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Introduction Purpose of O-D Study Definition of the Study Area Zoning Surveys (Data Collection) Presentation of Data


it is often necessary to know the exact origin and destination of the trips  not only how many trips are made.† Introduction In transportation planning process. but also group these trips with reference to the zones of their origin and destination  3 .

† Purpose of O-D Study    Where they come from and where they go to? To develop models is transport planning process To assess the adequacy of the present highway system To assess the adequacy of parking facilities and to plan for future To determine the amount of by-passable traffic that enters a town 4   .

† Defining the Study Area  The study area for which transportation facilities area being planned is first of all defined For planning at the urban level. the study area should embrace existing and potential built-up areas of the city The external cordon line should be continuous and uniform in its course and the line should intersect roads where it is safe and convenient to carry out traffic surveys The external cordon line should be compatible with previous studies    5 .

† Zoning  The purpose of such a sub-division is to facilitate the spatial quantification of land-use and economic factors which influence travel pattern Sub-division into zones further helps in geographically associating the origins and destinations of travel A convenient system of coding is adopted   6 .

It would be advantageous if the Sub division follows closely that adopted by other bodies for data collection. open space) .The zones should have a homogeneous land-use so as to reflect accurately the associated trip-making behaviour . Important points to be kept in view. thus will facilitate correlation of data 7 .Anticipated changes in land-use should be considered when sub-dividing the study area into zones . industrial. (residential. while dividing the area into zones . recreational. commercial.Land-use is the most important factor in establishing zones for accuracy.

Natural or physical barriers such as canals. At the same time.Zones must be compatible with screen lines and cordon lines . they should not be too small either.Zones should have regular geometric form for easily determining the centroid which represents the origin and termination of travel . Important points to be kept in view. can form convenient zone boundaries 8 . while dividing the area into zones . to cause difficulty in handling and analysing the data . rivers etc. railways.The zones should not be too large to cause considerable errors in data.

The internal to internal travel is best studied by the home interview technique with checks by screen-line surveys. The internal-external.† Surveys  For large urban areas. external-internal and external-external travels can be studied by cordon surveys  9 . the internal to internal travel is heavy whereas for small areas the internal to internal travel is insignificant.

† Types of Survey         Home interview Road-side interview Commercial vehicle surveys Taxi surveys Post card questionnaire Registration number surveys Tag surveys Public transport surveys 10 .

whether he or she has a driver’s license. purpose of trip. their origin and destination. travel mode. vehicle ownership.† Home interview  Home-interview origin-destination survey is a method in which households were asked questions to get data on the travel pattern and the general characteristics influencing trip-making  The information on travel pattern includes number of trips made. family income and so on  Based on these data it is possible to relate the amount of travel to household and develop equations for trip generation rates 11 . number of drivers. number of residents. age. time of departure from origin and time of arrival at destination conducted on a daily basis  The information on household characteristics includes type of dwelling unit. sex.

000 Minimum Sample Size 1 in 10 households 1 in 20 households 1 in 35 households 300.000.000 150.000 – 1.000 1 in 50 households 1 in 70 households 1 in 100 households 12 .000 500. which precisely describes how the interview is to be conducted and what information is to be collected  It is impractical and unnecessary to interview all the residents of the study area.000 50.000 – 500.† Home interview  Procedure for conducting Home interview is contained in the Bureau of Public Roads Manual.000 – 150.000 Over 1. so that proper sampling procedure is employed Minimum Sampling Size for Home Interview Population of Study Area Under 50.000 – 300.000. Since travel patterns tend to be uniform in a particular zone.

single circular cordon at the periphery of the town is enough  Medium sized cities (population 5000 to 75000) two cordon lines are necessary.† Road-side interview  One of the methods of screen-line or cordon survey  Can be done either by directly interviewing drivers of the vehicles at selected survey points or by issuing prepaid post cards containing the questionnaire to all or a sample of the drivers  Survey points are selected along the junction of the cordon-line or screen line with the roads  Small towns (population < 5000). external cordon at the edge of the urban development and the internal cordon at the limits of the CBD 13 .

the cordon-lines and screen lines may be more complicated. 14 . Cordon line and screen line surveys by the road side interview technique serve to check the accuracy of the home interview survey data  It is impractical to stop and interview all the vehicles.† Road-side interview  For large cities. therefore. Sampling is. it necessary to seek help of the police to control and direct the traffic for being interviewed  For complete and reliable data to be obtained by the survey. it is necessary to frame and design the questions with care. necessary. The number of samples depends on the number of interviewers and the traffic using the road  Vehicles must be stopped in an interview bay so that traffic flow is not obstructed. and the home-interview technique cannot be dispensed with. Suitable advance warning signs should be erected  As interviewers have no statutory powers to stop the vehicle and question the drivers.

Forms are issued to drivers with a request that they record particulars of all the trips they would make.† Commercial vehicle Surveys  To obtain information on journeys made by all commercial vehicles based within the study area The addresses of the vehicle operators are obtained and they are contacted. A typical questionnaire which includes information on the origin and destination of each trip is to be prepared  15 .

a separate taxi survey is necessary.† Taxi Surveys  Large urban areas usually have a sizeable amount of travel by taxis. The survey consists of issuing questionnaires to the taxi drivers and requesting them to complete the same  16 . In such cases.

avoids delay caused to the drivers response may not be good simpler and cheaper than many others    17 .† Post-card Questionnaire Survey  pre-paid questionnaires are handed over to the drivers at the survey points and requesting them to complete the information and return by post.

destination of the trip nor trip purpose analysis is tedious and complicated    18 .† Registration Number Surveys  noting the registration numbers of vehicles entering or leaving an area at survey points by matching the registration numbers at the points of entry and exit. one is enabled to identify two points on the paths of the vehicles neither gives the origin.

† Tag Surveys  vehicles are stopped and a tag is affixed on it and at the exit points tags are removed times of entering and leaving the area may be marked on the tags  † Public transport surveys  to assess the number of bus passengers passing through an external cordon either by direct interview or by issuing post-card questionnaire to passengers 19  .

† Presentation of Data O–D matrix Desire Line Diagram 20 .

21 .

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