Lecture Six-job Analysis | Systems Psychology | Employment

JOB DESIGN & REDESIGN

PGP 2005-07

JOB ?
A group of finite tasks to be performed and duties to be fulfilled in order to achieve an end result.

PGP 2005-07

Charting the Organization
 Organization

A chart that shows the organizationwide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates to whom. A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job.

chart

 Process

chart

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JOB DESIGN
is a conscious effort to organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve a certain objective.

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JOB REDESIGN
is a conscious effort to re-organise tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to satisfy both technological and human considerations simultaneously.

PGP 2005-07

APPROACHES TO JOB REDESIGN
  

Job-based approaches Person-based approaches Team-based approaches

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Job-Based Approaches
  

Specialisation Standardisation Operations and production management (process identification, scheduling, etc)

Techniques  Job elements  Time and motion studies  Flow charts and Process charts

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Person-Based Approaches
  

Job enlargement Job enrichment Job rotation

Techniques  Job Characteristics Model

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Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
 Job

Enlargement = same-level activities  Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition  Job Rotation = moving from one job to another

PGP 2005-07

JOB REDESIGN
Add new tasks Include work done before the job Increase feedback on performance Eliminate dissatisfying tasks from job
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Rearrange existing tasks in the job

Add new responsibility Include work done after the job Increase closure of tasks

THE JOB AND ITS TASKS

Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Job Feedback Critical Psych States Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Knowledge of work results Individual Differences
PGP 2005-07

Personal & Work Outcomes High internal work motivation High quality work performance High satisfaction with work Low absenteeism & turnover

Job Characteristics
Skill Variety Task Identity The extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. The extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. The impact the job has on other people. The extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling. The amount of information received about how well or how poorly one has performed.

Task Significance Autonomy Feedback

PGP 2005-07

Team-Based Approaches
 

Sociotechnical enrichment Quality systems/circles

Techniques  Multi-skilling  Job families  Self-managing work teams

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Types of Teams
SpecialPurpose Team Quality Circle Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance product and service quality. Small group of employees who monitor productivity and quality and suggest solutions to problems. Grouping of workers who produce components or entire products. A team composed of individuals assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished. A team composed of a core of members, resource experts who join the team as appropriate, and part-time/temporary members as needed

Production Cells Self-directed Work Team Shamrock Team
PGP 2005-07

WORK SCHEDULING
 Compressed
   

work week  Flexible working hours
Flexitour Gliding time Flexiplace Flexyears

 Job

Sharing  Part-time Work
PGP 2005-07

PGP 2005-07

JOB ANALYSIS

PGP 2005-07

Job Analysis – What is it and how is it used?
The procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.
Check the site http://www.job-analysis.net/G000.htm to find some of the purposes for which job analysis is used.
PGP 2005-07

Information Collected
 Activities

and behaviors  Machines, tools, equipment and work aids  Performance standards  Job context  Human requirements

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The Output of Job Analysis

Job description  A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities Job specifications  A list of a job’s “human requirements,” that is, the requisite education, skills, personality, and so on.

PGP 2005-07

Uses of Job Analysis Information
 Recruitment

and Selection  Compensation  Performance Management  Training  Discovering Unassigned Duties

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information
 Interview  Questionnaire  Observation  Participant

diary/logs  Other sources of information

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Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview

Information sources
  

Individual employees Groups of employees Supervisors with knowledge of the job Quick, direct way to find overlooked information. Distorted information

Interview formats

Structured (Checklist) Unstructured

Advantages

Disadvantages

PGP 2005-07

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires

Information source

Have employees fill out questionnaires to describe their jobrelated duties and responsibilities.

Advantages

Questionnaire formats

Quick and efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employees Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire

Disadvantages

Structured checklists Opened-ended questions

PGP 2005-07

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation

Information source

Advantages

Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they go about their jobs.

Provides first-hand information Reduces distortion of information Time consuming Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity.

Disadvantages
 

PGP 2005-07

Information source

Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logs
Workers keep a chronological diary/ log of what they do and the time spent in each activity.

