.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

168

Forward Link Radio Transmission
• The same baseband sequence is duplicated on the I and Q channels of an IQ-modulator. Then they are spread with ‘different’ pilot sequences on the I and Q channels. • This pilot sequence or Short Code sequence has a length of 215 chips. A ‗PN-offset‘ in the pilot sequences is assigned to each base station and is synchronized to Universal Coordinated Time (UCT). • To demodulate a received signal, an MS synchronizes its receiver with the assigned base station and generates I-channel and Q-channel pilot sequences with the value of ‗PN-offset‘ assigned to the local base station.
CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

169

Forward Link Radio Transmission

• Signals received from other base stations, with different values of ‗PN-offset‘, appear as lowlevel noise in the receiver of the MS, due to the correlation properties of the sequences. • There are 512 possible ‗PN-offsets‘, with offset i corresponding to a time delay of 64i chips ( a delay of 64 chips @ 52 ms @ 15km). • Since the period of the sequence is 215 chips, there are 215 /26 = 29 = 512 possible offsets.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

170

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

171

2003 172 . Sept. 11.Forward Link Radio Transmission CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

• The bandwidth of an AMPS channel (using the same frequency band) is 30 kHz. • Therefore the bandwidth of a CDMA signal corresponds to an aggregate bandwidth of 41 AMPS channels. Sept.Forward Link Radio Transmission • The bandwidth of a CDMA signal is 1. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 173 .23 MHz. 11.

2003 174 . 11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

Sept. 11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 175 .

• It provides the MS with a beacon. • The I and Q channels of the traffic channels (containing the same information) can be despread independently to determine the amplitude of the channels. Sept.The pilot channel • The pilot channel uses WALSH 0. 11. • The pilot sequence can be employed for channels sounding purposes to determine the amplitudes and phases of various multipath components received at the MS (RAKE receiver). • The channel contains no information. timing and phase reference (for coherent detection). only the PN pilot sequence. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . a sequence of all 0s (or 1s). 2003 176 .

Sept. 11. 2003 177 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

followed by 32 1s. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . • It provides the MS with critical time synchronization data: system time (obtained from GPS).The sync channel • The sync channel uses WALSH 32.6 kbps). a sequence of 32 0s. 2003 178 .8 kbps or 9. Sept. 11. the PN-offset of the pilot sequence and the rate of the base station paging channels (4.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

179

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

180

The paging channel

• A CDMA signal carries up to 7 paging channels and using WALSH 2 to WALSH 7.
• The paging channels transmit information to terminals that do not have calls in progress.

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

181

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System , Sept. 11, 2003

182

Sept. 11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 183 .

11. 2003 184 . Sept.Traffic channel • Traffic channel on the forward direction has three components —user data —power control (puncturing convolutional code) —signaling message • Traffic channel on the reverse direction has two components —user data —signaling message CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 185 . 11.

Sept.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 186 .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 187 . Sept.

2288Mcps Decimator 19.2kbps L=6 (takes every 6th bit) Q-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 2^15-1 PN Generator Specifies Forward Channel Id (0-63) One of 64 possible Audio Compressor Output data Rate: 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps Power Control Bit Convolutional Encoder R=1/2 K=9 Block Interleaver. 11.2288 Mcbs L=64 (takes every 64th bit) Long Code Generator 2^14-1 Permutations (14 bit maximum length shift register) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 188 .2288Mbps 19.2kbps array = 384 bits Data Scrambling 1.2288Mcps Data to I channel of QPSK RF modulator 1. Sept.2kbps 19.IS-95 Forward Link PN Generator Walsh Code Generator I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 2^15-1 1. 24x16 19.2288Mcps MUX 4bits @ 800Hz = 3200bps Decimator 1.2kbps Data to Q channel of QPSK RF modulator 1.

while this is easy to implement at the transmitter.  Maintains an output data rate of 19. Sept.Convolutional Encoder and Repetition  Adds redundancy to data transmitionsfor error robustness. 2003 . Incoming Data From Audio Compressor Possible rates: 9600bps 4800bps 2400bps 1200bps 9 Element Shift Register D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 Note. r=1/2.  Rate. it is nontrivial to undue at the receiver 752 octal = 111101011 XOR XOR 561 octal = 101110001 G0 G1 189 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11.2kbps regardless of input rate. where r = input bits / output bits.

