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Mobile Networking Technology

The benefit of Mobile IP

“Mobile IP provides an IP node the ability to retain the same IP address and maintain uninterrupted network and application connectivity while traveling across networks ”

Which Applications

The objective
Maintaining continuous IP connectivity while crossing network boundaries, e.g. subnets or between networks
Gateway A 171.68.0.0 Host B

Internet
Mobile Router 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

Gateway C 140.31.0.0

Mobile Router 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

The Possibilities
Many Networks Roaming

Internet

Mobile Routers

IETF Proposed Standard

Approved by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) in June 1996; published proposed standard in Nov. 1996 Mobile IP is an IETF proposed standard solution for mobility at Layer 3 IP
RFC2002/3220 - Mobile IP  RFC2003 and RFC2004 - Tunnel encapsulation  RFC2005 - Mobile IP applicability  RFC2006 - Mobile IP MIB

Associated RFCs
RFC1701 GRE – Generic Routing Encapsulation  RFC3024 - Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP

The Problem with Mobility
Where is 171.68.69.0??? “Connect to
171.68.69.24” Host B

?

Gateway A 171.68.0.0

Internet

Mobile Router 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

Gateway C 140.31.0.0

Mobile Router 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

X
SEND

• Gateway A replies to Host B with an ICMP unreachable • Gateway C blocks router from joining network • Routing Protocol rejects duplicate network advertisements

Mobile IP Solution
Mobility Binding Table: MR CoA 171.68.69.0 140.31.2.1

Host B

Internet
Home Agent Mobile Router 171.68.60.1 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

Foreign Agent COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile Router 171.68.69.0 171.68.70.0

• Mobile Router sends Registration Request [RRQ] to Home Agent (HA) • Home Agent forwards packets to Mobile Router via Care of Address [CoA]

Mobile IP

Operator Benefits • All applications work without modifications (unlike application/transport layer mobility) • Operator can control handover policies • Access link independent (unlike link layer mobility) “IETF Standard RFC 3344!”

Solution in a Nutshell

A mobile node has a “home address” for the end-to-end communications, but also uses a temporary “care-of address” on access networks for routing purpose. A home agent maintains a mobility binding of home address and care-of address.

Mobile IP Network Elements
Mobile Node (MN): Mobile IP enabled clients identified by home address or NAI (notebooks, cell phones, PDAs) updates CoA via registrations Home Agent (HA): Mobile IP enabled gateway acts as location database for MNs Foreign Agent (FA): Mobile IP enabled gateway [Optional] off-loads CPU processing of encapsulation/decapsulation, enforces local network administration policy, allows for billing of MNs, conserves IP address space, reduce access link usage

Mobile IP Key Concepts

How does the Mobile Node find out where it is?  Mobility Agent Advertisements—facilitates discovery of Mobility Agents (MN may solicits on demand) How does the Mobile Node inform the Home Agent of its current location?  Via Registration—updates mobility binding after successful authentication using security association between MN and HA How does the Mobile Node receive packets from the Home Agent?  Tunneling—Home agent adds IP header to direct packets to CoA, where decapsulation occurs

Mobile IP Activities Example
Mobility Binding Table: MN CoA 171.68.69.24 140.31.2.1

Home Agent 171.68.69.1 Host A 171.68.69.24

Host B

Internet

Foreign Agent 140.31.2.1 Host A 171.68.69.24

 

MN learns about FA and registers CoA HA maintains MN location database and tunnels traffic to FA

Mobile IP Terminology
CN HA
       

Internet

FA MR

Mobile Router (MR) Home Agent (HA) Foreign Agent (FA) [1 Hop Away from MR] Care of Address (CoA) [Tunnel Endpoint] Correspondent Node (CN) Security Association (SA) [SPI/Key] ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) [Advertisement] Registration Request (RRQ)

Step 1: Agent Discovery
Dest Addr MR Addr Src Addr FA Intfc Addr
Edited slide from original by Lawrence Searcy, Cisco Systems

Advertisement Includes COA

FA

HA

MR 1.1.1.7

Src Addr MR addr

Dest Addr 224.0.0.2

MR 1.1.1.7

Solicitation

MR sends out advertisement request (Solicitation) to “all router” multicast address 224.0.0.2 FA responds with unicast advertisement to MR

Response includes Care-of Address

Options in FA advertisements
  

R

Registration required. Registration with this foreign agent (or another foreign agent on this link) is required even when using a co-located care-of address. Busy. The foreign agent will not accept registrations from additional mobile nodes. Home agent. This agent offers service as a home agent on the link on which this Agent Advertisement message is sent. Foreign agent. This agent offers service as a foreign agent on the link on which this Agent Advertisement message is sent. Minimal encapsulation. This agent implements receiving tunneled datagrams that use minimal encapsulation [34]. GRE encapsulation. This agent implements receiving tunneled datagrams that use GRE encapsulation [16]. Sent as zero; ignored on reception. SHOULD NOT be allocated for any other uses. Foreign agent supports reverse tunneling [27].

 

B H

  

  

F

 

M G r T

 

 

Step 2: Registration Request
FA HA

1.1.1.7

MR

Src Addr MR Addr Src Port random

Dest Addr FA Intfc Addr Dest Port 434

Src Addr FA Intfc Addr Src Port 434

Dest Addr HA Addr Dest Port 434

1.1.1.7

RRQ Includes COA from FA

RRQ Includes COA

MR retrieves CoA from Advertisement and sends in RRQ FA checks requested services and either rejects and replies or forwards the RRQ to HA

Options in RRQ
  

S

Simultaneous bindings. If the 'S' bit is set, the mobile node is requesting that the home agent retain its prior mobility bindings, as described in Section 3.6.1.2. B Broadcast datagrams. If the 'B' bit is set, the mobile node requests that the home agent tunnel to it any broadcast datagrams that it receives on the home network, as described in Section 4.3. Decapsulation by mobile node. If the 'D' bit is set, the mobile node will itself decapsulate datagrams which are sent to the care-of address. That is, the mobile node is using a co-located care-of address. Minimal encapsulation. If the 'M' bit is set, the mobile node requests that its home agent use minimal encapsulation [34] for datagrams tunneled to the mobile node. GRE encapsulation. If the 'G' bit is set, the mobile node requests that its home agent use GRE encapsulation [16] for datagrams tunneled to the mobile node. Sent as zero; ignored on reception. SHOULD NOT be allocated for any other uses. Reverse Tunneling requested; see [27].

   

   

D

   

M

  

G

 

r T

Step 2: RRQ Reply
Dest Addr MR Addr Dest Port Orig Port Src Addr FA Intfc Addr Src Port 434 Dest Addr FA Dest Port 434 Src Addr HA Intfc Addr Src Port 434

RRP Reply

RRP Reply

FA

HA

MR
1.1.1.7

1.1.1.7

Foreign Agent FA sees MR is authenticated Forwards RRP to MR Brings up tunnel
   

• • •

Home Agent HA authenticates MR Sends RRP Proxy ARPs for MR Brings up tunnel and adds host route

MR States
MR has five states that it can be in:  Unknown – MR has not heard any agent advertisements and does not know where to send registration requests (RRQs)  Isolated – MR has heard an agent advertisement  Pending – MR has sent an RRQ and is waiting for a registration reply (RRP) from HA  Registered – MR has been accepted and received the RRP from HA, which has set up a binding table entry, tunnels, and routes for the MR  Home—MR is on its home network

Step 3: Routing
Home Agent Foreign Agent Mobile Router Correspondent Host

• Traffic is sent as usual to the home subnet • The home agent intercepts the traffic while the Mobile Router is registered as away • Traffic is tunneled to the CoA of the MR and forwarded to MR • Traffic from the Mobile Networks can go directly to the correspondent host = “Triangle Routing”

Mobile Network Routing – Packet Flow
Mobile Networks
Node on MR

Mobile Router

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Networks appear to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Edited slide from original by Lawrence Searcy, Cisco Systems

Mobile Network Routing – Packet Flow
Mobile Networks
Node on MR

Mobile Router

HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Mobile Network Routing – Packet Flow
Mobile Networks
Nodes on MR
HA-MR Tunnel

Mobile Router

FA WAN HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Mobile Network Routing – Packet Flow
Mobile Networks
Node on MR

HA-MR Tunnel

Mobile Router

FA WAN HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Mobile Network Routing – Return Packet Flow
Mobile Networks

Node on MR

HA-MR Tunnel

Mobile Router

FA WAN HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Tunneling

HA double encapsulates the packets, creating two tunnels:
HA to FA HA to MR

 

FA strips outer header and forwards to MR MR strips inner header and forwards to node on mobile network

Outer Header HA FA 100.100.100.1 30.30.30.1

Inner Header HA MR 100.100.100.1 65.1.1.1

Original Packet <src> <dest> Data

Tunneling cont.

  

HA dynamically creates tunnel(s) as MRs and Mobile Hosts register Tunnels are handled as interfaces HA Routing Table shows Tunnels as interfaces So “Tunneling” involves
ENCAPSULATION INTERFACES IN ROUTING TABLE

HA State – Routing Table
Home_Agent_#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 110.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 10 subnets, 2 masks M 110.10.11.0/24 is directly connected, Mobile0 M 110.10.11.237/32 [3/1] via 10.10.10.97, 00:57:28, Tunnel2 M 110.10.11.245/32 [3/1] via 10.10.10.129, 03:01:54, Tunnel0 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 14 subnets, 3 masks C 10.10.10.32/27 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 C 10.10.10.76/30 is directly connected, Loopback0 O IA 10.10.10.96/27 [110/11] via 10.10.10.36, 00:57:35, FastEthernet0/0 M 10.10.11.112/28 [3/1] via 110.10.11.237, 03:55:57, Tunnel1 O IA 10.10.10.128/27 [110/2] via 10.10.10.74, 00:57:35, FastEthernet0/1 M 10.10.11.144/28 [3/1] via 110.10.11.245, 03:55:57, Tunnel5

MR Routing
Once MR is registered, routing is disabled on the MR’s roaming interfaces.  When MR is home, routing is resumed on the interfaces (bindings and tunnels are no longer needed).

