You are on page 1of 172

Chapter 6

A Tour of the Cell

PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Overview: The Importance of Cells • All organisms are made of cells • The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live • Cell theory
– All living things are composed of cells. – All cells come from preexisting cells.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Cell structure is correlated to cellular function

Figure 6.1
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

10 µm

• Concept 6.1: To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microscopy • Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Light microscopes (LMs)
– Pass visible light through a specimen – Magnify cellular structures with glass lenses

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Different types of microscopes
Unaided eye

– Can be used to visualize different sized cellular structures
10 m 1m
Human height

0.1 m

Chicken egg

1 cm
Frog egg

1 mm Light microscope

100 µm
Most plant and Animal cells

10 µ m
Nucleus Most bacteria Mitochondrion

Unaided eyee

Length of some nerve and muscle cells

1µm 100 nm 10 nm

Smallest bacteria Viruses
Ribosomes Proteins

Electron microscope

1 nm

Lipids
Small molecules

Figure 6.2

0.1 nm

Atoms

Measurements 1 centimeter (cm) = 10−2 meter (m) = 0.4 inch 1 millimeter (mm) = 10–3 m 1 micrometer (µm) = 10–3 mm = 10–6 m 1 nanometer (nm) = 10–3 mm = 10–9 m

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• http://www.nikon.co.jp/main/eng/feelnikon/disco very/universcale/index_f.htm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– Use different methods for enhancing visualization of cellular structures
TECHNIQUE RESULT

(a) Brightfield (unstained specimen).

Passes light directly through specimen. Unless cell is naturally pigmented or artificially stained, image has little contrast. [Parts (a)–(d) show a human cheek epithelial cell.]
50 µm

(b) Brightfield (stained specimen). Staining with various dyes enhances contrast, but most staining procedures require that cells be fixed (preserved).

(c) Phase-contrast. Enhances contrast in unstained cells by amplifying variations in density within specimen; especially useful for examining living, unpigmented cells.

Figure 6.3
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

(d) Differential-interference-contrast (Nomarski). Like phase-contrast microscopy, it uses optical modifications to exaggerate differences in density, making the image appear almost 3D. (e) Fluorescence. Shows the locations of specific molecules in the cell by tagging the molecules with fluorescent dyes or antibodies. These fluorescent substances absorb ultraviolet radiation and emit visible light, as shown here in a cell from an artery. (f) Confocal. Uses lasers and special optics for “optical sectioning” of fluorescently-stained specimens. Only a single plane of focus is illuminated; out-of-focus fluorescence above and below the plane is subtracted by a computer. A sharp image results, as seen in stained nervous tissue (top), where nerve cells are green, support cells are red, and regions of overlap are yellow. A standard fluorescence micrograph (bottom) of this relatively thick tissue is blurry.
50 µm

We have a Hoffmann interference microscope

50 µm
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Use of confocal microscopy: green is a growth factor; red, its receptor; yellow, where the two are present in the same pixel.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A program is available which will multiply the amount of green and red in each pixel.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The result is an image that shows where the growth factor is bound to the receptor. This is human skin.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

This is the University of Washington scientist who did this work.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

This is the source of skin for his research!

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Electron microscopes (EMs)
– Focus a beam of electrons through a specimen (TEM) or onto its surface (SEM)

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The scanning electron microscope (SEM)
– Provides for detailed study of the surface of a specimen
TECHNIQUE
(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Micrographs taken with a scanning electron microscope show a 3D image of the surface of a specimen. This SEM shows the surface of a cell from a rabbit trachea (windpipe) covered with motile organelles called cilia. Beating of the cilia helps move inhaled debris upward toward the throat.