 Provides Time Diversity  2 pages. 11. one is being filled as one is emptied  Each page contains all the data for one 20ms frame 24x16 bits = 384 bits 19. 2003 190 . therefore adding to transmission robustness.Block Interleaver  Separates when consecutive data bits are sent. Sept.2kps * 20ms per frame = 384 bits!  Data is read in as rows and out as columns. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

11. 2003 191 . Sept.  42 bit maximum length shift register.2288Mcps  Takes a very long time to repeat.  Randomizes data. corresponds to 2^42-1 possible permutations  Contents of shift register are XOR’d with a public or a private key (depending on the stage of the call) to generate one output bit at a rate of 1. Make call more secure. Scrambler  Used for Data Encryption. Prevents the transition of a long series of 1’s or 0’s CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Long PN Sequence  This sequence will be used to scramble the data and to code when to send a power control bit.

11. Decentralized. Sept. (decimator #2 output = 4bits * 800Hz = 3.Power Control Bit  Dynamic.2kbps at the scrambler) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . closed-loop power control scheme  Control Scheme: BS decides what to do based on the measured Frame Error Rate FER < threshold  decrease mobile power by 1dB FER > threshold  increase mobile power by 1dB  One bit sent every 1.2kbps.25ms = 800Hz or 16 power control bits per frame. 2003 192 .  The power control bit is sent in one of 16 possible locations coded by the 4 bit output of the second decimator. This was reduced by a factor of 6 from the 19.

Orthogonal Covering Via Walsh Codes  64 Orthogonal Channels for all users. assuming negligible multi-path delays  Provides some spreading  64 X 64 Walsh Matrix.2288Mbps (the output of the Walsh generator)  Channel 0 is assigned to the pilot and is given more power then the rest of the channels  Channel 32 is assigned to synchronization. 11. 2003 193 .2kHz per row = 1. 1 Row = 1 Walsh Code  Each row of the matrix is exported at 19.2kHz (one row for each bit that is sent from the scrambler)  64 bits per row * 19.  Mobile Paging Channels are usually on the lower Walsh ID’s CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

as not all Walsh codes have sufficient spreading.  The output I and Q channels are converted to analog and are modulated by an RF carrier -> QPSK CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .Quadrature Modulation (Short Code)  Provides more spreading.2288Mbps.  Based on a 15 bits maximum length shift register (2^15-1 possible permutations) -This is the pilot sequence if it’s modulated by Walsh code 0.  PN generator outputs data at 1. 11.  The PN sequence for the I channel is based on a different polynomial then the Q channel and they therefore evolve differently. (The same rate as the Walsh code generator)  Different cells use different time offsets of the short code as to identify themselves so that Walsh codes can be reused. Sept. 2003 194 .

2. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Reverse Link • 824 to 849 MHz (each channel is 45 MHz away from the forward counterpart) • Access channel – 4800 bps – Initiate communication – Respond to paging channel message • Reverse voice traffic channel – 9600.5. Sept. 11. but there are important differences. 2003 195 . 1200 bps • Very similar to forward link. 4800.7. 2400.

2003 196 . Sept. 11.CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

e.While not orthogonal. Ck > ≈ 1. ―psuedorandom noise‖ (PN) codes . if i = k . 11.g. they have low cross-correlation.Instead of Walsh Codes.+1} . 2003 197 .These codes have good properties even when not synchronized . Ck > = J. Sept. <Ci.PN codes are deterministic Bernoulli sequences of {1. unless i = k <Ci.Very strong error correcting codes make up the difference CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .The IS-95 Reverse Link • The reverse link is quite different .

11. Sept. 2003 198 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 199 . Sept.

11. Sept. 2003 200 .CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

2288Mbps Audio Compressor Output data Rate: 9600 bps 4800 bps 2400 bps 1200 bps Convolutional Encoder R=1/ 3 K=9 Block Interleaver.2288Mcps 1.6ns 1.8kbps = 576 bits Data to I channel of OQPSK RF modulator 1.2288Mbps ½ PN chip = 409.2kbps Data Burst Randomizer 32 x 18 28. 2003 201 .2288Mcps 1.IS-95 Reverse Link PN Generator I-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 2^15-1 1. 11. Sept.2288Mcp s Q-Channel Pilot PN Sequence 2^15-1 Total spreading gain J = 128 PN Generator CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .2288Mbps Data to Q channel of OQPSK RF modulator D Long Code PN Generator 1. Walsh Code Generator 64-ary Orthogonal Modulator Codes 6 bits 307.