Mobile Router Timers

Agent Solicitation-By default it is off, but if configured, keeps track of when to send next solicitation Agent Advertisement-Based on IRDP lifetime. As advertisements are received, timer is restarted. When timer expires, agent removed from agent table. Registration-Keeps track of when to send registrations before the registration lifetime expires. MR re-registers until a reply is received. Registration lifetime-Based on granted lifetime. As replies are received, timer is restarted. When timer expires, there is no more registration. Hold down-By default it is off, but if configured, MR waits for timer to expire before using an agent heard on that interface.

Mobile IP Features

Mobile Router Features
Co-located Care-of Address Reverse tunneling Preferred interfaces Hold down timer Agent solicitation

Mobile Router Features
MR redundancy MR Asymmetric Links MR Dynamic Networks Identification mismatch adjustment Sequence number detection

Co-located Care-of Address Support
  

Care-of Address resides on Mobile Router itself

MR

HA

Rather than on the Foreign Agent

Does away with the need for Foreign Agents Two IP-in-IP tunnels are created: HA-Co-located address, HA-MR
HA-Co-located address tunnel is only used for routing Tunnel “Interfaces” added in Routing table

Co-located Care-of Address cont.
MR HA

Static Co-located Care-of Address support uses the address statically configured on the roaming interface as care-of address

Used for fixed-IP address connections
e.g.

Cellular Data Modem

Static Co-located Care-of Address

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Mobile Access Router—Module 2 -38

Co-located Care-of Address cont.
MR HA

CCoA can be Static or Dynamic Dynamic Co-located Care-of Address support uses DHCP or IPCP to obtain a care-of address for the roaming interface

Reverse Tunneling

Normally, routers route packets by looking at the destination address only. A security measure against attacks (such as spoofing), ingress filtering on a router checks the source and destination addresses on a packet to make sure that they are topologically correct. This poses a problem for Mobile IP because the source address of a packet from a mobile node does not belong to the network from which it emanated.

Mobile Network Routing – Packet Flow
Mobile Network

Node on MR
HA-MR Tunnel

Mobile Router

FA WAN HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Reverse Tunneling
 

Reverse tunneling satisfies ingress filtering Packets from the mobile network are sent back to the HA through the tunnel HA de-capsulates the packets and forwards them to their destination through normal routing Thus, the received packets’ path is topologically correct

Mobile Network Routing – Reverse Tunneling
Mobile Network Roaming Interface HA-MR Tunnel

Node on MR Mobile Router

FA WAN HA-FA Tunnel

Foreign Agent
Internet

Mobile Network appears to be here

Home Agent

Correspondent Node

Edited slide from original by Lawrence Searcy, Cisco Systems

 

By default, the Mobile Router sends data out the active interface with the highest bandwidth. If the bandwidth on multiple interfaces is equal, then the interface with the higher IP address is preferred. Priority can be configured on mobile router interfaces (default 100). MR prefers to register with higher priority interface. Uses – least-cost routing, preferential routing

Preferred Interfaces

Asymmetric Links

Mobile Router can route traffic unidirectionally over half-duplex links

Especially for a satellite environment

MR configured to send traffic to a downlink router even though it hears advertisements on another interface FA configured to advertise foreign-agent service out only one interface, the uplink interface connected to MR

Asymmetric Links
FA advertises service on its uplink to MR’s downlink MR sends RRQ to HA via FA using its uplink

Downlink

Uplink

Downlink

Uplink

ADVT RRP Home Agent Foreign Agent

RRQ MR Then tunnels are set up between HA-FA, HA-MR’s downlink interface

RRP is sent to FA, which forwards it to MR on its uplink.

Dynamic Mobile Networks
•Mobile Networks can register with Home Agent dynamically (as opposed to static network configuration on HA) •Critical Vendor/Organization Specific Extension (CVSE) is appended to the RRQ by MR, which contains the mobile network information •Re-registrations do not append CVSE

Dynamic Mobile Networks cont.

•When mobile network is added/deleted, MR immediately sends another reregistration with CVSE •HA processes RRQ with CVSE by adding/deleting mobile network(s) and creating/deleting routes to the mobile network via MR •If mobile network already exists HA ignores the request

Dynamic Mobile Networks cont. 2
•FA needs to be able to process RRQs with CVSE in order to forward them on to HA. •Dynamic and Static Networks can be configured at the same time for an MR. NOTE: CVSE is being replaced by AVSE (standards-based) in near future

Mobile IP in real deployments

Mobile IP and GPRS Similarities
GGSN
IP Network

SGSN GTP MT HA
IP Network

FA IPinIP/GRE/UDP MN

Mobile IP and GPRS Integration
BSC BTS AP

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) GPRS Backbone Network (IP-Based) GTP

RADIUS Server

WLAN Hotspot

Internet
Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

Home Agent

Foreign Agent function can be added to GGSN and WLAN Access Router, though Mobile IP works without FA as well.

3GPP WLAN Interworking Scenarios

1.

6 Scenarios identified which corresponds to incremental steps in terms of services and operational features
Common billing and Customer care
 no impact on 3GPP specs as such; access to Open internet
•  4.  6.  • •

3GPP system based access control and charging with access to  UMTS/GSM authentication (based on EAP-SIM/AKA methods) Access to 3GPP system PS based services (e.g. IMS, Streaming, MMS, etc.)  bearer path to the home domain (current GPRS model) Service Continuity  L3 Mobility introduction (e.g. Mobile IP technology) Seamless service provision Access to 3GPP CS Services (no use case so far)

 

UMTS R6 includes scenario 2 & 3 UMTS R7 will consider scenario 4 (mobility)

WLAN/GPRS Seamless Mobility Scenario 4 (Tentative)
Applications PDG (FA) Dual-mode handsets with L3 Mobility support WLAN 802.11 Access Network

IP Core

Mobility (HA) CMX GPRS/UMTS GGSN(FA)

Content

SGSN
RNC

RAN

Reiterate Benefit

Mobile IP operates at network layer, independent of link layer access technologies, allowing migration and coexistence of various access networks while providing seamless mobility transparently to the user Proven mobility across satellite, WLAN, GPRS, CDMA2000 1xRTT, Flash OFDM, iDEN, CDPD, etc.

Differences between Mobile IPv4 and Mobile IPv6
  

  

Mobile IPv6 leverages enormous IPv6 address space Mobile IPv6 is integrated into base IPv6 protocol MNv6 automatically obtain CoA after Router Advertisement received No Foreign Agent in Mobile IPv6 Registrations are protected by IPSec in Mobile IPv6 Built in route optimization between MNv6 and CNv6

Security implications of Mobile IP

Access authentication independent of Mobile IP
 

PPP CHAP for dial up 802.1x for WLAN Mobile IP security association for registrations

Service authorization

QOS Implications of Mobile IP
 

DSCP copy to tunnel header Per MN session policing

Mobile IP Scalability and Flexibility
 

Demonstrated deployment of millions of MNs Mobile IP used for macro-mobility and micromobility

References

Books

MOBILE IP The Internet Unplugged, ISBN 0-13856246-6 James D. Solomon http://www.cisco.com/go/mobile_ip http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/mobileip-charter.html

Cisco Mobile IP Web Page

IETF Mobile IP Working Group

Cisco Mobile IP Software Development

Mobile IP Portfolio

Product portfolio consists of:
 

Innovations Standards compliance

IOS Features
Features Releases Home Agent and Foreign Agent (RFC 2002, RFC 2003) Home Agent and Foreign Agent MIBs (RFC 2006) Home Agent Redundancy Cisco Enterprise Mobile IP MIBs Home Agent Redundancy with SA Synchronization Resynchronize SA HA and FA Set/Trap MIBs Mobile Router Redundancy Mobile Node MIBs (RFC 2006) IPinIP Tunnel CEF Switching Cisco Mobile Networks Dynamic Network Cisco Mobile Networks Asymmetric Link Mobile IP Generic Network Access Identfier (NAI) Support and Home Address Allocation (RFC 2794) Mobile IP Support for Foreign Agent Reverse Tunneling (RFC 2344, RFC 3024) Mobile IP RFC 3220 and RFC 3344 Compliance HMAC-MD5 Authentication Vendor Specific Extensions (RFC 3025, RFC 3115) Mobile IP Challenge/Response Extensions (RFC 3012) Mobile IP - NAT Detect 12.2(13)T 12.0(1)T 12.0(1)T 12.0(2)T 12.2(2)T 12.1(7.1) 12.2(0.11)T 12.1(5.6) 12.2(0.11)T 12.2(2)T

IOS Features
Features Releases
12.2(13)T 12.2(13)T 12.2(15)T 12.2(15)T 12.2(15)T 12.2(15)T 12.3(4)T 12.3(4)T 12.3(4)T 12.3(4)T 12.3(4)T 12.3(5.2) 12.3(5.5)T 12.3(5.9) 12.3(5.9)T 12.3(8)T Mobile IP Home Agent Policy Routing Cisco Enterprise Mobile IP MIBs (NAI and HA Redundancy) Mobile IP - Home Agent Accounting Cisco Mobile Networks - Static Collocated Care-of Address Cisco Mobile Networks - Priority HA Assignment Cisco Mobile Networks - Tunnel Templates for Multicast Mobile IP Dynamic Security Association and Key Distribution Mobile Networks Deployment MIB Mobile Networks Dynamic Collocated Care-of Address Mobile Networks Home Agent Redundancy For Dynamic Networks MIBs for Reverse Tunnel, FA Challenge, and VSE NAT Detect for FA COA IGMP Query Trigger Mobile IP NAT Traversal (RFC 3519)