RESULTS
1 µm

Cilia

Figure 6.4 (a)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Some SEM images taken by CBC students of the stems of the seedless vascular plant Equisetum (horsetail, scouring rush)

The lighter areas indicate the deposition of silica
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Here are some SEMs of stomata of the second type of Equisetum.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SEM images of diatoms, algae with silica impregnated cell walls

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The transmission electron microscope (TEM)
– Provides for detailed study of the internal ultrastructure of cells
Longitudinal section of cilium (b) Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A transmission electron microscope profiles a thin section of a specimen. Here we see a section through a tracheal cell, revealing its ultrastructure. In preparing the TEM, some cilia were cut along their lengths, creating longitudinal sections, while other cilia were cut straight across, creating cross sections. Cross section of cilium
1 µm

Figure 6.4 (b)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• You will be expected to “read” a TEM image by the end of this chapter; to recognize specific cell structures

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Isolating Organelles by Cell Fractionation • Cell fractionation
– Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The centrifuge
– Is used to fractionate cells into their component parts

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The process of cell fractionation
Cell fractionation is used to isolate (fractionate) cell components, based on size and density.
TECHNIQUE APPLICATION

First, cells are homogenized in a blender to break them up. The resulting mixture (cell homogenate) is then centrifuged at various speeds and durations to fractionate the cell components, forming a series of pellets.

Figure 6.5
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Tissue cells

Homogenization

1000 g Homogenate (1000 times the force of gravity) Differential centrifugation 10 min
Supernatant poured into next tube 20,000 g 20 min 80,000 g 60 min 150,000 g 3 hr

Pellet rich in nuclei and cellular debris

Figure 6.5

Pellet rich in mitochondria (and chloroplasts if cells are from a Pellet rich in plant) “microsomes” (pieces of plasma membranes and Pellet rich in cells’ internal ribosomes membranes)

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

In the original experiments, the researchers used microscopy to identify the organelles in each pellet, establishing a baseline for further experiments. In the next series of experiments, researchers used biochemical methods to determine the metabolic functions associated with each type of organelle. Researchers currently use cell fractionation to isolate particular organelles in order to study further details of their function.
RESULTS

Figure 6.5
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions • Two types of cells make up every organism
– Prokaryotic – Eukaryotic

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells • All cells have several basic features in common
– They are bounded by a plasma membrane

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– They contain a semifluid substance called the cytosol – They contain chromosomes • What organic molecule is always found in a chromosome? – They all have ribosomes • What is the function of a ribosome?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Prokaryotic cells
– Do not contain a nucleus – Have their DNA located in a region called the nucleoid – Contain one circular chromosome

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bacterial cell
fimbriae

: attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes Nucleoid: region where the cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) Ribosomes: organelles that synthesize proteins Plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the cytoplasm Cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane Capsule: jelly-like outer coating of many prokaryotes 0.5 µm Flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria (b) A thin section through the bacterium Bacillus coagulans (TEM)

Bacterial chromosome (a) A typical rod-shaped bacterium

Figure 6.6 A, B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Eukaryotic cells
– Contain a true nucleus, bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope – Are generally quite a bit bigger than prokaryotic cells

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on the size of cells

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• A smaller cell
– Has a higher surface to volume ratio, which facilitates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell
Surface area increases while total volume remains constant

5 1 1 Total surface area (height × width × number of sides × number of boxes) Total volume (height × width × length × number of boxes) Surface-to-volume ratio (surface area ÷ volume)

6

150

750

Is this correct?

1

125

125

6

12

6

Figure 6.7
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The plasma membrane
– Functions as a selective barrier – Allows sufficient passage of nutrients and waste
Outside of cell Carbohydrate side chain

Hydrophilic region Inside of cell 0.1 µm

Hydrophobic region Hydrophilic region Phospholipid Proteins

Figure 6.8 A, B

(a) TEM of a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, here in a red blood cell, appears as a pair of dark bands separated by a light band.

(b) Structure of the plasma membrane

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A Panoramic View of the Eukaryotic Cell • Eukaryotic cells
– Have extensive and elaborately arranged internal membranes, which form organelles

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Plant and animal cells
– Have most of the same organelles

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• A animal cell
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER)

Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Plasma membrane NUCLEUS

Rough ER Flagelium Centrosome

Smooth ER

CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules Microvilli Golgi apparatus Peroxisome Figure 6.9 Mitochondrion Lysosome
In animal cells but not plant cells: Lysosomes Centrioles Flagella (in some plant sperm)

Ribosomes

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• A plant cell
NUCLEUS

Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Chromatin Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Plant cells lack intermediate filaments
Ribosomes (small brwon dots)

Centrosome

Central vacuole Golgi apparatus Tonoplast Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules

CYTOSKELETON

Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Cell wall Plasmodesmata Wall of adjacent cell Chloroplast

Figure 6.9
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

In plant cells but not animal cells: Chloroplasts Central vacuole and tonoplast Cell wall Plasmodesmata