2 kcps – Increase interference tolerance (refer to ECE459) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 202 . used for orthogonal data modulation – One Walsh function is transmitted for six coded bits – Modulated symbol rate • 28. 11. Sept.Orthogonal Modulation – 64-ary orthogonal modulation using the same Walsh function in the forward link – Contrary to the forward link.8 kbps*64 chips /6 coded bits = 307.

25ms slots which are selected as a function of the long PN code CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 203 .6kbps so that each redundant bit is sent only once.Data burst randomizer – Turns off the Transmitter when the data rate falls below 9. – Used to reduce interference to other users – Each 20ms frame is divided into 16 1. 11. Sept.

2003 204 . better coverage PSTN MSC BS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . reduced power.Notations of Cellular Systems • Cellular network – A radio network made up of many cells each with a fixed base station to serve a number of mobile stations – Advantages: increased capacity. 11. Sept.

collecting billing information CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. 2003 205 . Sept. convergent with Internet • MSC – Mobile switching center – Manage communication between mobile phones and PSTN – Functions: deliver calls to subscribers. connecting calls to mobile subscribers or PSTN.• PSTN – Public switched telephone network – Almost entirely digital now. arranging handovers from BS to BS and from MSC to other MSCs.

2003 206 . such as cell phone CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . twoway radios in a fixed location – Handling traffic between MS and MSC – Many BSs connected to one central MSC • MS: mobile station – All user equipment and software needed for wireless networks.• BS: base station – Low-power. 11. multi-channel. Sept.

11. 2003 207 .• Channel types in cellular system – Control channel: transmit control information about a call • Usually has only a few for each cell site – Forward channel: used for transmission from BS to MS – Reverse channel: used for transmission from MS to BS – Paging channel: used to broadcast brief message over entire service area • Usually one channel for the entire network CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept.

fewer CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 208 . 11. multiple – Control channel: low rate.• Main channels in a cell – Four channel types • • • • FVC: forward voice channel FCC: forward control channel RVC: reverse voice channel RCC: reverse control channel – Voice channel: high rate.

2003 209 ..• Special working mode – Handoff: transfer a call or data session from one channel to another. or from one MSC to another. CDMA system CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . e.g. e. • Handover: the process of transferring a call • Hard handover: the process needs to drop the call for a short time. 11. Sept.g.. no need to drop the call when adding new BS. or from one BS to another. GSM handover • Soft handover: MS simultaneously use multiple BS.

national roaming.– Roaming: • Extend connectivity service to locations other than home location • Regional roaming. 2003 210 . Sept. 11. international roaming CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

RCC MS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 211 . 11.Cell System Operation Procedure • Turn on – Scan FCC for best base station – Register into network 1. FCC PSTN MSC Relay Ack BS 2.

2003 212 . Sept.10: Voice 9 3 4 7 8 MS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .9.• MS receiving calls from PSTN PSTN 1 (MIN) 10 MSC 3: FCC (page) 2 5 6 4: ACK 5: relay ACK 6: Verify channel BS 7: FCC (channel info) 8. 11.

• MS initializing calls (to PSTN. Relay 3. or to another MS) PSTN MSC 1. 11. FCC (assign channel) 5. Verify (channel) 4. RCC: req. voice 3 2 MS 4 5 1 BS 5 4 MS CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . (MIN) 2. Sept. 2003 213 .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Soft handoffs Contributing to the achievement of the diversity and reduce the chance of loss of link midway through the conversation. Achieving higher bandwidth efficiency (interference limited) and simplifying the system planning. Sept.7. Achieving flexibility due to the bandwidth on demand. 11. 2003 214 . Special Features of IS-95 CDMA System Bandwidth Recycling Enhancing the system capacity due to the increase of reuse efficiency. Power Control Reducing the interference and increasing the talk time of mobile station by using the efficient power control scheme.5.3.