Cisco’s IP Mobility Role in Standards

Standards Priority

Focus on pragmatic existing deployment issues

Address real world problems in Mobile IPv4 WG

Focus on features needed to facilitate Mobile IPv6 deployments

Evaluate GAPs, CDMA2000 requirements

Cisco IETF drafts
Cisco Authored Drafts WG MIP4 WG item The Definitions of Managed Objects for IP Mobility Support using SMIv2, revised Dynamic HA Assignment Framework draft-ietf-mobileip-rfc2006bis-01.txt WG item alpesh, kleung naveenpk, kleung TITLE DRAFT AUTHORS STATUS

draft-ietf-mip4-dynamic-assignment-00.txt mkulkarn, alpesh, kleung

Experimental Message, Extension and Error Codes for Mobile IPv4 WG item kleung MIP6 The Mobile IPv6 MIB draft-ietf-mipv6-mib-01.txt sgundave Mobile IPv4 NAI-based Home Address Assignment

draft-ietf-mip4-experimental-messages-00.txt

draft-paulkandasamy-mobileip-nai-based-home-address-00.txt

WG item alpesh, kleung alpesh, kleung alpesh

Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPv6

draft-patel-mipv6-auth-protocol-00.txt

Network Access Identifier Option for Mobile IPv6 Experimental Mobility Options for MiPv6 Mobile IPv6 Bootstrap NEMO Base NEMO draft-ietf-nemo-base.txt pthubert WG item NEMO MIB OSPF-MANET WG item draft-ietf-nemo-mib.00.txt sgundave TBD

draft-patel-mipv6-nai-option-00.txt alpesh

Vendor/Organization Specific Mobility Options for MIPv6 draft-patel-vendor-options-00.txt draft-patel-experimental-options-00.txt alpesh

WG item draft-baker-manet-ospf-problem-statement-00.txt draft-mchandra-ospf-manet-ext-00.txt mchandra mchandra WG item

Problem Statement for OSPF Extensions for Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Extensions to OSPF to Support Mobile Ad Hoc Networking

Mobile IP is also about the clients

Handover enhancements, why Mobile IP is as good a other mobility schemes Make before break
Clients are always connected to at least one radio network such as 2.5 or 3G, those are the underlying building blocks of IP Mobility Clients can measure radio network characteristics, especially of those other/extra radio available ( WIFI / WIMAX / … )  They can always perform a new Registration Request on a new access link before having lost the previous link  Home Agent and Client establish new association  All routing changes updated before losing previous association  There is no packet loss in handover process

Mobile IP Clients
Notebook/PDA Support Birdstep Technology Birdstep Intelligent Mobile IP Client Cisco & Toshiba Partnership Cisco Mobile IP Client Intel Intelligent Roaming Lifix Systems ipUnplugged Ecutel Greenpacket Cellphone Support Motorola iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network)
Motorola iDEN handsets Nextel is the Service Provider

Continuous Roaming Mobile IP Client Lifix Go! Mobile Client ipUnplugged Roaming Client Viatores Client SONmobile

Mobile IPv4 Clients PC/Workstation
IP 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Operating Systems Cisco IOS FreeBSD 2.2.2 FreeBSD 2.2.8, 4.6, 4.8, 4.9, 5.2 HP-UX 11.11 Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux kernel 2.2.16 NetBSD 1.1 Solaris Userland, (platform independent) Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows Windows client Windows/Linux embedded systems embedded, OS independent Name Monarch HP Dynamics License BSD style commercial GPLv2 Comments commercial 1998 - Rice University BSD style 2003 - Portland State University, actively updated
Mobile IPv4 HA/CN, Reverse Tunneling, Route Optimization and AAA support

Cisco Mobile IP Secure Mobile Net

2001 - Helsinki University of Technology, not updated commercial BSD style 2003 - Portland State University, actively updated 2003 - based on NOMADv4 2000 Stanford University 1998 - Rice University commercial 1997

Secgo Mobile IP Secure Mobile Net UoB-NOMAD SPL MosquitoNet GPL? Monarch BSD style Sun Mobile IP HP Mobile IP restricted Birdstep EcuTel Roamin commercial commercial proprietary

2000 - binary dist. for non-commercial use only commercial 2001 - Helsinki University of Technology, not updated

Secgo Mobile IP ipUnplugged commercial Dynamics Birdstep Treck Inc. GPLv2 commercial commercial

Netseal MPN commercial High availability HA(Linux), MN(Windows)

IP 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

Mobile IPv6 Clients PC/Workstation
Operating Systems BSD? Cisco IOS FreeBSD FreeBSD 3.4 FreeBSD 4.9 HP-UX 11.11, 11.23 Linux Linux Linux 2.4 Linux 2.4.0 NetBSD 1.6.1 Tru64 UNIX 5.1B Windows embedded, OS independent Name NEC MIPv6? Cisco Mobile IP SFC-MIP INRIA HMIPv6 KAME HP HMIPv6 TKN HMIPv6 MIPL KAME HP Microsoft Research Treck Inc. FreeBSD 2.2.2 with INRIA's IPv6 Monarch

License 2001? - NEC commercial

Comments 2003? - technology preview

BSD-style?2002? - SFC of WIDE BSD style 1997 - Rice University, (draft -03) BSD-style 2000 BSD-style 2004 - Stable, MIP code experimental, actively updated commercial GPL or BSD-style ? Mobile IPv6 HA/CN, draft-24
2003 - Monash University, based on MIPL

Lancaster MIPv6 Pkg ?

1998 - Lancaster University 2002 - Technical University of Berlin

GPL 2003 - draft -24 BSD-style 2004 - Stable, MIP code experimental, actively updated commercial ? commercial 2003 - draft -24 2000 - partial MIP v6 support

Concrete applications in Mobile SP

Mobile IP key deployment points
Home Agent is the anchor point for MNs Bandwidth overhead and FA relationship Authentication process  It is a second authentication, for mobility service  There is still a initial link layer authentication Preferred interfaces  Make before break and minimal / no IP interruption  interfacing layer 2 signal strengths

Cisco Wireless Convergence
1 Access
Access Networks Venue Owners

2 Control
Network Manager Agg. Auth./ Access Control Service / Content Billing
Billing Authent. Cisco Mobile Exchange

3 Services
Off Net Services

GPRS

Content Provider

Corporate Intranet

3G

GGSN 802.11 WiMAX VPN

L2TP GRE IPSec MPLS IPV4 IPV6

Internet

Wireless ASP

WLAN

Other

Streaming

Localization

WiMAX

On Net Services Mobile Internet Edge

Next-Generation IP Infrastructure
All-IP Multimedia Mobile Network
CCM
Corp AAA Home AAA Visited AAA

Hosted Applications

Presence

Handsets with VoIP & dual-mode support & Mobility support

Session control (SIP)

(FA) Mobility (HA) CMX

WLAN 802.11 Access Network
Visited AAA

IP Core

GPRS/UMTS/ GGSN(FA)/ CDMA PDSN

SGSN
RNC

RAN

V

Enterprises

PSTN Gateway MSC/VLR

PLMN

MSC/VLR

Unified IP-based infrastructure allows for uniform delivery of services across consumer, enterprise and carrier domain

Cisco & Mobile IP

Market Leaders  Early Field Trial since 1997, General Availability January 1999  Home Agent Redundancy  Largest mobile implementation of MoIP worldwide - Nextel Mobile IPv4 RFC Compliant  2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2794, 3012, 3220, 3344, 3519, 3543 compliant Applications  Foreign Agent, Home Agent, Proxy Mobile Node, Mobile Router Platforms Support  2600 through 7200, Cat5K RSM, Cat6K MSFC, 7600 Cisco IOS  Tightly integrated with Cisco IOS functionality

GGSN Mobile IP support

Mobile IP proxy Foreign Agent  On PDP context activation GGSN will perform:
 

AAA req to authenticate and get the HA credentials (IP address, security keys) MIP RegistrationReq to the HA

PDP Address can be allocated by HA  GTPv0 and GTPv1 support  Transparent to the MS (no Mobile IP support in the MS) GGSN 5.0 feature

Full FA functionality on the roadmap

HA – Cisco IOS Basis and Resources
 

HA products leverage high proportion of IOS code base to enable advanced IP network services Current features under use today in HA from IOS include MoIP, IPSec, Routing Protocols (e.g. OSPF, RIP, BGP, EIGRP), HSRP, ODAP, VRF, QoS HA runs on established platforms (7200, 6500, 7600) and can leverage the service blades and functionality of the platforms

6500/7600 Product Family
Performance & Scalability
• 32Gbps (No fabric) • 256 Gbps Fabric Module • 30-210+ Mpps Layer 2/3/4 • 30-210+ Mpps QoS, ACLs • 178 GE Ports • 576 10/100 Ports • 2 Gigabit Uplinks (Sup2) • 32k Security ACLs (hardware)

Redundancy
• Redundant Supervisors • Redundant load sharing power supplies • Redundant System Clocks • Redundant Uplinks • Redundant Switch fabrics • All system elements including ps, fans, sups, line-card modules, and switch fabrics are hot-swappable

6500

Configurations
• 6500 Family : 03/06/09/13 slots • 7600 Family : 03/06/09/13 slots

7600

Supervisor Engine 2 (SUP2) – MSFC2

MWAM Product Overview • Multiprocessor WAN Application Module
• Hardware design based on existing modules, e.g. Firewall Module • Vehicle for delivery of IOS based features; IOS application runs on the daughter card • 5 processors per MWAM utilized, 5 instances of HA or PDSN • All Mobile Wireless Applications use same Underlying Hardware - SSG, GGSN, PDSN, HA • Management : Mobile Wireless Center (MWC)

6509NEBs/7609 HA
Sample Configuration*
• Supervisor Modules (SUP2) – Central Switching and management function – Runs separate IOS – Second SUP2 can be configured for redundancy • MWAM – HA application – Up to 6 MWAMs per chassis** • IPSec VPN Services Module – IPSec Acceleration • I/O Modules: – 100BaseT (Fast Ethernet) – 1000BaseT (Gigabit Ethernet)

*This is a sample configuration for xx09 only. ** 6513/7613 chassis can have up to 10 MWAMs.

