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Module 1: Allocating IP Addressing by Using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Overview
Multimedia: The Role of DHCP in the Network Infrastructure Adding and Authorizing the DHCP Server Service Configuring a DHCP Scope Configuring DHCP Reservations and Options Configuring a DHCP Relay Agent

Multimedia: The Role of DHCP in the Network Infrastructure
The objective of this presentation is to provide a high-level overview of DHCP in the network infrastructure At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:  Explain what DHCP is  Describe how DHCP works  Explain how routers can forward DHCP broadcast packets  Describe how a DHCP relay

Lesson: Adding and Authorizing the DHCP Server Service
Why Use DHCP? What Is Automatic Private IP Addressing? How DHCP Allocates IP Addresses How the DHCP Lease Generation Process Works How the DHCP Lease Renewal Process Works How a DHCP Server Service Is Authorized Practice: Adding and Authorizing a DHCP Server Service

Why Use DHCP?
DHCP reduces the complexity and amount of administrative work by using automatic TCP/IP configuration Manual TCP/IP IP addresses are Configuration Automatic TCP/IP Configuration • IP addresses are
• • •

entered manually IP address could be entered incorrectly Communication and network issues can result Frequent computer moves increase administrative effort

supplied automatically Correct configuration information is ensured Client configuration is updated automatically A common source of network problems is eliminated

What Is Automatic Private IP Addressing?
APIPA automatically self-configures addresses when there is no DHCP server available Advantages
Serves as a DHCP server failover mechanism for small networks Automatically assigns an IP address in a specific range

Disadvantages
Forces assignment of addresses typically not used Conceals possible connectivity problems Does not work outside 169.254.x.x subnet Is not routable

How DHCP Allocates IP Addresses

Non-DHCP Client: Static IP configuration

DHCP Client2: IP configuration from DHCP server Lease Renewal

Lease Generation DHCP Server DHCP Client1: IP configuration from DHCP server
DHCP Database

IP Address1: Leased to DHCP Client1 IP Address2: Leased to DHCP Client2 IP Address3: Available to be leased

How the DHCP Lease Generation Process Works
DHCP Server2

DHCP Server1

DHCP Client

1 2 3 4

DHCP client broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER packet DHCP servers broadcast a DHCPOFFER packet DHCP client broadcasts a DHCPREQUEST packet DHCP Server1 broadcasts a DHCPACK packet

How the DHCP Lease Renewal Process Works
DHCP Server2

DHCP Server1

DHCP Client 100%of 50% of 87.5%of 50% of lease lease duration duration has expired expired

If the client fails sends a DHCPREQUEST it’s lease, after Client to renew its lease, after DHCP client sends a DHCPREQUEST 1 of the 87.5% of the lease has expired, then the 50%packet lease duration has expired, then DHCP lease generation process starts over the DHCP lease renewal process will begin DHCP Server1 sends a DHCPACK again after a DHCPof the lease durationahas with 2 packet 87.5% client broadcasting DHCPDISCOVER expired

How a DHCP Server Service Is Authorized
Domai n Contro ller Active Direct ory

If DHCP Server1 finds DHCP Server1 checks itswith the domain IP address on the list, the service starts controller to obtain a and authorized DHCP list of supports DHCP clients servers

DHCP Server1 Authoriz ed Services DHCP requests DHCP Server2 Unauthorized

DHCP Client

DHCP Server2 checks with If DHCP Server2 does not Does not DHCP client receives the IP the find its IP address on service DHCP domain controller to list, the address does not service from and supportDHCP authorized DHCP requests startobtain a list of Server1 authorized DHCP DHCP authorization isclients servers registering the the process of

DHCP Server service in the Active Directory domain to support DHCP clients

Practice: Adding and Authorizing a DHCP Server Service
In this practice, you will: Add a DHCP server Authorize the DHCP Server service

Lesson: Configuring a DHCP Scope
What Are DHCP Scopes? Demonstration: Configuring a DHCP Scope What Are Superscopes and Multicast Scopes? What Is Network Monitor? Practice: Configuring a DHCP Scope

What Are DHCP Scopes?
A scope is a range of IP addresses that are available to be leased
DHCP Server

LAN A

Scope A

Scope B

LAN B

Scope Properties
Network ID Subnet mask Lease duration Network IP address range Scope name Exclusion range

Demonstration: Configuring a DHCP Scope
Your instructor will demonstrate how to:
Configure a DHCP scope Activate a DHCP scope

What Are Superscopes and Multicast Scopes?
DHCP Server

LAN A

Scope A and Scope B

LAN A

DHCP Server

LAN A

Scope A

Scope B

LAN B

What Is Network Monitor?