Colorized TEM

Which is prokaryotic; which eukaryotic? These images are not the same scale; which cell is much bigger than the other?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 6.3: The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Nucleus: Genetic Library of the Cell • The nucleus
– Contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell – Notice: “most” of the genes. Where do you think the rest of the genes of the cell are located???? – A cell will contain a specific number of linear chromosomes • Human cells – 46; chimpanzees - 48 • Fruit fly - 8
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The nuclear envelope
– Encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm
Nucleus 1 µm Nucleolus Chromatin Nuclear envelope: Inner membrane Outer membrane Nucleus

Nuclear pore Pore complex Rough ER Surface of nuclear envelope.
0.25 µm

Ribosome

1 µm

Close-up of nuclear envelope

Figure 6.10

Pore complexes (TEM).

Nuclear lamina (TEM).

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal subunit synthesis Ribosomal RNA is combined with proteins imported from the cytosol to form the large and small ribosomal subunits that are then exported to the cytosol.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Ribosomes: Protein Factories in the Cell • Ribosomes
– Are particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– Carry out protein synthesis
Ribosomes ER Free ribosomes Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Cytosol

Bound ribosomes Large subunit

0.5 µm
TEM showing ER and ribosomes

Small subunit
Diagram of a ribosome

Figure 6.11
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 6.4: The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell probably evolved from the invagination of the plasma membrane It is a series of membranes that separates the cytosol from the cisternal space or lumen, the space surrounded by the membrane. (kind of like your digestive tract) • The endomembrane system
– Includes many different structures
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plasma membrane cytosol Not cytosol Cytoplasm: everything inside the plasma membrane that is not the nucleus nucleus

nucleoplasm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Endoplasmic Reticulum: Biosynthetic Factory • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
– Accounts for more than half the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The ER membrane
– Is continuous with the nuclear envelope
Smooth ER Rough ER Nuclear envelope

ER lumen Cisternae Ribosomes Transport vesicle Smooth ER

Transitional ER Rough ER
200 µm

Figure 6.12
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• There are two distinct regions of ER
– Smooth ER, which lacks ribosomes; more tubular – Rough ER, ribosomes are attached to the cytosol side of the membrane; more sac-like

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functions of Smooth ER • The smooth ER
– Synthesizes lipids – Metabolizes carbohydrates – Stores calcium – Detoxifies poison

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Liver cell (hepatocyte) after Phenobarbital use

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functions of Rough ER • The rough ER
– Has bound ribosomes – Produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Rough ER in a maize cell

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Golgi Apparatus: Shipping and Receiving Center • The Golgi apparatus
– Receives many of the transport vesicles produced in the rough ER – Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae – Center of manufacturing, storing, warehousing and shipping

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Functions of the Golgi apparatus include
– Modification of the products of the rough ER • Including modifying oligosaccharides of glycoproteins – Manufacture of certain macromolecules, especially polysaccharides (e.g. pectin part of the cell wall of plants)

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Functions of the Golgi apparatus
cis face (“receiving” side of Golgi apparatus) Golgi apparatus

Cisternal maturation model

6 Vesicles also transport certain proteins back to ER

1 Vesicles move from ER to Golgi

2 Vesicles coalesce to form new cis Golgi cisternae Cisternae 3 Cisternal maturation: Golgi cisternae move in a cisto-trans direction 4 Vesicles form and leave Golgi, carrying specific proteins to other locations or to the plasma membrane for secretion

0.1 0 µm

Figure 6.13
5 Vesicles transport specific proteins backward to newer Golgi cisternae

trans face (“shipping” side of Golgi apparatus)

TEM of Golgi apparatus

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments • A lysosome
– Is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes – Can digest all kinds of macromolecules – acidic

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Lysosomes carry out intracellular digestion by
– Phagocytosis – cell eating
Nucleus 1 µm

Lysosome may fuse with a food vacuole, created by phagocytosis
Lysosome Lysosome contains active hydrolytic enzymes Food vacuole fuses with lysosome Digestive enzymes Lysosome Plasma membrane Digestion Food vacuole Hydrolytic enzymes digest food particles