65xx/76xx Flexibility

Licensing is flexible to allow easy growth  Can be licensed per MWAM  Can be licensed per processor  True for HA, CSG, SSG Same chassis can be utilized for multiple CMX components  Cost savings on h/w  Easy growth and expansion as add services; example:
  

Simple IP services with VPN required for initial deployment. Mobile IP Services added. MWAM for HA added to same chassis. Additional content billing capabilities desired. CSG added to same chassis.

Cisco HA Features & Compliance
 

Standards-based product ensures successful interoperation with other vendors. Basic features provide robust HA  HA redundancy: No impact to user.  HA load balancing: One IP address presented to FA.  WLAN interworking: Seamless roaming. Premium features further enhance the HA  VRF: Supports overlapping IP addresses.  Hotlining: Supports IP packet redirection  QoS: Downstream per session QoS. Aggregate QoS on interfaces.

HA R1.2 FCS (7206VXR/76xx/65xx)

Mobile Wireless Home Agent (HA) Roadmap
HA R2.0 EC (7206VXR/76xx/65xx)
EFT – 15 Jan ‘04 FCS – 30 Apr ’04 76xx/65xx Key Platform Features :
Firewall & IDS Module Support

HA R3.0 NC (7206VXR/76xx/65xx)
EFT – Q1 CY05 FCS – Q2 CY05

HA Rx.0

NC

EFT – 15 May ’02 / 18 Nov ‘02 FCS – 16 Sept ’02 / 30 Dec ’02

EFT – FCS –

HA Key Features:
Proxy MoIP HA Redundancy (1:1) HA Binding Update HA Accounting 3DES Encryption Support MoIP MIB Enhancements

76xx/65xx Key Platform Features : Sup720 HA Key Features:
Capacity/Performance Improvements Mobile IPv6 IP Reachability per 835B (DNS update by HA) HA Accounting per 835C Continuous MIB Enhancement Dynamic IPSec per 835B Standards Compliance

PDSN/HA Key Features:
Capacity/Performance Improvements

7206 Key Platform Features : NPE-G1 with 1GB DRAM SA-VAM2

Broadcast/Multicast Standards Compliance Continuous MIB Enhancement
Diameter PSD

Solution Notes:
Features consistent on all platforms 3DES Encryption Support (h/w required)

NOTE: Pricing Available

HA Key Features : HA Load Balancer (HA-SLB) (MWAM only) HA Redundancy Enhancements ODAP Static IPSec per 835B Resource Revocation per 835C Packet of Disconnect (PoD) per 835C Conditional Debugs for MoIP VRF (overlapping IP addresses) Hotlining (rebuild) QoS Solution Notes: SSHv2 WLAN Interworking NOTE: Pricing Available

NOTE: PRICING TBD.

Solution Notes:
L2TPv3 MPLS MWAM – Sibyte with 1GHz Processor and 1G of memory NOTE: PRICING TBD.

Sep 2002

Oct Nov 2002 2002

Dec Jan 2002 2003

Feb 2003

Mar 2003

Apr 2003

May 2003

Jun 2003

CQ03 2003

CQ04 2003

CQ01 2004

CQ02 2004

CQ03 2004

CQ04 2004

GA = Generally Available

FCS = First Customer Ship

EFT = Early Field Trials

EC = Execute Committed

CC = Concept Committed

NC = Not Committed

Note: There is an associated cost for each release. Some features may have additional cost in addition to the base.

R1.2 HA Feature Highlights
   

HA Redundancy HA Binding Update Wireless LAN Interworking Feature set is the same on 7206VXR and 6500/7600.

Home Agent Redundancy
HA 1
1.1.1.3 10.31.1.1 1.1.1.7

FA
Mobility Binding Table: MN COA 1.1.1.3 10.31.1.1 1.1.1.7 10.31.1.1 1.1.1.8 10.31.2.1 1.1.1.5 10.31.3.1

HA 2

1.1.1.8

10.31.2.1

HSRP Group

Two HAs are configured in hot-standby mode, based on Cisco Hot Standby Routing Protocol (HSRP) Configured to provide 1:1 redundancy No service disruption!

• •

Release 2.0 HAHome Agent Load Balancer (HA-SLB) • Feature List
• VRF – support for overlapping IP addresses • Hotlining • MoIP Resource Revocation per IS-835C • Packet of Disconnect (PoD) per IS-835C • Conditional Debug Enhancements – Mobile IP • *QoS

*Will be available in rebuild.

Home Agent SLB
• IOS Based Solution
Will leverage RLB function of IOS already used to provide LB for SSG within CMX. The RLB function will be acting as a front end to a pool of HAs. MWAM only

• Virtual server represents a group of real servers • Modes of Operation
Dispatched mode (layer 2 connected) Direct mode (routed)

• Load Balancing
Static round robin configuration Dynamic Feedback Protocol

Home Agent SLB
FA contacts HA-SLB IP HSRP address

Load balancing -round-robin -Load via dfp

Real HA 1 (MWAM) PDSN/FA
Real HA replies to MN

HA SLB On sup Real HA 2 (MWAM)

Standalone HA HA HSRP pair

Hot Lining
• IP packet level re-direction supported in the upstream path • Supports IS-835C CoA messages to change user session profiles at start of and in mid-session. • Supports "web steering" statically configured by realm and dynamically configured per user within the realm.

Hot Lining
Mobile Node PDSN/FA Home Agent Server 1 Session established and transferring data normally Radius sends COA to HA to activate hotlining for session Radius HA redirects traffic to configured hotline server

Hotline Server

Virtual HA & Security
Home Agent Corporate 1
S1

VRF1

GRE VPN
Corporate 2

S2

VRF2

IPsec VPN

A VRF is associated with the following elements: •IP routing table •Derived forwarding table, based on the Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) technology •A set of interfaces that use the derived forwarding table •A set of routing protocols and routing peers that inject information into the VRF

Identification of “subscriber community” Can be downloaded from AAA • Criteria such as user-name, userdomain etc. may be used to identify “subscriber community”

R1.2 HA Performance
HA per MWAM 1.175M 2.5 Gbps xx13 HA Chassis 10 MWAMs 11.75M 25 Gbps

Users Total Bindings Throughput - NDR (512 bytes/pkt)

7206 HA 235K 160 Mbps

• •

Results based on 512 Byte packets, unfragmented. Performance measured for No Drop Rate. NDR is 0.01% or 1 in 10,000 packets.

High-Capacity HA Configuration
•13 Slots available :
–2 Supervisor Modules (System CPU) –10 MWAM Modules (HA Application) –1 FE/GigE Module

xx13 PDSN Chassis 10 MWAMs Total Bindings Throughput

7’Rack 2-7613 Chassis

11.75M 25 Gbps

23.5M 50 Gbps
Tested & Ready for IOT or commercial deployment

• •

Results based on 512 Byte packets, unfragmented. Performance measured for No Drop Rate. NDR is 0.01% or 1 in 10,000 packets.

Home Agent Summary

Feature Rich • Highly Compliant to Specifications and Customer Requirements • Value added service support such as VRF, Hot Lining, QoS • Service enablement via Cisco Mobile Exchange Framework components Fault Tolerance • HA Redundancy, HA-SLB • Geographic Resiliency Product Maturity • Real life deployment; deployed since 2001 Capacity and Performance Scalability • Small to very large deployment options Management • Provisioning, Fault Mediation, Performance Mediation, Troubleshooting & Security

Cisco 3200 Mobile Access Router
Product Overview

Agenda
    

Overview of the Cisco 3200 Series Mobile Access Router Mobile Access Router Card Serial Mobile Interface Card Fast Ethernet Switch MIC Cisco 3200 Example Configurations

Cisco Mobile Access Router

Mobile Access Router Card (MARC)
   

Mobile Access Router Overview
High performance processor One 10/100 Ethernet One console One powered async serial (for GPS) SMIC: 4 port sync/async serial FESMIC: 4 port FE/E Switch Card
MIC MIC MARC

Mobile Interface Cards (MICs)
 

Remember the Names
    

Cisco 3200 Mobile Access Router Cisco 3200 Series Cisco 3251 Mobile Access Router Card (MARC) Cisco 3201 Serial Mobile Interface Card (SMIC) Cisco 3201 FastEthernet Switch Mobile Interface Card (FESMIC)

Cisco 3250 Mobile Access Router Platform
High performance mobile access router
   
     

Modular Circuit-board construction

tatic S

ntro Co

SD) l (E

Mobile Access Router Card (Cisco3251MARC) Serial Mobile Interface Card (Cisco3201SMIC) Fast Ethernet Switch MIC (FESMIC)
PC/104-Plus Form Factor PC/104-Plus “Compliance”, PCI-Only Runs Cisco IOS Utilizes Cisco Mobile IP Feature Set Industrial Grade -40 C to 85 C local ambient SMIC SMIC MARC FESMIC

PC 104-Plus Mechanical Standard Hardware form factor Industry Standard
•Cisco 3200 Series will test with a 3rd Party Lab to conform to the level of PC104-Plus Compliant More Specific information at www.PC104.org Including definition of our level of compliance Size = 3.775” x 3.55”
Source: PC104-Plus Specification Version 1.2

Why PC-104-Plus?
 