Network Monitor: 2 3 Captures a sample of network traffic Uses filters to select specific packets 4 Decodes the packets Compiles network statistics

1

Practice: Configuring a DHCP Scope
In this practice, you will: Configure two DHCP scopes Configure a DHCP superscope Verify IP address allocation by using Network Monitor

Lesson: Configuring DHCP Reservations and Options
What Is a DHCP Reservation? What Are DHCP Options? Demonstration: Configuring DHCP Reservations and Options How DHCP-Server, Scope, and Reserved-Client Options Are Applied How DHCP Class-Level Options Are Applied Practice: Configuring DHCP Reservations Options

What Is a DHCP Reservation?
A reservation is a specific IP address, within a scope, that is permanently reserved for lease to a specific DHCP client
Workstat ion 1 Subnet A DHCP Server File and Print Server Subnet B

IP Address1: Leased to Workstation 1 IP Address2: Leased to Workstation 2 IP Address3: Reserved for File and Print Server

Workstat ion 2

What Are DHCP Options?
DHCP options are configuration parameters that a DHCP server assigns to clients
DHCP Client

DHCP Client IP Configuration Data

Client’s IP address Client’s subnet mask DHCP options

DHCP Server

Demonstration: Configuring DHCP Reservations and Options
Your instructor will demonstrate how to:
Configure a DHCP reservation Configure a DHCP server option Configure a DHCP scope option

How DHCP-Server, Scope, and Reserved-Client Options Are Applied
DHCP Server File and Print Server

Window s 98

Scope A Rout er Windows XP

Scope B

Windows XP

DHCP option DHCP option applied at the applied at the reserved-client server level scope level level

How DHCP Class-Level Options Are Applied
File and Print Server Rout er

DHCP Server

Window s 98 Rout er

Scope A

Scope B

Windows XP

Windows XP

DHCP option applied at the class level

Practice: Configuring DHCP Options
In this practice, you will: Configure and test a DHCP reservation Configure DHCP server and scope options Configure and test a new DHCP user class

Lesson: Configuring a DHCP Relay Agent
What Is a DHCP Relay Agent? How a DHCP Relay Agent Works How a DHCP Relay Agent Uses Hop Count How a DHCP Relay Agent Uses Boot Threshold Practice: Configuring a DHCP Relay Agent

What Is a DHCP Relay Agent?
A DHCP relay agent is a computer or router that listens for DHCP/BOOTP broadcasts from DHCP clients and then relays those messages
DHCP Relay Agent DHCP Server

Unicast Broadcast Subnet A
Routers (Non–RFC 1542 Compliant) Clie nt Clie nt

Broadcast Subnet B

Clie nt

Clie nt

How a DHCP Relay Agent Works
DHCP Relay Agent DHCP Server

Clien t1

Clien t2

Non-RFC (Non–RFC 1542 Compliant Compliant)

Router

Clien t3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Client1 broadcasts a DHCPDISCOVER packet Relay agent forwards the DHCPDISCOVER message to the DHCP server Server sends a DHCPOFFER message to the DHCP relay agent Relay agent broadcasts the DHCPOFFER packet Client1 broadcasts a DHCPREQUEST packet Relay agent forwards the DHCPREQUEST message to the DHCP server Server sends a DHCPACK message to the DHCP relay agent Relay agent broadcasts the DHCPACK packet

How a DHCP Relay Agent Uses Hop Count
The hop count threshold is the number of routers through which the packet can be transmitted before it is discarded
DHCP Relay Agent 2

Hop Count = 2 DHCP Relay Agent 1

DHCP Server

How a DHCP Relay Agent Uses Boot Threshold
The boot threshold is the time the DHCP relay agent will wait for a DHCP server response before forwarding the request
Boot Threshold = 10 DHCP Relay Agent seconds DHCP Server 2

Local DHCP Server

DHCP Server 3

Practice: Configuring a DHCP Relay Agent
In this practice, you will: Install and configure LAN routing Configure a DHCP relay agent

Lab: Allocating IP Addressing by Using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
In this lab, you will identify and resolve common problems in allocating IP addressing by using DHCP