Advantages

Produces a more complete picture of the job Employee participation Distortion of information Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities

Disadvantages
 

PGP 2005-07

Writing Job Descriptions

A job description

A written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. Job identification Job summary Responsibilities and duties Authority of incumbent Standards of performance Working conditions

Sections of a typical job description
     

PGP 2005-07

The Job Description
 Job
  

Job title: name of job Grade: where it fits in the hierarchy Preparation date: when the description was written Prepared by: who wrote the description Describes the general nature of the job Lists the major functions or activities

identification

 Job
 

summary

PGP 2005-07

The Job Description (cont’d)
 Relationships

(chain of command)

Reports to: employee’s immediate supervisor Supervises: employees that the job incumbent directly supervises Works with: others with whom the job holder will be expected to work and come into contact with internally. Outside the company: others with whom the job holder is expected to work and come into contact with externally.

PGP 2005-07

E.g. of Relationships Statement for Human Resource Director
V ic e P r e s id e n t E m p lo y e e R e la tio n s
Works with all department managers and top management Works with employment agencies, recruiters, union reps, govt. agencies, vendors

H u m a n R e s o u rc e D ir e c to r D e p a rtm e n t S e c r e ta r y Test A d m in is tr a to r H u m a n R e s o u rc e C le r k L a b o r R e la tio n s M anager

PGP 2005-07

The Job Description (cont’d)
 Responsibilities

and duties

A listing of the job’s major responsibilities and duties (essential functions) Defines limits of jobholder’s decisionmaking authority, direct supervision, and budgetary limitations.

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The Job Description (cont’d)
 Standards

of performance and working conditions

Lists the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.

PGP 2005-07

Job Specifications
 What
     

human traits and experience are required to do the job well?
Qualifications Prior experience Special training Personality factors Physical characteristics Other attributes/qualities

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Steps in Job Analysis
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Clarify why you are collecting the information Review relevant background information Select representative positions Conduct the analysis Verify with the worker / supervisor / mgmt. Develop a job description and job specification

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The Job Analysis System
SOURCES OF DATA JOB DATA METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA JOB SPECIFICATION JOB DESCRIPTION HR FUNCTIONS

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Considerations Employees have about being involved in Job Analysis –
 Lack

of trust of consequences  Possible changes to job duties  Changes to pay  The same job title may have different responsibilities and pay rates in different departments

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Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World
 From

specialized to enlarged jobs  Managers are “dejobbing” their companies

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De

ni fi

on ti

De-Jobbing

De-jobbing is broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions - is a result of the changes taking place in business today. http://www.indiainfoline.com/bisc/mdihr06.html

PGP 2005-07

Trends leading to De-Jobbing
Rapid product and technological changes

Competition

Global Changes

Demographics

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Need for De-Jobbing
This has increased the need for firms to be responsive, flexible, and generally more competitive. In turn, the methods managers use to accomplish this have helped weaken the meaning of job as a well-defined and clearly delineated set of responsibilities.

PGP 2005-07

 Flatter

structures  Boundaryless organization  Re-engineering  “Broadbanding” jobs  Competency-based job descriptions  Skills matrices

How Organizations are Responding

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Flat and Boundaryless Organizations
WAL MART I K E A Procter & Gamble General Electric

PGP 2005-07

Competency-Based Job Analysis
 Competencies

Demonstrable characteristics of a person that enable performance of a job. Describing a job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) an employee must exhibit to do a job well.

 Competency-based

job analysis

PGP 2005-07

Why Use Competency Analysis?
 Maintain

Describing the job in terms of the skills, knowledge, and competencies the worker needs is more strategic. Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.

a strategic focus

 Measuring

performance

PGP 2005-07

Skills Matrix for One Job

PGP 2005-07

Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.

HRP, JD & JA Model
Job Description

HR Planning Job Design Job Analysis

Macro Micro

Job Specification

Other HRM Activities
(Recruitment, Selection, Performance appraisal, Training, Compensation)

Productivity, QWL, Legal Compliance
PGP 2005-07

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