Smallest industry standard computing platform Both ISA and PCI bus
 

Cisco puts signals on PCI bus only Any non-Cisco cards cannot signal on PCI bus

Self-stacking
 

ISA bus OK

No backplane or cardcage required Stand-offs and screws recommended

 

Designed for rugged, industrial-grade applications Good product availability, vendor support

PC-104-Plus Card Format
PCI Bus Connector 120 pin, stack through, PCI BUS Connector (no key)
Power provided By SI Power supply pins and grounds are connected to the Cisco boards via ISA / PCI connectors

ISA Bus Connector 104 pin, Stack through, ISA Bus Connector (no key) No Cisco signals over ISA Bus

Cables and Connectors on I/O side provided by SI

Cisco 3200 Series MARC + FESMIC+SMIC Aironet 350 Access Points Wireless Infrastructure with external Radios compatible with network Cables + Power Supply + Enclosure Environmental/Ruggedized to specs and integrated with customer-supplied device or vehicle Installation, deployment, training, etc.

Complete Solution Requires Integration

System Integration

Mobile Access Router Card (MARC)
 

 

 

MPC8250, running at 200MHz CPU core, 133MHz CPM core and 66MHz Motorola 60x Bus. 32-bit PCI bus version 2.1 running at 25MHz, connects to Cisco MICs. 128Mbyte 64 bit, Unbuffered, Synchronous DRAM, 32Mbyte 16 bit of Flash memory, Single 10/100 Fast Ethernet, full-duplex 100 Base-T, with auto negotiation. Single Console, with modem flow control. Single Asynchronous, RS-232 serial, for GPS/AUX devices. Integrated host-to-PCI bridge (PCI bus version 2.1), with built-in PCI arbiter that supports three external bus masters/PCI agents.

Mobile Access Router Card
PCI Bus Connector 120 pin, stack through, PCI BUS Connector (no key)

ISA Bus Connector 104 pin, Stack through, ISA Bus Connector (no key) No Cisco signals over ISA Bus

34 pin, locking header Aux Console LED’s 5V power

10 pin, locking header, for MARC Fast Ethernet

Serial Mobile Interface Card (Cisco3201SMIC)
PCI Bus Type of Mobile Interface Card (MIC) Typically used for a WAN (modem) interface to a wireless / satellite network Asynch/Synch

ISA Bus

Supports up to 2Mbps

4 Cisco 12-in-1 Serial Interfaces All existing 12-in-1 signals supported Signals thru 2 60-pin multifunction headers PCI Bus Up to 3 per stack

Set rotary switch to unique number

Rotary Switch 60-pin Multifunction Header

Fast Ethernet Switch MIC (FESMIC) Fast Ethernet Headers

   

1 10/100 Ethernet with 4 port switch with VLAN 802.1q and 802.1p supported Can route between FESMIC and MARC FastE LED signals thru LED header No in-line power provided ISL not supported Limit one FESMIC per 3200

ISA Bus

LED Header

PCI Bus

Presentation_ID

© 2001, Cisco Systems, Inc.

111

Cisco 3200 Mobile Access Router IOS Configuration

Agenda
   

Configuration Outline Configuration Commands Example Configurations Troubleshooting Reference: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/software/ios122/122newft/1 22tcr/122tip1r/p1ftmobi.htm

 

Configuring Mobile IP An Outline

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

114

Steps to Configure Home Agent • Step 1 –
• • • •
A. Create HA as a mobile IP agent

• • •

Define it as an HA Redistribute the virtual nets in routing updates

B. Set virtual nets in HA C. Define the IP address of the mobile router so the HA will recognize it
Define the networks that will be associated with that Mobile Router

D. Set up security association for that Mobile Router

Virtual Networks

Virtual Network is:  Non-physical = no interface  Added to Routing Table  “Home” network for Mobile Host and Router

Mobile Host addresses are assigned from this

Must be unrelated to “real” networks

Steps to Configure Foreign Agent

Step 2 – • A. Create FA as a mobile IP agent • B. Define it as an Foreign Agent

• • • •

Specify the interface to be used as Care-of Address IP address and mask Enable IRDP

C. Configure an interface to support Mobile IP •
Optional: IRDP advertisement intervals • max, min, and holdtime

Enable FA service on the interface

Steps to Configure Mobile Router

Step 3 – • A. Create Mobile Router as a mobile IP agent • B. Define it as an MR

• •

• • • • • • •

Specify its address and subnet mask Specify the IP address of its HA Optional – registration parameters Optional - Set Reverse Tunnel on Must match HA Set the IP address and mask Enable roaming

C. Configure Security Association with HA D. Specify an interface with Mobile IP service

Mobile Router – Optional Features

Step 4 – Enable services (optional)

• •

Solicitation, retransmission intervals Co-Located Care-of Address (optional)

• •

Enable CCOA on interface Set Default Gateway on interface

Mobile Router Redundancy

Step 5 –Mobile Router Redundancy (optional) • Enable HSRP on interface

• • •

Set Priority Set Preempt Configure group name

Add redundancy group name to Mobile Router configuration

Network 10.10.10.0/24 WebCam .35/28

Cisco 3200 Installation Course Lab Diagram
FE0/0 .74/30

Foreign Agent 1
FE0/1 .129/28

FA1 Bridge
.130/28
802.11b

Network 10.10.11.0/24

10.10.11.36/28 FE0/1 Home .73/30 Virtual Network 110.10.11.0 / 24

3200 Bridge

Agent
E1/0 .33/28 FE0/0 .69/30 Lo0 .77/30
802.11b

E1 .33/28

FE0/0 .70/30 FE0/1 Server .34/28 .97/28 .98/28

C3200

.34/28

Foreign Agent 2

FA2 Bridge

Loopback 0 110.10.11.209/32

Configuring Mobile IP

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

122

Configure HA
HA(config)#router mobile Enables Mobile IP on the router HA(config-routerip mob)#ip mobile home-agent Enables home agent service. HA(config)#ip mobile virtual-network net mask [address address ] HA(config)# router protocol [process ID] Creates a Virtual network Enters router configuration mode

HA(config-router)# redistribute mobile subnets Enables redistribution of virtual network and mobile subnets into routing protocols HA(config)# ip mobile host lower [upper] virtual-network net mask HA(config)#ip mobile host lower [upper] interface name Specifies mobile nodes on a virtual network Specifies mobile nodes on a physical interface

HA(config)# ip mobile mobile-networks address Specifies mobile router to be set up HA(mobile-networks)# network net mask HA(config)#ip mobile secure host address spi spi key [hex/ascii] string Specifies a network that will be hosted on the mobile host (router) Sets up mobile host security associations.

Configure HA (example)
HA(config)# router mobile HA(config-router)# ip mobile home-agent HA(config)# ip mobile virtual-network 10.10.11.0 255.255.255.0 HA(config)# router ospf 64 HA(config-router)# redistribute mobile subnets HA(config)# ip mobile host 10.10.11.77 virtual-network 10.10.11.0 255.255.255.0 HA(config)# ip mobile mobile-networks 10.10.11.77 HA(mobile-networks)# network 10.10.11.76 255.255.255.252 HA(config)# ip mobile secure host 10.10.11.77 spi 300 key hex 12345678123456781234567812345678 HA(config)#ip mobile home-agent lifetime 65535

Configure FA
FA(config)#router mobile FA(config)#ip mobile foreign-agent care-of interface Enables Mobile IP on the router Sets up care-of addresses advertised to all foreign agent-enabled interfaces.

FA(config-if)#ip mobile foreign-service Enables foreign agent service on the interface. FA(config)#router mobile FA(config)#ip mobile foreign-agent care-of Faste 0/0 FA(config)#ip mobile foreign-agent care-of Faste 0/1 FA(config)#interface Faste 0/0 FA(config-if)#ip mobile foreign-service FA(config-if)#ip mobile registration-lifetime 65535 FA(config)#interface Faste 0/1 FA(config-if)#ip mobile foreign-service

Configure Mobile Access Router
C3200_(config-if)# ip address <IP address subnet mask> C3200_(config)# router mobile C3200_(config-router)#ip mobile router C3200_(mobile-router)# address <IP address><SN mask> C3200_(mobile-router# home-agent <IP address> [priority priority]

C3200_(config)# interface loopback number Configure loopback address Specifies IP address for loopback interface Enable Mobile IP on the router Configure the mobile router IP address of mobile router (using loopback address) Specify Home Agent and priority Set up authentication key

C3200_(config)# ip mobile secure home-agent <IP add> spi spi key [ hex/ascii ] string C3200_(config)# interface interface

Configure roaming interface

C3200_(config-if)# ip mobile router-service roam [priority priority level ] C3200_(config-if)# ip mobile router-service solicit [interval seconds] [retransmit initital interval maximum interval retry number of retries ]

Configure Mobile Access Router (example)
C3200_# interface loopback C3200_(Interface)# ip address 10.0.11.77 255.255.255.252 C3200_# router mobile C3200_# ip mobile router C3200_# address 10.0.11.77 255.255.255.252 C3200_# home-agent 10.0.10.77 C3200_# ip mobile secure home-agent 10.0.10.77 spi 300 key hex 12345678123456781234567812345678 C3200_# interface Faste 0/0 C3200_(interface)# ip mobile router-service roam C3200_(interface)# ip mobile router-service solicit

Configure HA Advertisements (Optional)
HA(config)#interface name HA(config-if)#ip irdp Interface providing the service Turn on the advertisements on the interface HA(config-if)#ip irdp maxadvertinterval [4-1800] HA(config-if)#ip irdp minadvertinterval [3-1800]

HA(config)#interface e5/0/2 HA(config-if)#ip irdp HA(config-if)#ip irdp maxadvertinterval 10 HA(config-if)#ip irdp minadvertinterval 4

Configure FA Advertisements (Optional)
FA(config)#interface name FA(config-if)#ip irdp Interface providing the service Turn on the advertisements on the interface FA(config-if)#ip irdp maxadvertinterval [4-1800] FA(config-if)#ip irdp minadvertinterval [3-1800]

FA(config)#interface e3/1 FA(config-if)#ip irdp FA(config-if)#ip irdp maxadvertinterval 10 FA(config-if)#ip irdp minadvertinterval 4 FA(config)#interface e3/2 FA(config-if)#ip irdp

Troubleshooting Mobile IP

© 2002, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

130

Troubleshooting Mobile IP Outline
1.
 

