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# Equipment for

Fluid Mechanics
Assignment
With a group of three students, prepare a
report on types of pump and compressor.

All references should be cited.

# of pages : more than 13 pages not including
references.
Font: Arial 11, spacing 1.5
Due date: 15/10/09 (Thursday) before 5pm.

Course learning outcome
1. Able to explain the types and selection of
pumps (Eg. NPSH, etc.)
2. Able to calculate the work done by the
pump.
3. Describe the types, selection of compressor
and design calculation.
4. Able to calculate the work done by the
compressor.

Pump
Very important mechanical devices in industry,
agriculture and in daily live.
Pump has 2 important functions :
a) ability to supply liquid at required rate of flow.
b) impart energy to the liquid, thereby
increasing the pressure.
Types of pump?
Pump
Capacity of the pump/Volume flow rate

Performance of the pump is characterize by net

Efficiency

Brake horse power,bhp=

m
Q

=
in out
z
g
V
g
P
z
g
V
g
P
H
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
2 2
2 2

shaft
horsepower water
shaft
horsepower water
pump
T
H V g
bhp
W
W
W
e

= = =
(rad/s)= rotational speed of the shaft
Torque supply to the shaft
shaft shaft
T W e =

## Pump performance curve

Free delivery Shut off
H=0 Q=0
Is achieve when there is no flow
restriction at the pump inlet/outlet-no
load to the pump
Is achieve when the outlet port of pump
is blocked off.
Q is very large, but H=0; the pump
efficiency is zero because the pump did
not do any useful work.
H is very large but Q =0, the pump
efficiency is zero
For given piping system, major +minor losses, elevation changes
caused the required net head increase with the volume flow rate.
The pump efficiency reach the maximum value between shut off
condition and the free delivery condition. (Note as H*, bhp* and
V@Q *)
For steady condition, the pump can operate only along the
performance curve

Available net head of pumps decreases with flowrate

.
V

## Operating point of a piping system is established as the

volume flow rate where the system curve and the pump
performance curve intersect.

BEP should be close to operating point for best efficiency
In unfortunate situations the system curve and the pump
performance curve intersect at more than one operating
point.
It can happen when the system curve is almost flat & meet a
pump that has a dip on its net head performance curve.
This situation should be avoided because the system may
hunt for an operating point, leading to unsteady flow
situation
Required net head, H
required

This equation is evaluated from
inlet(upstream) to outlet (downstream).

total L turbine u pump required
h h z z
g
V V
g
P P
h H
, 1 2
2
1 1
2
2 2 1 2
,
) (
2
+ + +

= =
o o

## Pump head delivered to the fluids does 4 things:-

1. It increase it static pressure of the fluid from P1
to P2
2. It increases the dynamic pressure of the fluid
from P1 to P2
3. It raises the elevation of the fluid from P1 to P2
4. It overcomes irreversible head losses in the
piping system

Thus at operating point:-

available required
H H =
Ex 1:
A local ventilation system is used to remove air and
contaminated product by dry cleaning operation. The
duct is round and is constructed of galvanized steel
with longitudinal seams and with joints every 0.76m.
The inner diameter (ID) of the duct is D=0.23m, and its
total length, L =13.4m. There are 5 elbows along the
duct. The equivalent roughness height of this duct is
0.15mm, and each elbow has minor loss coefficient of
KL = 0.21.To ensure adequate ventilation, the
minimum required volume flowrate through the duct is
0.283 m3/s at 25C.From manufacturer list, hood entry
loss coefficient is 1.3 based on duct velocity. When the
damper is fully open, its lost coefficient is 1.8.
A centrifugal fan with 0.23 inlet and outlet
diameter is available. Its performance data
are shown below. Predict the operating
point of this local ventilation system and
draw a plot of required and available fan
pressure rise as functions of volume flow
rate. Is the chosen fan adequate.

Q cmm (P fan,mm H2O)
0 22.9
7 24.1
14 22.9
21 19
28 10.2
34 0
Pump cavitation & NPSH
When pumping liquids, it is possible for the
local pressure inside the pump to fall below
the vapor pressure of the liq,
When , vapor filled bubbles called
cavitations bubbles appear. In other words, the
liquid boils locally.
After cativation of bubbles are formed they are
transported through the pump region where
the pressure is higher, causing collapse of the
bubble.
v
P P <
v
P P <
This will cause noise, vibration, reduce
efficiency and damage to impeller blades.
Repeat collapse leads to erosion of the blade
and causing blade failure.
To avoid cavitations, pressure of the pump
should above vapor pressure.
NPSH- net positive suction head, define as the
difference between the pump inlets stagnation
pressure head and the vapor pressure head.

g
P
g
V
g
P
NPSH
v
inlet pump

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
v
P P)
Pump manufacturers test their pump for
cativation in the pump test facilities by varying
the volume flow rate and inlet pressure.
They publishes performance parameter as
required net positive suction head
(NPSH
required
).(minimum NPSH necessary to
avoid cativation in the pump)
NPSH
required
increases with volume flow rate.

At the point whereby the NPSH and NPSH required
intersect, the maximum volumetric flowrate can be
estimated
To make sure there is no cativation, actual NPSH should be
higher then NPSC required.
Value of NPSH varies not only with flow rate, but also with
liquid temperature.
It also depend on type of the liquid being pump.

How to increase available NPSH?
Lower the pump/ raised the inlet reservoir level.
Use larger diameter of pipe.
Reroute the piping system such that fewer minor
losses
Shorten the length of the pipe upstream of the
pipe
Use smoother pipe
Use elbow with minor loss coefficient.

Pump in series & parallel
We need to consider pump in series or using
larger pump to increase the volume flow rate /
pressure.
Arranging dissimilar pump in series/ parallel
may lead a problem esp when the other pump
is larger than another.
In series
In series-the combine net head is the sum of
the net head of each pump (at given flow rate)

=
=
n
i
i combined
H H
1
In figure above pump 3 is the strongest and
pump 1 is the weakest. The shut off head of
the 3 pumps combined in series is equal to the
sum of the shut off head of individual pump.
Net head of the three pumps in series =
H
1
+H
2
+H
3
.
The individual pump should be shut off and by
passes at flow rates larger than that pump
delivery.
Parallel
Combine capacity for n pumps in parallel

=
=
n
i
combined
V V
1
1

The free delivery of the three combined pumps
are equal to the sum of the free delivery of
each individual pump.
To avoid pump damage and loss of combined
capacity, any individual pump should be shut off
at net head larger than that pumps shut off
That pump branch should be block with valve.
Example
The 11.25 inch impeller option of the
centrifugal pump is used to pump water at
25
o
C from a reservoir whose surface is 1.2 m
above the centerline of the pump inlet. The
piping system from the reservoir to the pump
consist of 3 m cast iron pipe with an ID of 0.1m
and an average inner roughness height of
0.5mm.
There are several minor losses: a sharp edge
inlet (KL =0.5), three flange smooth 90o
regular elbow (KL=0.3 each), and fully open
flanged globe valve (KL=6) estimate the
maximum volume flow rate(in gpm) that can
be pumped without cativation. If the water
were warmer, would this maximum flow rate
increase/ decrease?