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Foundation of Chemistry Plastic (Giants Among Molecules

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Au Wai Laam 10384267 Lee Wai Lam 10383116 Lau Chun Hung 10384156 Fung Tsz Yin 10383379

Plastic
• Plastic is a polymerization product • They are composed by organic condensation or additional polymers

Plastic
• Plastic are very common in the world • It is very useful for our daily life • Can replace some wood, paper in many applications

Advantage
• • • • • • Light Cheap Unreactive Do not conduct heat and electricity Waterproof Easily moulded

Disadvantage
• When burning the plastic will gives off poisonous gases • Will stay at landfill for a long time

Formation
• Plastic was made up by Alkenes(C=C) (CnH2n+2) • Connect by many ethenes (monomer) • n( )

• Polymerization: Made up by many monomer to form a polymer. • Repeating Unit:

Type
• Plastic can be define in two types: • Thermoplastic, and • Thermosetting Plastic

Thermoplastic
• Plastic can be melted or softened by heat at relatively low temperatures. • Here is some examples of thermoplastic • Polythene, • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), • Polystyrene, etc.

Polythenes
• Have two type: • Low density polythene (LDPE) Light, Flexible and low-melting • High density polythene (HDPE) Tougher, higher melting and more transparent than LDPE

Uses of polythene (LDPE)
• Squeeze bottles and toys • Sheets for packaging, wrapping and bags.

High density polythene(HDPE)
• Thick plastic bottles • Buckets • Food boxes and toys

Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC)
• Additional Polymerization • It add chlorine in the polymer.

• Stiff and brittle.

Uses of PVC
• Make use of piper and bottles • Many years have use PVC to make sofa.

Polystyrene
• It is an additional polymers • Transparent, brittle and hard

Uses of Polystyene
• ‘See-through’ containers such as sample bottle, cups, etc

Thermosetting
• Plastics do not melt or soften on heating. • Example: • Urea-methanal • Phenolic resins, etc

Urea-methanal formation
• It is a condensation polymer • Contains two monomers: Urea and methanal

Uses of Urea-methanal
• Have high temperature container • Handle of cooking pot • Socket

Bottle
• We always drink water by plastic bottle • Need choose which type of bottle • Only cool or cold can use both type • But have hot water should have thermosetting bottle

Health
• Using thermoplastic will melted by the temperature • Use those bottle, the inner layer will melted by hot water, release some poisonous materials. • But using thermosetting bottle will not have this problem

Disposal problem
• Most of plastics are nonbiodegradable, it will cause those plastic waste remain in landfill for a long time. • Gives off poisonous gases, generally will release carbon monoxide, PVC will release hydrogen chloride gases.

Solutions
• Make some biodegradable plastics • Use of alternative materials • Recycling those plastic

The Plastic Bottle Material Code System
• No.1(PETE: Polyethylene) • No.2(HDPE: High density polyethylene) • No.3(V: PVC) • No.4 (LDPE: Low density polyethylene) • No.5(PP: Polypropylene) • No.6 (PS: Polystyrene) • No.7 (Other)

Reference

• http://www.barganews.com/doggybag/20

• http://zojirushi.kitchenadd.com/Zojirushi-

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urea-formald • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polystyrene • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinyl_chl • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alkene

• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resin_identif • Alan Jones, Access to Chemistry, Royal Society of Chemistry, P.297280 • John W.Hill, Doris K.KOLB, Chemistry for Changing Times (Ninth Edition), Prentice Hall, P.266-287