  4.
 

What is router’s configuration? Verify Agent, Operation Is it sending Advertisements? SHOW IP MOBILE GLOBALS DEBUG IP MOBILE ADVERTISEMENTS What is Mobile Router seeing? Is Wireless associated? Is Mobile Router receiving Advertisements?

DEBUG IP ICMP

5.
 

 7.  

What is router doing? Is Mobile Router trying to register? Are FA and HA accepting registrations? DEBUG IP MOBILE Who are router’s neighbors? SHOW IP ROUTE SHOW ARP

1.

Troubleshooting Mobile IP Outline
   

  4.

What is router’s configuration? Verify Agent, Operation Is it sending Advertisements? SHOW IP MOBILE GLOBALS DEBUG IP MOBILE ADVERTISEMENTS What is Mobile Router seeing? Is Wireless associated? Is Mobile Router receiving Advertisements?

DEBUG IP ICMP

5.
 

 7.  

What is router doing? Is Mobile Router trying to register? Are FA and HA accepting registrations? DEBUG IP MOBILE Who are router’s neighbors? SHOW IP ROUTE SHOW ARP

Verifying HA Configuration
HA#show ip mobile globals IP Mobility global information: Home Agent Registration lifetime: 10:00:00 (36000 secs) Broadcast disabled Replay protection time: 7 secs Reverse tunnel enabled ICMP Unreachable enabled Virtual networks 110.10.11.0 /24 Foreign Agent is not enabled, no care-of address 0 interfaces providing service Encapsulations supported: IPIP and GRE Tunnel fast switching enabled Tunnel path MTU discovery aged out after 10 min ha_#

Verifying FA Configuration
FA#show ip mobile globals Foreign_Agent_2_#sh ip mob globals IP Mobility global information: Home Agent is not enabled Foreign Agent Pending registrations expire after 15 secs Care-of addresses advertised FastEthernet0/1 (10.10.10.97) - up 1 interface providing service Encapsulations supported: IPIP and GRE Tunnel fast switching enabled Tunnel path MTU discovery aged out after 10 min Foreign_Agent_2_#

Debug Advertisements on FA
Foreign_Agent_2_#debug ip mobile advertise IP mobility agent advertisements debugging is on Foreign_Agent_2_# 02:30:02: MobileIP: Agent advertisement sent out FastEthernet0/1: type=16, len=10, seq=2984, lifetime=36000, flags=0x1400(rbhFmGv-rsv-), 02:30:02: Care-of address: 10.10.10.97 02:30:05: MobileIP: Agent advertisement sent out FastEthernet0/1: type=16, len=10, seq=2985, lifetime=36000, flags=0x1400(rbhFmGv-rsv-), 02:30:05: Care-of address: 10.10.10.97

1.

Troubleshooting Mobile IP Outline
   

  4.

What is router’s configuration? Verify Agent, Operation Is it sending Advertisements? SHOW IP MOBILE GLOBALS DEBUG IP MOBILE ADVERTISEMENTS What is Mobile Router seeing? Is Wireless associated? Is Mobile Router receiving Advertisements?

DEBUG IP ICMP

5.
 

 7.  

What is router doing? Is Mobile Router trying to register? Are FA and HA accepting registrations? DEBUG IP MOBILE Who are router’s neighbors? SHOW IP ROUTE SHOW ARP

MR: Advertisements
MR#debug ip icmp *Mar *Mar *Mar *Mar *Mar 1 04:09:27.938: ICMP: rdp advert rcvd type 9, code 0, from 10.10.10.97 1 04:09:31.938: ICMP: rdp advert rcvd type 9, code 0, from 10.10.10.97 1 04:09:34.934: ICMP: rdp advert rcvd type 9, code 0, from 10.10.10.97 1 04:09:37.934: ICMP: rdp advert rcvd type 9, code 0, from 10.10.10.97 1 04:09:39.934: ICMP: rdp advert rcvd type 9, code 0, from 10.10.10.97

> It is receiving advertisements from Foreign Agent 10.10.10.97

1.
 

Troubleshooting Mobile IP Outline
What is router’s configuration? Verify Agent, Operation Is it sending Advertisements? SHOW IP MOBILE GLOBALS DEBUG IP MOBILE ADVERTISEMENTS What is Mobile Router seeing? Is Wireless associated? Is Mobile Router receiving Advertisements?

  4.
 

DEBUG IP ICMP

5.
 

 7.  

What is router doing? Is Mobile Router trying to register? Are FA and HA accepting registrations? DEBUG IP MOBILE Who are router’s neighbors? SHOW IP ROUTE SHOW ARP

MR: Registration Requests RRQs
MR#debug ip mob IP mobility events debugging is on MR# *Mar 1 04:12:12.898: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:12:16.898: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:12:18.898: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:12:22.898: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5

> It is sending in Registration Requests and not getting any answer

Home_Agent_#debug ip mobile

Debugs on HA – Registration Rejected

Home_Agent_# 00:14:18: MobileIP: HA 114 received registration for MN 10.4.1.1 on FastEthernet 0/1 using COA 10.3.1.1 HA 10.1.4.1 lifetime 36000 options sbdmgvt 00:14:18: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 7D8742C end 7D87442 00:14:18: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 7D87442 end 7D87442 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - authenticating MN 10.4.1.1 using SPI 100 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - authenticated MN 10.4.1.1 using SPI 100 00:14:18: MobileIP: Identification field has timestamp 146 secs greater than our current time 03/01/93 00:14:18 (> allowed 7 secs) for MN 10.4.1.1 00:14:18: %IPMOBILE-6-SECURE: Security violation on HA from MN 10.4.1.1 - errcod e registration id mismatch (133), reason Bad identifier (3) 00:14:18: MobileIP: HA rejects registration for MN 10.4.1.1 - registration id mi smatch (133) 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - MH auth ext added (SPI 100) to MN 10.4.1.1 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - HA sent reply to 10.1.3.2

Home_Agent_# debug ip mobile 00:14:18: MobileIP: HA 114 received registration for MN 10.4.1.1 on FastEthernet 0/1 using COA 10.3.1.1 HA 10.1.4.1 lifetime 36000 options sbdmgvt 00:14:18: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 7D877EC end 7D87802 00:14:18: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 7D87802 end 7D87802 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - authenticating MN 10.4.1.1 using SPI 100 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - authenticated MN 10.4.1.1 using SPI 100 00:14:18: MobileIP: Mobility binding for MN 10.4.1.1 created 00:14:18: MobileIP: 15 ifs in use 00:14:18: MobileIP: Tunnel0 (IP/IP) created with src 10.1.4.1 dst 10.3.1.1 00:14:18: MobileIP: 16 ifs in use 00:14:18: MobileIP: Tunnel1 (IP/IP) created with src 10.1.4.1 dst 10.4.1.1 00:14:18: MobileIP: Roam timer started for MN 10.4.1.1, lifetime 36000 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 is now roaming 00:14:18: MobileIP: Insert route 10.4.1.1/255.255.255.255 via gateway 10.3.1.1 on Tunnel0 00:14:18: MobileIP: Insert route 10.5.2.0/255.255.255.0 via gateway 10.4.1.1 on Tunnel1 00:14:18: MobileIP: HA accepts registration from MN 10.4.1.1 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - MH auth ext added (SPI 100) to MN 10.4.1.1 00:14:18: MobileIP: MN 10.4.1.1 - HA sent reply to 10.1.3.2 00:14:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Tunnel0, changed state to up 00:14:19: MobileIP: swif coming up Tunnel0 00:14:19: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on Interface Tunnel1, changed state to up 00:14:19: MobileIP: swif coming up Tunnel1 Home_Agent_#

Debugs on HA – Registration Accepted

Debugs on FA - Registration
FA#debug ip mobile
1d02h: MobileIP: FA received registration for MN 20.0.197.84 on Ethernet3/1 using COA 40.0.197.19 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 990 options sBdmgvt 1d02h: MobileIP: Ethernet3/1 glean 20.0.197.84 accepted 1d02h: MobileIP: FA queued MN 20.0.197.84 in register table 1d02h: MobileIP: Visitor registration timer started for MN 20.0.197.84, lifetime 15 1d02h: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 200210AC end 200210C2 1d02h: MobileIP: FA forwarded registration for MN 20.0.197.84 to HA 20.0.197.82

1d02h: MobileIP: FA received accept (0) reply for MN 20.0.197.84 on Ethernet3/5 using HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 990 1d02h: MobileIP: Reply in for MN 20.0.197.84, accepted 1d02h: MobileIP: Update visitor table for MN 20.0.197.84 1d02h: MobileIP: Tunnel2 (IP/IP) created with src 40.0.197.19 dst 20.0.197.82 1d02h: MobileIP: ARP entry for MN 20.0.197.84 inserted 1d02h: MobileIP: Visitor timer started for MN 20.0.197.84, lifetime 990 1d02h: MobileIP: FA dequeued MN 20.0.197.84 from register table 1d02h: MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 visiting on Ethernet3/1 1d02h: MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 200215A8 end 200215BE 1d02h: MobileIP: FA forwarding reply to MN 20.0.197.84 using src 20.0.197.84 mac 0030.8538.1c90 1d02h: MobileIP: swif coming up Tunnel2