Figure 6.14 A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

(a) Phagocytosis: lysosome digesting food

• Autophagy – self eating
Lysosome containing two damaged organelles 1µm

Mitochondrion fragment

Peroxisome fragment

A human liver cell recycles half of its macromolecules every week

Lysosome fuses with vesicle containing damaged organelle

Hydrolytic enzymes digest organelle components

Lysosome

Digestion Vesicle containing damaged mitochondrion

Figure 6.14 (B Autophagy: lysosome breaking down damaged organelle b)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

lysosome

What’s this?
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Tay-Sachs disease • A storage disease • Caused by nonfunctional lysosomal enzyme that breaks down specific lipids prevalent in brain cells
– Death in a few years

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Brain tissue from an infant with Tay Sachs: the blue stained material is accumulated lipid

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Vacuoles: Diverse Maintenance Compartments • A plant or fungal cell
– May have one or several vacuoles

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Food vacuoles
– Are formed by phagocytosis

• Contractile vacuoles
– Pump excess water out of protist cells

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Central vacuoles
– – Are found in plant cells Hold reserves of important organic compounds and water; cheap growth; waste disposal; water soluble pigments

Central vacuole Cytosol

Tonoplast

Nucleus Cell wall Chloroplast
Figure 6.15
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Central vacuole

Cell sap

5 µm

View of a parenchyma cell with a large central vacuole
The membrane surrounding the central vacuole is the tonoplast.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Endomembrane System: A Review • The endomembrane system
– Is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization – Separates an area of the cytoplasm away from the cytosol

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system
1
Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER
Nucleus

Rough ER

2

Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi

Smooth ER Nuclear envelop

cis Golgi

3

Golgi pinches off transport Vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes and Vacuoles
trans Golgi

Plasma membrane

4

Lysosome available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion

5 Transport vesicle carries
proteins to plasma membrane for secretion

6

Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell

Figure 6.16
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

cytosol

Endoplasmic reticulum

A B
Plasma membrane

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Concept 6.5: Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another • Mitochondria
– Are the sites of cellular respiration

• Plastids (including chloroplasts)
– Found only in plants and algae and apicomplexans, are often the sites of photosynthesis

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mitochondria: Chemical Energy Conversion • Mitochondria
– Are found in nearly all eukaryotic cells – Diplomonada (Giardia intestinalis) and Parabasala (Trichomonas vaginalis) have only remnants of mitochondria

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes
– A smooth outer membrane – An inner membrane folded into cristae
Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane

Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Inner membrane Cristae Matrix

Figure 6.17

Mitochondrial DNA

100 µm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mitochondrion  dividing

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy • The chloroplast
– Is a specialized plastid • other plastids
– Amyloplasts – store starch – Chromoplasts – contain red to yellow carotenoid pigments

– Contains chlorophyll, a pigment of what color? – Functions in oxygenic photosynthesis
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Chloroplasts
– Are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae

Chloroplast

Ribosomes Stroma Chloroplast DNA Inner and outer membranes Granum 1 µm Figure 6.18 Thylakoid

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Chloroplast structure includes
– Thylakoids, membranous sacs – Stroma, the internal fluid – Inner membrane – Outer membrane – Thylakoid space – Intermembrane space

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Peroxisomes: Oxidation • Combine hydrogens from organic molecules with oxygen producing hydrogen peroxide • Convert the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen • Reduce the amount of oxygen in the cell • Protect the cell from oxidative damage • Involved in beta oxidation of fatty acids • Detoxify alcohol in the liver • Glyoxysomes in plant seeds convert stored lipids to sugar

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Chloroplast Peroxisome Mitochondrion

This peroxisome is cooperating with the chloroplasts and mitochondria in a process called photorespiration.

Figure 6.19

1 µm
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Which is prokaryotic; which eukaryotic? These images are not the same scale; which cell is much bigger than the other?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plasma membrane cytosol Not cytosol Cytoplasm: everything inside the plasma membrane that is not the nucleus nucleus

nucleoplasm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts, peroxisomes and mitochondria cooperate in a metabolic pathway called photorespiration.

