TRANSFORMLRS TRANSFORMLRS
Devlce tbat transters electrlcal energy trom one clrcult to
anotber tbrougb lnouctlvely coupleo electrlcal by cbanglng
magnetlc tlelo, ln turn, tbls magnetlc tlelo lnouces a cbanglng
voltage ln tbe secono clrcult (tbe 80.43/,7
Tbe seconoary lnouceo voltage '
$
, ot an loeal transtormer, ls
scaleo trom tbe prlmary '
!
by a tactor equal to tbe ratlo ot tbe
number ot turns ot wlre ln tbelr respectlve wlnolngs:
8y approprlate selectlon ot tbe numbers ot turns, a transtormer
tbus allows an alternatlng voltage to be steppeo up by maklng
$
more tban
!
or steppeo oown, by maklng lt less.
Transforner universaI EMF Transforner universaI EMF
equation equation
O t tbe tlu ln tbe core ls slnusoloal, tbe
relatlonsblp tor eltber wlnolng between lts rms
voltage ot tbe wlnolng , ano tbe supply
trequency 1, number ot turns , core cross
sectlonal area , ano peak magnetlc tlu oenslty
ls glven by tbe unlversal LMF equatlon:
1he Lransformer ls based on Lwo prlnclples flrsLly LhaL an elecLrlc currenL can
produce a magneLlc fleld (elecLromagneLlsm) and secondly LhaL a changlng
magneLlc fleld wlLhln a coll of wlre lnduces a volLage across Lhe ends of Lhe coll
(elecLromagneLlc lnducLlon) 8y changlng Lhe currenL ln Lhe prlmary coll lL changes
Lhe sLrengLh of lLs magneLlc fleld slnce Lhe changlng magneLlc fleld exLends lnLo Lhe
secondary coll a volLage ls lnduced across Lhe secondary
The voltage induced across
the secondary coil may be
calculated from Faraday's
law of induction, which
states that:
I
ls Lhe lnsLanLaneous volLage

ls Lhe number of Lurns ln Lhe
secondary coll
equals Lhe magneLlc flux Lhrough
one Lurn of Lhe coll
I
9
ls Lhe lnsLanLaneous volLage

9
ls Lhe number of Lurns ln Lhe
secondary coll
equals Lhe magneLlc flux Lhrough
one Lurn of Lhe coll
$ OPERTON OF
TRN$FORMER
n its most basic form a
transformer consists of:
primary coil or winding.
secondary coil or winding.
core that supports the coils
or windings.
deal Transformer Equation.
f the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is
transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. deally, the transformer is
perfectly efficient; all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the
magnetic field and into the secondary circuit. f this condition is met, the incoming electric
power must equal the outgoing power.
!
incoming
=
!
'
!
= !
outgoing
=
$
'
$
n this condition we can see that the ideal transformer equation
where Vs = Voltage at secondary
Vp = Voltage at Primary
Ns = No of turns at secondary
Np = No of turns at primary
p = urrent at primary
s = urrent at secondary
oeal transtormer clrcult oeal transtormer clrcult
Slmulatlon on Slmulatlon on emt emt ourlng ourlng
transtormer transtormer
. Fundamentals . Fundamentals
. Function in power system . Function in power system
Transfering energy
and/or
hanging (transforming) value of an electric quantity
Types Types
 Unit transformer
 $ubstation transformer
 Distribution transformer
Power Transformers
 DD converter
 $witching Mode Power $upply
 Uninterruptible Power $upply
High Frequency Transformers
 Potential Transformer
 urrent Transformer
$ensing (nstrument) Transformers
. Fundamentals . Fundamentals
. Major components and . Major components and
construction construction
ore type construction
Primary
Winding
$econdary
Winding
Laminated $heet
ore
$hell type construction
lassltlcatlon lassltlcatlon
O lassltlcatlon
a) 8y power level (From Watt to Megawatt)
b) 8y Appllcatlon (power supply, lmpeoance matcblng, clrcult
lsolatlon)
c) 8y trequency range
o) 8y voltage class
e) 8y coollng type
t) 8y purpose
g) 8y ratlo ot number ot turns ln tbe coll
a) Step Up (Seconoary more tban prlmary)
b) Step Down (Seconoary tewer tban prlmary)
c) solatlng (lntenoeo to lsolateo voltage)
o) varlable (Prlmary ano seconoary bave aojustable number ot turn)
Transtormer Transtormer   Losses Losses
Energy Iosses
An loeal transtormer woulo bave no energy losses, ano woulo tberetore be
100 ettlclent. n practlcal transtormers energy ls olsslpateo ln tbe wlnolngs,
core, ano surrounolng structures. Larger transtormers are generally more
ettlclent, ano tbose rateo tor electrlclty olstrlbutlon usually pertorm better
tban 98.
Tbe losses vary wltb loao current, ano may be epresseo as "noloao" or "tull
loao" loss. Wlnolng reslstance oomlnates loao losses, wbereas bysteresls ano
eooy current losses contrlbute to over 99 ot tbe noloao loss. Tbe noloao
loss can be slgnltlcant, meanlng tbat even an lole transtormer constltutes a
oraln on an electrlcal supply, wblcb encourages oevelopment ot lowloss
transtormers (also see energy ettlclent transtormer)
Transtormers are among tbe most ettlclent ot macblnes, but all eblblt losses
Transtormer losses are olvloeo lnto losses ln tbe wlnolngs, termeo copper loss
ano tbose ln tbe magnetlc clrcult, sometlmes termeo lron loss. Losses ln tbe
transtormer arlse trom:
Transtormer Transtormer   Losses Losses
O inding resistance  urrent tlowlng tbrougb tbe wlnolngs
causes reslstlve beatlng ot tbe conouctors. At blgber trequencles,
skln ettect ano prolmlty ettect create aooltlonal wlnolng reslstance
ano losses.
O ysteresis Iosses  Lacb tlme tbe magnetlc tlelo ls reverseo, a
small amount ot energy ls lost oue to bysteresls wltbln tbe core.
For a glven core materlal, tbe loss ls proportlonal to tbe trequency,
ano ls a tunctlon ot tbe peak tlu oenslty to wblcb lt ls subjecteo.
[17]
O Eddy currents  Ferromagnetlc materlals are also gooo
conouctors, ano a sollo core maoe trom sucb a materlal also
constltutes a slngle sbortclrculteo turn tbrougbout lts entlre
lengtb. Looy currents tberetore clrculate wltbln tbe core ln a plane
normal to tbe tlu, ano are responslble tor reslstlve beatlng ot tbe
core materlal. Tbe eooy current loss ls a comple tunctlon ot tbe
square ot supply trequency ano lnverse square ot tbe materlal
tblckness.
Transtormer Transtormer   Losses Losses
O Magnetostriction  Magnetlc tlu ln a terromagnetlc materlal,
sucb as tbe core, causes lt to pbyslcally epano ano contract sllgbtly
wltb eacb cycle ot tbe magnetlc tlelo, an ettect known as
magnetostrlctlon. Tbls proouces tbe buzzlng souno commonly
assoclateo wltb transtormers, ano ln turn causes losses oue to
trlctlonal beatlng ln susceptlble cores.
O MechanicaI Iosses  n aooltlon to magnetostrlctlon, tbe
alternatlng magnetlc tlelo causes tluctuatlng electromagnetlc torces
between tbe prlmary ano seconoary wlnolngs. Tbese lnclte
vlbratlons wltbln nearby metalwork, aoolng to tbe buzzlng nolse,
ano consumlng a small amount ot power.
O $tray Iosses  Leakage lnouctance ls by ltselt lossless, slnce energy
supplleo to lts magnetlc tlelos ls returneo to tbe supply wltb tbe
net baltcycle. However, any leakage tlu tbat lntercepts nearby
conouctlve materlals sucb as tbe transtormer's support structure
wlll glve rlse to eooy currents ano be converteo to beat.
Lqulvalent clrcult Lqulvalent clrcult
The physical limitations of the practical transformer may be brought
together as an equivalent circuit model (shown below) built around an
ideal lossless transformer
Power loss in the windings is currentdependent and is easily
represented as inseries resistances R
!
and R
$
Lqulvalent lrcult Lqulvalent lrcult
Flux leakage results in a fraction of the applied voltage dropped without
contributing to the mutual coupling, and thus can be modeled as self
inductances X
!
and X
$
in series with the perfectlycoupled region.
With a sinusoidal supply, the core flux lags the induced EMF by 90 and
this effect can be modeled as a magnetising reactance X
M
in parallel with
the core loss component. R
C
and X
M
are sometimes together termed the
magnetising branch of the model.
ron losses are caused mostly by hysteresis and eddy current effects in
the core, and tend to be proportional to the square of the core flux for
operation at a given frequency.$ince the core flux is proportional to the
applied voltage, the iron loss can be represented by a resistance R
C
in
parallel with the ideal transformer
Transter to prlmary Transter to prlmary
n order to define the equivalent circuit the circuit can be transferred to
primary winding or to the secondary winding
Fig 1. Equivalent ircuit refer to primary
Transter to Seconoary Transter to Seconoary
Fig 2. Equivalent ircuit refer to secondary
Transtormer Transtormer
Determlnatlon Ot Transtormer Parameters
The equivalent circuit parameters of a transformer can be determined by
performing two test : The open circuit test and the short circuit test.
The equivalent circuit parameters of a transformer can be determined by
performing two test : The open circuit test and the short circuit test.
Open lrcult Test Open lrcult Test
s the name implies , one of the winding of the is left open while the other
is exited by applying the rated voltage.
n injected voltage area a voltmeter, an ammeter and a wattmeter are
connected to measure V, and core loss.
lthough does not matter which site of the transformer is excited, it is
safer to conduct the test on the low voltage site.
From this test we can determine the core loss and no load current of the
transformer.
Open lrcult test at Prlmary Open lrcult test at Prlmary
Open clrcult test at Seconoary Open clrcult test at Seconoary
Open clrcult test Open clrcult test
oc
I
oc
J
oc
Z
oc
Cos
oc
Z
c
R
7
c
R
oc
J
core
P
oc
I
oc
J
oc
P
oc
Cos
c
7
oc
I
oc
J
oc
P
Cos
oc
c
7
oc
Sin
oc
Z
m
X
7
Sbort lrcult test Sbort lrcult test
This test is designed to determine the winding resistance and the leakage
reactance.
The short circuit is conducted by placing a short circuit across one winding
and exciting the from an alternatingvoltage source .
The voltage is applied is carefully adjusted so that each winding carries
rated current.
$ince the applied voltage is a small fraction of rated voltage , both of the
core loss and magnetizing current are so small that they an be neglected.
Sbort lrcult test at prlmary Sbort lrcult test at prlmary
Sbort lrcult test at seconoary Sbort lrcult test at seconoary
Sbort lrcult Test Sbort lrcult Test
sc
I
sc
J
eq
Z
sc
I
sc
J
sc
P
sc
Cos
c
7
sc
I
sc
J
sc
P
Cos
sc
c
7
sc
Cos
eq
Z
eq
R 7 c
sc
Sin
eq
Z
eq
X 7 c
Lample 1 Lample 1
O T=48kvA, 4800/240v
O OST voc=240v,oc=2A,Poc=120W
O ST vsc=150v, sc=10A,Psc=600W