Debugs on MR - Registration
FA#debug ip mobile *Mar 1 04:21:53.778: MobileIP: ParseRegExt type MHAE(32) addr 6002A08 end 6002A 1E *Mar 1 04:21:53.778: MobileIP: ParseRegExt skipping 20 to next *Mar 1 04:21:53.778: MobileIP: Authenticating HA 10.10.10.77 using SPI 3003 *Mar 1 04:21:53.782: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:21:53.782: MobileIP: Authenticated HA 10.10.10.77 using SPI 3003 *Mar 1 04:21:57.762: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: ParseRegExt type MHAE(32) addr 61BF1A8 end 61BF1 BE *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: ParseRegExt skipping 20 to next *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: Authenticating HA 10.10.10.77 using SPI 3003 *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: Authentication algorithm MD5 *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: Authenticated HA 10.10.10.77 using SPI 3003 *Mar 1 04:21:57.782: MobileIP: Tunnel0 (IP/IP) created with src 110.10.11.217 d st 10.10.10.77 *Mar 1 04:21:58.782: MobileIP: swif coming up Tunnel0

1.
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Troubleshooting Mobile IP Outline
What is router’s configuration? Verify Agent, Operation Is it sending Advertisements? SHOW IP MOBILE GLOBALS DEBUG IP MOBILE ADVERTISEMENTS What is Mobile Router seeing? Is Wireless associated? Is Mobile Router receiving Advertisements?

  4.
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DEBUG IP ICMP

5.
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 7.  

What is router doing? Is Mobile Router trying to register? Are FA and HA accepting registrations? DEBUG IP MOBILE Who are router’s neighbors? SHOW IP ROUTE SHOW ARP

HA Binding Table
ha_#show ip mobile binding ? A.B.C.D IP address home-agent Mobility bindings for specific home agent summary Summary of binding table | Output modifiers <cr> ha_#show ip mobile binding Mobility Binding List: Total 9 110.10.11.237: Care-of Addr 10.10.10.97, Src Addr 10.10.10.70 Lifetime granted 10:00:00 (36000), remaining 06:59:10 Flags sbdmgvt, Identification AF3BF344.D8F21340 Tunnel2 src 10.10.10.77 dest 10.10.10.97 reverse-allowed MR Tunnel1 src 10.10.10.77 dest 110.10.11.237 reverse-allowed mobile-network 110.10.11.237 Routing Options 110.10.11.233: Care-of Addr 10.10.10.97, Src Addr 10.10.10.70 Lifetime granted 10:00:00 (36000), remaining 06:59:10 Flags sbdmgvt, Identification AF3BF344.5F153F64 ………… etc.

HA State – Routing Table
Home_Agent_#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 110.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 10 subnets, 2 masks M 110.10.11.0/24 is directly connected, Mobile0 Virtual Network M 110.10.11.237/32 [3/1] via 10.10.10.97, 00:57:28, Tunnel2 M 110.10.11.245/32 [3/1] via 10.10.10.129, 03:01:54, Tunnel0 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 14 subnets, 3 masks C 10.10.10.32/27 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 C 10.10.10.72/30 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 C 10.10.10.76/30 is directly connected, Loopback0 O IA 10.10.10.96/27 [110/11] via 10.10.10.36, 00:57:35, FastEthernet0/0 M 10.10.11.112/28 [3/1] via 110.10.11.237, 03:55:57, Tunnel1 O IA 10.10.10.128/27 [110/2] via 10.10.10.74, 00:57:35, FastEthernet0/1 M 10.10.11.144/28 [3/1] via 110.10.11.245, 03:55:57, Tunnel5

FA State – Visiting Mobile Routers ip mobile visitor Foreign_Agent_2_#show
Mobile Visitor List: Total 5 110.10.11.229: Interface FastEthernet0/1, MAC addr 0001.6441.87ba IP src 110.10.11.229, dest 10.10.10.97, UDP src port 434 HA addr 10.10.10.77, Identification AF3C1098.B402FE18 Lifetime 10:00:00 (36000) Remaining 08:56:25 Tunnel0 src 10.10.10.97, dest 10.10.10.77, reverse-allowed Routing Options 110.10.11.245: Interface FastEthernet0/1, MAC addr 0001.6441.87a2 IP src 110.10.11.245, dest 10.10.10.97, UDP src port 434 HA addr 10.10.10.77, Identification AF3C114E.911E78F8 Lifetime 10:00:00 (36000) Remaining 08:59:27 Tunnel0 src 10.10.10.97, dest 10.10.10.77, reverse-allowed Routing Options ……… etc.

Foreign Agent Routing Table
Foreign_Agent_2_#show ip route Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is not set 110.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets O E2 110.10.11.0 [110/20] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:44, FastEthernet0/0 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 14 subnets, 4 masks C 10.10.10.32/27 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 O 10.10.10.72/30 [110/2] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:44, FastEthernet0/0 O 10.10.10.77/32 [110/2] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:44, FastEthernet0/0 C 10.10.10.96/27 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/1 O E2 10.10.11.112/28 [110/20] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:47, FastEthernet0/0 O IA 10.10.10.128/27 [110/3] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:47, FastEthernet0/0 O E2 10.10.11.144/28 [110/20] via 10.10.10.33, 00:58:47, FastEthernet0/0 Foreign_Agent_2_#

FA State – ARP Table
Foreign_Agent_2_#sh arp Protocol Address Age (min) Hardware Addr Type Interface Internet 10.10.10.73 8 000a.8a7d.0f41 ARPA FastEthernet0/0 Internet 10.10.10.129 - 000a.8a83.0d81 ARPA FastEthernet0/1 Internet 10.10.10.130 7 0040.9657.cc93 ARPA FastEthernet0/1 Internet 10.10.10.74 - 000a.8a83.0d80 ARPA FastEthernet0/0 Internet 110.10.11.237 2 00ff.ff40.00aa ARPA FastEthernet0/1 Foreign_Agent_2_#

What FA is MR Visiting? Part 1
mar_demo_1_#sh arp Protocol Address Internet 10.3.1.1 Internet 10.5.2.1 Internet 10.5.3.1 Internet 10.5.3.2 Internet 10.5.3.34 mar_demo_1_# Age (min) Hardware Addr Type Interface 12 000a.8a83.0d81 ARPA Vlan1 - 00ff.ff40.00aa ARPA FastEthernet0/0 - 00ff.ff40.00ab ARPA Vlan1 137 0040.9657.2624 ARPA Vlan1 4 0010.a49f.57d9 ARPA Vlan1

What FA is MR Visiting? Part 2
mar_demo_1_#sh ip rout Codes: C - connected, S - static, I - IGRP, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2 E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2, E - EGP i - IS-IS, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2, ia - IS-IS inter area * - candidate default, U - per-user static route, o - ODR P - periodic downloaded static route Gateway of last resort is 10.3.1.1 to network 0.0.0.0 10.0.0.0/8 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks M 10.3.1.1/32 [3/1] via 10.3.1.1, 00:07:28, Vlan1 C 10.5.3.0/24 is directly connected, Vlan1 M 10.1.4.1/32 [3/1] via 10.3.1.1, 00:07:28, Vlan1 C 10.5.1.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0 M* 0.0.0.0/0 [3/1] via 10.3.1.1, 00:07:28, Vlan1

Debugs on HA/FA - Handoff
ha_# 05:17:02: MobileIP: HA 120 received registration for MN 110.10.11.225 on FastEthernet0/1 using COA 10.10.10.129 HA 10.10.10.77 lifetime 36000 options sbdmgvt 05:17:02: MobileIP: MN 110.10.11.225 - authenticating MN 110.10.11.225 using SPI 5005 05:17:02: MobileIP: MN 110.10.11.225 - authenticated MN 110.10.11.225 using SPI 5005 05:17:02: MobileIP: Delete tunnel route for 110.10.11.225/255.255.255.255 via gateway 10.10.10.97 05:17:02: MobileIP: Deleted user (7 remains) from Tunnel2 src 10.10.10.77 dest 10.10.10.97 05:17:02: MobileIP: Mobility binding for MN 110.10.11.225 updated – tunnel changed 05:17:02: MobileIP: Added user (2 active) on Tunnel0 src 10.10.10.77 dest 10.10.10.129 05:17:02: MobileIP: Insert route 110.10.11.225/255.255.255.255 via gateway 10.10.10.129 on Tunnel0 05:17:02: MobileIP: Roam timer started for MN 110.10.11.225, lifetime 36000 05:17:02: MobileIP: HA accepts registration from MN 110.10.11.225 05:17:02: MobileIP: MN 110.10.11.225 - MH auth ext added (SPI 5005) to MN 110.10.11.225 05:17:02: MobileIP: MN 110.10.11.225 - HA sent reply to 10.10.10.74