Peroxisomes 1µm
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Which is prokaryotic; which eukaryotic? These images are not the same scale; which cell is much bigger than the other?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plasma membrane cytosol Not cytosol Cytoplasm: everything inside the plasma membrane that is not the nucleus nucleus

nucleoplasm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

cytoskeleton Concept 6.6: The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell Microtubules Intermediate filaments Microfilaments

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The cytoskeleton
– Is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm

Microtubule

Figure 6.20
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

0.25 µm

Microfilaments

Roles of the Cytoskeleton: Support, Motility, and Regulation

• The cytoskeleton
– Gives mechanical support to the cell – Anchorage for organelles and molecules – Dynamic; dismantled and reassembled – Transmits mechanical signals all the way to the nucleus

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– Is involved in cell motility, which utilizes motor proteins
ATP
Vesicle Receptor for motor protein

Motor protein (ATP powered)

Microtubule of cytoskeleton

(a) Motor proteins that attach to receptors on organelles can “walk” the organelles along microtubules or, in some cases, microfilaments. Vesicles Microtubule

0.25 µm

Figure 6.21 A, B

(b) Vesicles containing neurotransmitters migrate to the tips of nerve cell axons via the mechanism in (a). In this SEM of a squid giant axon, two  vesicles can be seen moving along a microtubule. (A separate part of the experiment provided the evidence that they were in fact moving.)

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Components of the Cytoskeleton
• There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton

Table 6.1
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microtubules • Microtubules
– Shape the cell – Guide movement of organelles – Help separate the chromosome copies in dividing cells – Built from the globular proteins alpha and beta tubulin

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Centrosomes and Centrioles • The centrosome
– Is considered to be a “microtubule-organizing center” – In animal cells, but not in plant cells, the centrosome contains a pair of centrioles

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– Contains a pair of centrioles
Centrosome

Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm

9 triplets

Figure 6.22

Longitudinal section of one centriole

Microtubules

Cross section of the other centriole

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cilia and Flagella • Cilia and flagella
– Contain specialized arrangements of microtubules – Are locomotor appendages of some cells

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Flagella beating pattern

(a) Motion of flagella. A flagellum usually undulates, its snakelike motion driving a cell in the same direction as the axis of the flagellum. Propulsion of a human sperm cell is an example of flagellate locomotion (LM).

Direction of swimming

Figure 6.23 A
1 µm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Ciliary motion
What type of microscopy is this?

(b) Motion of cilia. Cilia have a backand-forth motion that moves the cell in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the cilium. A dense nap of cilia, beating at a rate of about 40 to 60 strokes a second, covers this Colpidium, a freshwater protozoan (SEM).

Figure 6.23 B
15 µm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colpidium
What type of microscopy is this?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colpidium
What type of microscopy is this?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Cilia and flagella share a common ultrastructure
Outer microtubule doublet Dynein arms Central microtubule Outer doublets cross-linking proteins inside Radial spoke Plasma membrane

0.1 µm

Dynein is the motor molecule

Microtubules Plasma membrane Basal body

(b)

0.5 µm

(a)

0.1 µm

Triplet

(c)

Figure 6.24 A-C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cross section of basal body

• The protein dynein – a motor protein
– Is responsible for the bending movement of cilia and flagella
Microtubule doublets
ATP

Dynein arm (a) Powered by ATP, the dynein arms of one microtubule doublet grip the adjacent doublet, push it up, release, and then grip again. If the two microtubule doublets were not attached, they would slide relative to each other.

Figure 6.25 A

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Outer doublets cross-linking proteins

ATP

Anchorage in cell

(b) In a cilium or flagellum, two adjacent doublets cannot slide far because they are physically restrained by proteins, so they bend. (Only two of the nine outer doublets in Figure 6.24b are shown here.)
Figure 6.25 B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

1 2

3

(c) Localized, synchronized activation of many dynein arms probably causes a bend to begin at the base of the Cilium or flagellum and move outward toward the tip. Many successive bends, such as the ones shown here to the left and right, result in a wavelike motion. In this diagram, the two central microtubules and the cross-linking proteins are not shown. Figure 6.25 C

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Which is prokaryotic; which eukaryotic? These images are not the same scale; which cell is much bigger than the other?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plasma membrane cytosol Not cytosol Cytoplasm: everything inside the plasma membrane that is not the nucleus nucleus

nucleoplasm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Kinesin is a motor molecule; it causes movement as it binds to and hydrolyzes ATP.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microfilaments (Actin Filaments) • Microfilaments
– Are built from molecules of the globular protein actin – Can from a branching network – Form a three-dimensional network just inside the plasma membrane

