1

Introduction
Chapter 1
1.1 What is an operating system
1.2 History oI operating systems
1.3 The operating system zoo
1.4 Computer hardware review
1.5 Operating system concepts
1.6 System calls
1.7 Operating system structure
2
Introduction
· A computer system consists oI
hardware
system programs
application programs
3
What is an Operating System
· It is an extended machine
Hides the messy details which must be perIormed
Presents user with a virtual machine, easier to use
· It is a resource manager
Each program gets time with the resource
Each program gets space on the resource
4
History oI Operating Systems (1)
Early batch system
bring cards to 1401
read cards to tape
put tape on 7094 which does computing
put tape on 1401 which prints output
5
History oI Operating Systems (2)
· First generation 1945 - 1955
vacuum tubes, plug boards
· Second generation 1955 - 1965
transistors, batch systems
· Third generation 1965 1980
ICs and multiprogramming
· Fourth generation 1980 present
personal computers
6
History oI Operating Systems (3)
· Structure oI a typical FMS job 2
nd
generation
7
History oI Operating Systems (4)
· Multiprogramming system
three jobs in memory 3
rd
generation
8
The Operating System Zoo
· MainIrame operating systems
· Server operating systems
· Multiprocessor operating systems
· Personal computer operating systems
· Real-time operating systems
· Embedded operating systems
· Smart card operating systems
9
Computer Hardware Review (1)
· Components oI a simple personal computer
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10
Computer Hardware Review (2)
(a) A three-stage pipeline
(b) A superscalar CPU
11
Computer Hardware Review (3)
· Typical memory hierarchy
numbers shown are rough approximations
12
Computer Hardware Review (4)
Structure oI a disk drive
13
Computer Hardware Review (5)
One base-limit pair and two base-limit pairs
14
Computer Hardware Review (6)
(a) Steps in starting an I/O device and getting interrupt
(b) How the CPU is interrupted
, -
15
Computer Hardware Review (7)
Structure oI a large Pentium system
16
Operating System Concepts (1)
· A process tree
A created two child processes, B and C
B created three child processes, D, E, and F
17
Operating System Concepts (2)
(a) A potential deadlock. (b) an actual deadlock.
18
Operating System Concepts (3)
File system Ior a university department
19
Operating System Concepts (4)
· BeIore mounting,
Iiles on Iloppy are inaccessible
· AIter mounting Iloppy on b,
Iiles on Iloppy are part oI Iile hierarchy
20
Operating System Concepts (5)
Two processes connected by a pipe
21
Steps in Making a System Call
There are 11 steps in making the system call
read (fd, buffer, nbytes)
22
Some System Calls For Process Management
23
Some System Calls For File Management
24
Some System Calls For Directory Management
25
Some System Calls For Miscellaneous Tasks
26
System Calls (1)
· A stripped down shell:
3e (TRUE) { /* repeat forever */
type_prompt( ), /* dsp3ay prompt */
read_command (command, parameters) /* nput from termna3 */
f (fork() != 0) { /* fork off c3d process */
/* Parent code */
atpd( ·1, Sstatus, 0), /* at for c3d to ext */
} e3se {
/* C3d code */
execve (command, parameters, 0), /* execute command */
}
}
27
System Calls (2)
· Processes have three segments: text, data, stack
28
System Calls (3)
(a) Two directories beIore linking
:8722024 to ast's directory
(b) The same directories aIter linking
29
System Calls (4)
(a) File system beIore the mount
(b) File system aIter the mount
30
System Calls (5)
Some Win32 API calls
31
Operating System Structure (1)
Simple structuring model Ior a monolithic system
32
Operating System Structure (2)
Structure oI the THE operating system
33
Operating System Structure (3)
Structure oI VM/370 with CMS
34
Operating System Structure (4)
The client-server model
35
Operating System Structure (5)
The client-server model in a distributed system
36
Metric Units
The metric preIixes

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