Debug Tunnel
HA#debug tunnel 05:41:15: Tunnel8: IP/IP encapsulated 10.10.10.77->110.10.11.217 (linktype=7, len=61) 05:41:15: Tunnel0: IP/IP encapsulated 10.10.10.77->10.10.10.129 (linktype=7, len=81) Home_Agent_#sh ip cache IP routing cache 8 entries, 1324 bytes 92 adds, 84 invalidates, 0 refcounts Minimum invalidation interval 2 seconds, maximum interval 5 seconds, quiet interval 3 seconds, threshold 0 requests Invalidation rate 0 in last second, 0 in last 3 seconds Last full cache invalidation occurred 05:41:46 ago Prefix/Length 10.10.10.128/30 10.10.11.32/30 110.10.11.217/32 FA#debug tunnel 02:39:07: Tunnel0: to decaps IP/IP packet 20.0.197.82->40.0.197.19 (len=120, ttl=254) 02:39:07: Tunnel0: decapsulated IP/IP packet 20.0.1.50->20.0.197.84 (len=100 ttl=253) Age Interface Next Hop 00:10:08 FastEthernet0/1 10.10.10.74 00:10:08 Tunnel8 110.10.11.217 00:10:08 Tunnel0 10.10.10.129

Show IP Mobile Traffic (Home Agent)
Home_Agent_#show ip mobile traffic IP Mobility traffic: Advertisements: Solicitations received 0 Advertisements sent 0, response to solicitation 0 Home Agent Registrations: Register 2622, Deregister 2 requests Register 1302, Deregister 2 replied Accepted 87, No simultaneous bindings 0 Denied 1215, Ignored 1322 , Dropped 0 Unspecified 1198, Unknown HA 0 Administrative prohibited 0, No resource 0 Authentication failed MN 0, FA 0, active HA 0 Bad identification 17, Bad request form 0 Unavailable encap 0, reverse tunnel 0 Binding updates received 0, sent 0 total 0 fail 0 Binding update acks received 0, sent 0 Binding info request received 0, sent 0 total 0 fail 0 Binding info reply received 0 drop 0, sent 0 total 0 fail 0 Binding info reply acks received 0 drop 0, sent 0 Gratuitous 0, Proxy 0 ARPs sent

CONTINUED >>>

Show IP Mobile Traffic (Home Agent) cont.
Home_Agent_#show ip mobile traffic CONTINUED….. Foreign Agent Registrations: Request in 0, Forwarded 0, Denied 0, Ignored 0 Unspecified 0, HA unreachable 0 Administrative prohibited 0, No resource 0 Bad lifetime 0, Bad request form 0 Unavailable encapsulation 0, Compression 0 Unavailable reverse tunnel 0 Replies in 0 Forwarded 0, Bad 0, Ignored 0 Authentication failed MN 0, HA 0 Home_Agent_#

Show IP Mobile Tunnels
Home_Agent_#show ip mob tunnel Mobile Tunnels: Tunnel1: src 10.10.10.77, dest 110.10.11.237 encap IP/IP, mode reverse-allowed, tunnel-users 1 IP MTU 1460 bytes Path MTU Discovery, mtu: 0, ager: 10 mins, expires: never outbound interface Tunnel2 HA created, fast switching enabled, ICMP unreachable enabled 0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 drops 10508 packets output, 1237820 bytes Tunnel5: src 10.10.10.77, dest 110.10.11.245 encap IP/IP, mode reverse-allowed, tunnel-users 1 IP MTU 1460 bytes Path MTU Discovery, mtu: 0, ager: 10 mins, expires: never outbound interface Tunnel0 HA created, fast switching enabled, ICMP unreachable enabled 0 packets input, 0 bytes, 0 drops 0 packets output, 0 bytes

Show IP Mobile Secure Hosts
Home_Agent_# show ip mob secure host Security Associations (algorithm,mode,replay protection,key): 10.10.11.77: SPI 300, MD5, Prefix-suffix, Timestamp +/- 7, Key 12345678123456781234567812345678 110.10.11.213: SPI 200, MD5, Prefix-suffix, Timestamp +/- 7, Key 23456781234567812345678123456781 110.10.11.217: SPI 3003, MD5, Prefix-suffix, Timestamp +/- 7, Key 45678123456781234567812345678102 110.10.11.221: SPI 4004, MD5, Prefix-suffix, Timestamp +/- 7, Key 56781234567812345678123456781203 110.10.11.225: SPI 5005, MD5, Prefix-suffix, Timestamp +/- 7, Key 67812345678123456781234567812304 ……. etc.

Show IP Mobile Host
HA#show ip mobile host 20.0.197.84 Mobile Host List: 20.0.197.84: Allowed lifetime INFINITE/default) Roam status -Registered-, Home link on interface Ethernet5/0/2 Accepted 8, Last time 03/26/01 10:40:30 Overall service time 00:28:39 Denied 1, Last time 04/24/02 18:13:22 Last code 'registration id mismatch (133)' Total violations 1 Tunnel to MN - pkts 1, bytes 100 Reverse tunnel from MN - pkts 0, bytes 0

Show IP Mobile Interface
Foreign_Agent_2_#sh ip mobile interface IP Mobility interface information: Interface FastEthernet0/1: IRDP (includes agent advertisement) enabled Prefix Length not advertised Lifetime is 36000 seconds Foreign Agent service provided No registration required Not busy Home Agent access list: Current number of visitors: 5 Foreign_Agent_2_#

Clear Commands
Router#clear ip mobile binding [addr] Router#clear ip mobile traffic Removes the binding entry. Clears all the Mobile IP counters.

Router#clear ip mobile host counters [addr] Clears Mobile Host Counters. Router#clear ip mobile visitor Removes the visitor information.

Invalid SPI - Debug
MobileIP: HA 30 received registration for MN 20.0.197.84 on Ethernet5/0/2 using COA 40.0.197.19 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 65535 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 61D8EBE4 end 61D8EBFA MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 61D8EBFA end 61D8EBFA MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - authenticating MN 20.0.197.84 using SPI 100 MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - invalid authenticator for MN 20.0.197.84 MobileIP: HA rejects registration for MN 20.0.197.84 - MN failed authentication (131) MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - MH auth ext added (SPI 100) to MN 20.0.197.84 MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - HA sent reply to 20.0.197.81

Invalid SPI – Violations Log
HA#show ip mobile violation
Security Violation Log:

Total violations 1 Mobile Hosts: 20.0.197.84: Violations: 1, Last time: 02/11/02 10:49:11 SPI: 100, Identification: C0122026.6D841504 Error Code: MN failed authentication (131), Reason: Bad authenticator (2)

Timestamp Mismatch
MobileIP: HA 32 received registration for MN 20.0.197.84 on Ethernet5/0/2 using COA 40.0.197.19 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 1000 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 616B4100 end 616B4116 MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 616B4116 end 616B4116 MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - authenticating MN 20.0.197.84 using SPI 100 MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - authenticated MN 20.0.197.84 using SPI 100 MobileIP: Identification field 2939948267 has timestamp 288712535 secs less than our current time 04/24/02 18:13:22 3228660802 (< allowed 7 secs) for MN 20.0.197.84 MobileIP: HA rejects registration for MN 20.0.197.84 - registration id mismatch (133) MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - MH auth ext added (SPI 100) to MN 20.0.197.84 MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.84 - HA sent reply to 20.0.197.81

MN Not Configured

MobileIP: HA 32 received registration for MN 20.0.197.85 on Ethernet5/0/2 using COA 40.0.197.19 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 1000 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: MN 20.0.197.85 is not configured, request ignored

Shorter Lifetime on HA
MobileIP: HA 32 received registration for MN 30.2.0.2 on Ethernet5/0/2 using COA 40.0.200.1 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 1900 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 616B4100 end 616B4116 MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 616B4116 end 616B4116 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - authenticating MN 30.2.0.2 using SPI 200 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - authenticated MN 30.2.0.2 using SPI 200 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 requested broadcast support, but disabled locally MobileIP: Mobility binding for MN 30.2.0.2 updated MobileIP: Roam timer started for MN 30.2.0.2, lifetime 1000 MobileIP: HA accepts registration from MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - MH auth ext added (SPI 200) to MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - HA sent reply to 20.0.197.81

Larger Lifetime on FA

MobileIP: FA received registration for MN 30.2.0.2 on Serial4/1 using COA 40.0.200.1 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 40000 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: Lifetime is too long in request from MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: FA rejects registration from MN 30.2.0.2 lifetime too long (69) MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - FA sent reply to 30.2.0.2

Lifetime Expires

MobileIP: Roam timer expired for MN 20.0.197.84 MobileIP: Delete tunnel route for 20.0.197.84 via gateway 40.0.197.19 MobileIP: Deleted Tunnel0 src 20.0.197.82 dest 40.0.197.19 MobileIP: HA route maint started with index 0

HA not replying (seen from FA) COAFA received HA 20.0.197.83 MN 30.2.0.2 on Serial4/1 MobileIP: registration for using 40.0.200.1 lifetime 4000 options
sBdmgvt MobileIP: FA queued MN 30.2.0.2 in register table MobileIP: Visitor registration timer started for MN 30.2.0.2, lifetime 15 MobileIP: Skip2TLV look for type 32, addr start 2000060C end 20000622 MobileIP: FA forwarded registration for MN 30.2.0.2 to HA 20.0.197.83 MobileIP: Visitor registration timer expired for MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: FA dequeued MN 30.2.0.2 from register table MobileIP: Visitor timer expired for MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: Host route 30.2.0.2 deleted from routing table MobileIP: ARP entry for MN 30.2.0.2 removed MobileIP: Deleted Tunnel0 src 40.0.200.1 dest 20.0.197.82 MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 no longer visiting on Serial4/1

Invalid Care-of Address
MobileIP: FA received registration for MN 30.2.0.2 on Serial4/1 using COA 40.0.200.10 HA 20.0.197.82 lifetime 40000 options sBdmgvt MobileIP: Care-of addr 40.0.200.10 is invalid in request from MN 30.2.0.2 MobileIP: FA rejects registration from MN 30.2.0.2 - reason unspecified (64) MobileIP: MN 30.2.0.2 - FA sent reply to 30.2.0.2

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