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Which is prokaryotic; which eukaryotic? These images are not the same scale; which cell is much bigger than the other?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plasma membrane cytosol Not cytosol Cytoplasm: everything inside the plasma membrane that is not the nucleus nucleus

nucleoplasm

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Colorized TEM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

microfilaments • Are made of the protein actin

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

– Are found in microvilli
Microvillus

Plasma membrane

Microfilaments (actin filaments)

Intermediate filaments

Figure 6.26
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

0.25 µm

• Microfilaments that function in cellular motility
– Contain the motor protein myosin in addition to actin

Muscle cell Actin filament

Myosin filament Myosin arm

Figure 6.27 A

(a) Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction.

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Amoeboid movement
– Involves the contraction of actin and myosin filaments
Cortex (outer cytoplasm): gel with actin network

Inner cytoplasm: sol with actin subunits

Extending pseudopodium

Figure 6.27 B
(b) Amoeboid movement
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Cytoplasmic streaming
– Is another form of locomotion created by microfilaments and myosin
Nonmoving cytoplasm (gel) Chloroplast Streaming cytoplasm (sol)

Parallel actin filaments

Cell wall

Figure 6.27 C

(b) Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• On the cytoplasmic side of the cleavage furrow a contractile ring of actin microfilaments and the motor protein myosin form. • Contraction of the ring pinches the cell in two.
Fig. 12.8a
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Animal cell

Intermediate Filaments • Intermediate filaments
– Support cell shape; bear tension – Fix organelles in place – Varied; made from a class of fibrous proteins called keratins • not found in plant cells – More permanent, but active and dynamic – Nuclear lamina
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intermediate filaments

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The construction of an intermediate filament

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concept 6.7: Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell Walls of Plants • The cell wall
– Is an extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells – Fungi, bacteria, archaea also have cell walls

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Plant cell walls
– Are made of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein – May have multiple layers
Central vacuole of cell Plasma membrane Secondary cell wall Primary cell wall Central vacuole of cell Middle lamella

1 µm Central vacuole Cytosol Plasma membrane

Perforated by plasmodesmata

Plant cell walls

Figure 6.28

Plasmodesmata

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of Animal Cells • Animal cells
– Lack cell walls – Are covered by an elaborate matrix, the ECM – Glycoproteins secreted by the cell • Collagen is the most abundant • Proteoglycans form a feathery web – May help coordinate behavior of cells in connective tissue
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• The ECM
– Is made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Collagen A proteoglycan complex

Polysaccharide molecule Carbohydrates Core protein

Fibronectin

Plasma membrane

Integrins

Proteoglycan molecule

Integrin

Figure 6.29

Microfilaments

CYTOPLASM

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Functions of the ECM include
– Support – Adhesion – Movement – Regulation

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Intercellular Junctions • Plants
– Plasmodesmata (plasmodesma sing.)

• Animals
– Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Plants: Plasmodesmata • Plasmodesmata
– Are channels that perforate plant cell walls Cell walls
Interior of cell

Interior of cell
Figure 6.30

0.5 µm

Plasmodesmata

Plasma membranes

Unify a plant into a continuum of cytoplasm - symplast
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Animals: Tight Junctions, Desmosomes, and Gap Junctions

• In animals, there are three types of intercellular junctions
– Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

• Types of intercellular junctions in animals
TIGHT JUNCTIONS
Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells Tight junction At tight junctions, the membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other, bound together by specific proteins (purple). Forming continuous seals around the cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across A layer of epithelial cells. 0.5 µm

DESMOSOMES Tight junctions Intermediate filaments Desmosome Gap junctions
1 µm Desmosomes (also called anchoring junctions) function like rivets, fastening cells Together into strong sheets. Intermediate Filaments made of sturdy keratin proteins Anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm.

GAP JUNCTIONS
Gap junctions (also called communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell. Gap junctions consist of special membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions, sugars, amino acids, and other small molecules may pass. Gap junctions are necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues, including heart muscle and animal embryos.

Space between cells

Extracellular matrix Plasma membranes of adjacent cells Gap junction

Figure 6.31
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

0.1 µm

Tight junctions

What are these?

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts

• Cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function
5 µm
Figure 6.32
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings