CHILD DEVELOPMENT

CHILD DEVELEOPMENT
Growth = Physical Development
    Increase of size & number of cells Different parts in different times Measured by anthropometry Evaluated by growth reference lines

CHILD DEVELEOPMENT
Development = Change in function
   Difficult to separate from growth Abnormal growth = Abnormal Development Individual variation in development

CHILD DEVELEOPMENT
In All Children:
Development is a continuous process Stepwise eg. child can’t walk before standing 4 abilities: fine motor, gross motor, language, personal / social  The 4 abilities are coordinate & integrate eg. Walking is gross motor but  curiosity, learning   

DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
MATERIAL: 1. Housing 3. Protection 5. Clothing 7. Rest 9. Sunlight 2. Care 4. Food / nutrition 6. Warmth 8. Clean air 10. Activity

DEVELOPMENT NEEDS
PSYCHOLOGICAL / EMOTIONAL: 1. Love / Affection 2. Continuous care 3. Security 4. Self-respect 5. Education 6. Learning life skills 7. Opportunity to learn from personal experience 8. Opportunity to achieve success even if little 9. Opportunity to shoulder responsibilities

FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
Various factors before, during or after birth I- Parents Related: 1. Intelligence 3. Culture 2. Character 4. Maternal age at birth

FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
II- Genetic Factors: Genetic disorders eg. cong. anomalies III- Metabolic Diseases eg. cong. hypothyroid IV- Chromosomal abnormalities eg. Down syndrome

FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
V- Pregnancy Related: 1. Diseases of pregnancy 2. Multiple preg. 3. Drugs 4. Infertility 5. Maternal exhaustion 6. Prematurity 7. Abnormal presentation 8. Postmaturity 9. Neonatal hypoxia 10. Birth injuries 11. Neonatal convulsions 12. Uterine & placental problems

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT
1. 2. 3. 4. Nutrition Family size Early illness Emotional deprivation Children development abilities in D.C.’s are measured using the same norms of western standards !!

DEVELOPMENT SCREENING
 Is a secondary prevention tool – aims at early detection of abnormalities  Is the organized procedure for early discovery of diseases or risk factors in people who are apparently healthy

DEVELOPMENT SCREENING
 A screening tool is not necessarily a diagnostic tool but those at risk screened must be referred for diagnosis & treatment  Best eg. of a screening test is that for PKU. Age at which PKU was diagnosed was reduced from 4 years to 4 weeks after using screening with positive effects.

CRITERIA FOR A SCREENING TOOL
1. Validity – sensitivity & specificity 2. Reliability – should give same results as reuse 3. Fast – to screen largest numbers 4. Simplicity – doesn’t need great expertise 5. Cost effective – of low cost 6. Culturally acceptable to the community

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