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D20101037886 SALMAN BIN IBRAHIM D20101037980 WANG LIN D20092036712

Music plays an important role in the religious and social lives for Indian heritage in Malaysia. Indian carried the various traditions of its music to Malaysia.
eg: kuchh kuchh hota hai Mostly of them abounds throughout Malaysia on compact disc, cassette tape, record album, on the radio and television.

-This devotional music mostly accompanied by music tool like harmonium and mridangam drum.

Music is performed at mostly Hindu temples Celebrating the festival deities as lord Vishnu and lord Muruga.

Music is also played for celebrating festivals like Thaipusam, chittirai paruvam and ponggol. -This festival musical mostly a ccompanied by music Ghagra is popular folk dance of Punjabi. -To celebrate vasakhi (the birth of sikhism) as well a
entertainment concert. tool like nagaswaram shawm and tavil drum.

Indian traditional is been nurtured in private institution as various Indian societies.

These association mainly teaching and sponsoring activates in karnatak music and dance for private, public functions and concerts. Eg: association Sangeetha Abhivirdhi Sabha set up in the Brickfields area of Kuala Lumpur and its branches in Johor Baharu and Peneng. Teachers mostly came from india suchas S.C Nagasamy that come from Tamil Nadus astrainer at the assocation.

Indian classical music in Malaysia essentially retain as the same musical tradition in India today. Many Malaysia classical musician continue to go to various part of Indian to study with master in vina, sitar and tabla performance. While specialist Indian musician like Ravi Shankar are invited to Malaysia to give performance to general public in Malaysia.

Known as Rig Veda, existed in India, dates from around 1500 B.C.E. First, existed only in an oral tradition but written down by about the 10th century C.E. Used by the upper three castes of Hindu Society A manuscript on drama, music & dance entitled Natya-Sastera was written during the period between the 2nd century B.C.E. & the 6th century C.E.

In Natya-Sastera, scale systems were described & the term raga appeared

Melody type basis for the creation of melody in Indian Music

Raga also explained the concept of rhythm, tala (time cycle), beat, tempo & others. About 10th century, another ancient treatise entitled Brhaddesi by the theorist Matanga.

13th century, the theorist Sarngadeva produce treatise of Indian classical music entitled Sangita-Ratnakara (Ocean of music & dance) particularly important because it describes the state of south central Indian music just before the effect of Muslim influence was strongly felt in the Indian musical arts. During mogul empire Muslim musicians created new raga & tala introduced new forms & genre of music, and new musical instruments.

12th & 16th centuries, two different traditions of classical music emerged known as Hindustani & Karnatak. Although both music originated from the same theoretical principles, the two styles exhibit different musical forms, raga, tala, musical instruments and other musical details.

Musical instruments in Indian music are many and documented.

CHORDOPHONES : makes sound by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. -In Karnatak music : vina, violin, and tambura. -In the Hindustani music:sitar, sarangi and sarod.

violin sitar






: the wind instruments in Indian classical music are flute and reed types -in Karnatak music : venu -in Hindustani music : bamsri



: any musical instrument, as a drum, in which the sound is produced by striking, rubbing, or blowing. -In Karnatak music : mridangam, tavil -In Hindustani music : pakhavaj, tabla

tabla tavil mridangam


: creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, without the use of strings or membranes. -In Karnatak music : tambourine (kanjira), ghatam and morsing. -In Hindustani music : jaltarang.
ghatam morsing jaltarang


Indian classical music focuses on melody and rhytm. The classical composition are improvised and the concepts of raga or rag and tala or tal are the basis of improvisation

Based on the rag ( in the Hindustani tradition) or raga (in the Karnatak tradition) Built on a 7-tone scale ( the solfege syllabes sa ri ga ma pa dha ni are used to sing the scale) It is scale-like arrangement or melody-type with a specific ascending pattern and descending pattern

The tal (Hindustani music) or tala ( Karnatak music) refers to the time measure and rhytm in classical music The time cycle that contains a specific numbers of beats The given time cycle used in a performance is repeated throughout the piece The basis for organizing time and for playing the rhythmic patterns on the drums and other percussion instruments The repeated tal or tala may be quite short 7 beats for example or 30 or more beats long

Involves two main part. FIRST PART: The alapana (Karnatak tradition) or the alap (Hindustani tradition). The music is not metered The drums are not played The player reveals the particular raga slowly, bringing out all the pitches and melodic motifs little by little Rhythm is free, no tala present Develops in stages,proceeding to the short session called tanam (in Karnatak tradition) and jor ( in Hindustani tradition) Player begin to establish a steady beat or pulse in the music Still no tala present At the end of alapana, the performer stops momenntarily to re-tune his instruments

SECOND PART: consists of the main composition There is specific raga and tala Usually the drummer enters the performance at this time

Performance by Ravi Shankar

Indian musical associations in Malaysia also promote light classical and new music to attract the various ethnic groups from South Asia as well as the Malays and Chinese to their concerts Shorter melodic themes and faster rhythms are used Catchy melodies and new instruments are showcased to attract the audience Example: the group Vadya Sammelanam which performed for Radio Malaysia highlighted jaltarang as virtuaso instruments