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WHAT IS POVERTY ?

Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food, clothing and shelter. However, poverty is more, much more than just not having enough money. The world bank describes poverty as: Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time.

TWO WAYS OF POVERTY


RELATIVE POVERTY ABSOLUTE POVERTY

Under Relative poverty the

economic conditions of different regions or countries is compared. The capita income and the national income are the two indicators of relative poverty. According to the UNO those countries are treated poor whose per capita income is less than US $725 per annum.

Absolute poverty refers to the

measure of poverty , keeping in view the per capita intake of calories and minimum level of consumption . Per capita income : National income Population

MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY
EXPENDIURE METHOD INCOME METHOD

Under this the minimum food

This method is used by the

requirements for survival is estimated. The food value is converted into calories. The caloric value of food is then converted into the money value i.e. in rupees. The total equivalent amount is considered as the poverty line.

government while distributing food through PDS at the local level. Under this a poverty line is fixed by the government. All the families whose total income is less than the poverty line fixed by the government are considered as BPL.

WHAT IS POVERTY LINE?


Poverty line is the line which indicates the level of purchasing

power required to satisfy the minimum needs of a person. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. The line divides the people into 2 groups : 1. Above poverty line 2.Below poverty line

VULNERABLE GROUP
Poverty and occupation both are co-related. Most of the poor people include agricultural and casual laborers, the SCs , STs and the physically challenged.
60 50

Poverty in India 2000 : Most vulnerable 51 50 47 Group 43


26

40
30 20 10 0 Sheduled Tribes Urban Rural Casual Agricultural Labourers Labourers Sheduled Castes Average Indian Poverty Ratio

CAUSES OF POVERTY
BRITISH RULE

RURAL ECONOMY
HEAVY PRESSURE OF POPULATION CHRONIC UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT

LACK OF PROPER INDUSTRIALISATION


SOCIAL FACTORS INDIAS ECONOMIC POLICY

NEO-LIBERAL POLICIES AND THEIR EFFECTS

POVERTY IN INDIAN STATES


STATES BIHAR MADHYA PRADESH MAHARASHTRA ORISSA TAMIL NADU UTTAR PRADESH WEST BENGAL GOA GUJARAT HARYANA HIMACHAL PRADESH JAMMU & KASHMIR KERALA PUNJAB No. Of People BPL 425.64 298.54 227.99 169.09 130.48 529.89 213.49 0.70 67.89 17.34 5.12 3.46 41.04 14.49 % of People BPL 42.60 37.43 25.03 47.15 21.12 31.15 27.02 4.40 14.07 8.74 7.63 3.48 12.72 6.16

POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES


Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana

(SGSY) Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana (PMRY) Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SSRY) Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)

POVERTY IN THE WORLD

In 1997 the richest fifth of the worlds

population had 74 times the income of the poorest fifth. The top three billionaires have assets greater than the combined GNP of all least developed countries and their 600 million people.

Everyone has the right to have a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of him/(her)self and his/(her)family, including food,clothing,housing and medical care and necessary social services. Everyone has the right to education.

Poverty has certainly declined in India.

But despite the progress, poverty reduction remains Indias most compelling challenge. Wide disparities in poverty are visible between rural and urban areas and among different states. Certain social and economic groups are more vulnerable to poverty.

Poverty reduction is expected to make better progress

in the next ten to fifteen years. This would be possible mainly due to higher economic growth, increasing stress on universal free elementary education, declining population growth, increasing empowerment of the women and the economically weaker sections of society. Eradication of poverty is always a moving target. Hopefully we will be able to provide the minimum necessary in terms of only income to all people by the end of the next decade.

But the target will move on for many of the bigger

challenges that still remain: providing health care, education and job security for all, and achieving gender equality and dignity for the poor. These will be even bigger tasks.