Variable Rate Vocoder Offering high speed coding and reducing background noise and system interference based on the detection of the voice activity. 11. path diversity (rake receiver) and time diversity (block interleaver). spatial diversity (multiple antennas). Coding Technique Enhancing the privacy and security. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 215 . all of which reduce the interference and improve speech quality.Special Features of IS-95 CDMA System Diversity Taking advantage of multiple levels of diversity: frequency diversity (spreading). Sept.

4. A Comparison between IS-95 and other 2nd Generation Cellular Phone Systems IS-54/136 GSM TDMA/FDMA Hard Handoff IS-95 CDMA Soft Handoff Open-loop and Slow Power Close-loop and Faster Power Control Control Fixed Rate Vocoder Variable Rate Vocoder CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept. 2003 216 .7.5.

25MHz. 11. Possible Improvements on IS-95 Increasing the channel bandwidth beyond 1. Using MANET technology. Sept. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 217 . Adaptive filtering.5. Directional antennas on mobile stations.7.5. Better power control algorithms.

2003 218 .2G: IS-95A (1995) • • • • Known as CDMAOne Chip rate at 1. 11. Viterbi Decoding Downlink (Base station to mobile): – Walsh code 64-bit for channel separation – M-sequence 215 for cell separation • Uplink (Mobile to base station): – M-sequence 241 for channel and user separation CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .25Mbps Convolutional codes. Sept.

2003 .2G: IS-95A (1995) Standard Multiple Access IS-95. Sept. 11. ANSI J-STD-008 CDMA Uplink Frequency Downlink Frequency Channel Separation Modulation Scheme Number of Channel Channel Bit Rate Speech Rate Data Rate Maximum Tx Power 869-894 MHz 824-849 MHz 1.25 MHz BPSK/QPSK 64 1.4 kbps 600 mW 219 CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .25 Mbps (chip rate) 8~13 kbps Up to 14.

11.5G: IS-95B (1998) • Increased data rate for internet applications – Up to 115 kbps (8 times that of 2G) • Support web browser format language – Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .2. 2003 220 . Sept.

MC-CDMA CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . Sept. 2003 221 . 11.

Sept. 11. 2003 222 .Conclusions • CDMA can increase the capacity of mobile system • Goals of next generation cellular – Further increase data rate – Reduce interference among users • Future research: – Search for good non-binary sequences • Ideal 2-level autocorrelation • Low cross correlations CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System .

CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 2003 223 . Conclusion • CDMA is based on the spread spectrum technique which has been used at military field.6. Sept. • CDMA cellular system is deemed superior to the FDMA and TDMA cellular systems for the time being. • Therefore. 11. CDMA technique becomes more important in radio communication systems.7.

2003 224 .Conclusions • CDMA can increase the capacity of mobile system • Goals of next generation cellular – Further increase data rate – Reduce interference among users • Future research: – Search for good non-binary sequences • Ideal 2-level autocorrelation • Low cross correlations CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 11. Sept.

R. “IS-95 North American strandard-a CDMA based digital cellular system”. Cheng and C.Motorola. Raveendran and J. 1995. V. Ling. A. 3. Glisic and P. 9. Y.V. IEEE. Viterbi. IEEE. Rappaport. “Wireless communications principles&practice”. Lin and J.A. Prasad. CDMA Technologies for Cellular Phone System . 1999. 11.T. 6. “An overvies of CDMA evolution toward Wideband CDMA”. “Performance characteristics of the IS-95 standard for CDMA spread spectrum mobile communication systems”. 1996 2. Prentice Hall.R.C. 1997. 1995. International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design. IS-136 and IS-95”. Paul and K. IEEE Website. Inc. 7. 4. 8. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 5. 1996. Sept. “Using transformation to reduce power consumption of IS-95 CDMA receiver”. “CDMA principles of spread spectrum communication”. S. IEEE. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Doherty. Leppanen.C. Shieh. J.S. Tsui. 1998. G. S. 2003 225 . “Code division multiple access communications”. “An objective comprison of second generation cellular systems GSM. 1997. F. “CDMA Technology & Benefits: An introduction to the benefits of CDMA for wireless technology”. Shah.R.Reference: 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful