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A group of finite tasks to be performed and duties to be fulfilled in order to achieve an end result.
Charting the Organization
A chart that shows the organizationwide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom. A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.
is a conscious effort to organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve a certain objective.
is a conscious effort to re-organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to satisfy both technological and human considerations simultaneously.
APPROACHES TO JOB REDESIGN
Job-based approaches Person-based approaches Team-based approaches
Specialisation Standardisation Operations and production management (process identification, scheduling, etc)
Techniques Job elements Time and motion studies Flow charts and Process charts
Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation
Techniques Job Characteristics Model
Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
Enlargement = same-level activities Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition Job Rotation = moving from one job to another
Add new tasks Include work done before the job Increase feedback on performance Eliminate dissatisfying tasks from job
Rearrange existing tasks in the job
Add new responsibility Include work done after the job Increase closure of tasks
THE JOB AND ITS TASKS
Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Job Feedback Critical Psych States Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of work results Individual Differences
Personal & Work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism & turnover
Skill Variety Task Identity The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. The extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. The impact the job has on other people. The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling. The amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed.
Task Significance Autonomy Feedback
Sociotechnical enrichment Quality systems/circles
Techniques Multi-skilling Job families Self-managing work teams
Types of Teams
SpecialPurpose Team Quality Circle Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality. Small group of employees who monitor productivity and quality and suggest solutions to problems. Grouping of workers who produce components or entire products. A team composed of individuals assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished. A team composed of a core of members, resource experts who join the team as appropriate, and part-time/temporary members as needed
Production Cells Self-directed Work Team Shamrock Team
work week Flexible working hours
Flexitour Gliding time Flexiplace Flexyears
Sharing Part-time Work
Job Analysis – What is it and how is it used?
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Check the site http://www.job-analysis.net/G000.htm to find some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.
and behaviors Machines, tools, equipment and work aids Performance standards Job context Human requirements
The Output of Job Analysis
Job description A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities Job specifications A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on.
Uses of Job Analysis Information
and Selection Compensation Performance Management Training Discovering Unassigned Duties
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
Interview Questionnaire Observation Participant
diary/logs Other sources of information
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview
Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job Quick, direct way to find overlooked information. Distorted information
Structured (Checklist) Unstructured
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires
Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities.
Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire
Structured checklists Opened-ended questions
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation
Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.
Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs
Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.
Produces a more complete picture of the job Employee participation Distortion of information Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities
Writing Job Descriptions
A job description
A written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standards of performance Working conditions
Sections of a typical job description
The Job Description
Job title: name of job Grade: where it fits in the hierarchy Preparation date: when the description was written Prepared by: who wrote the description Describes the general nature of the job Lists the major functions or activities
The Job Description (cont’d)
(chain of command)
Reports to: employee’s immediate supervisor Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly supervises Works with: others with whom the job holder will be expected to work and come into contact with internally. Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.
E.g. of Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director
V ic e P r e s id e n t E m p lo y e e R e la tio n s
Works with all department managers and top management Works with employment agencies, recruiters, union reps, govt. agencies, vendors
H u m a n R e s o u rc e D ir e c to r D e p a rtm e n t S e c r e ta r y Test A d m in is tr a to r H u m a n R e s o u rc e C le r k L a b o r R e la tio n s M anager
The Job Description (cont’d)
A listing of the job’s major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Defines limits of jobholder’s decisionmaking authority, direct supervision, and budgetary limitations.
The Job Description (cont’d)
of performance and working conditions
Lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.
human traits and experience are required to do the job well?
Qualifications Prior experience Special training Personality factors Physical characteristics Other attributes/qualities
Steps in Job Analysis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Clarify why you are collecting the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker / supervisor / mgmt. Develop a job description and job specification
The Job Analysis System
SOURCES OF DATA JOB DATA METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA JOB SPECIFICATION JOB DESCRIPTION HR FUNCTIONS
Considerations Employees have about being involved in Job Analysis –
of trust of consequences Possible changes to job duties Changes to pay The same job title may have different responsibilities and pay rates in different departments
Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World
specialized to enlarged jobs Managers are “dejobbing” their companies
De-jobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions - is a result of the changes taking place in business today. http://www.indiainfoline.com/bisc/mdihr06.html
Trends leading to De-Jobbing
Rapid product and technological changes
Need for De-Jobbing
This has increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and generally more competitive. In turn, the methods managers use to accomplish this have helped weaken the meaning of job as a well-defined and clearly delineated set of responsibilities.
structures Boundaryless organization Re-engineering “Broadbanding” jobs Competency-based job descriptions Skills matrices
How Organizations are Responding
Flat and Boundaryless Organizations
WAL MART I K E A Procter & Gamble General Electric
Competency-Based Job Analysis
Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.
Why Use Competency Analysis?
Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic. Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.
a strategic focus
Skills Matrix for One Job
Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.
HRP, JD & JA Model
HR Planning Job Design Job Analysis
Other HRM Activities
(Recruitment, Selection, Performance appraisal, Training, Compensation)
Productivity, QWL, Legal Compliance