# Moment distribution

Moment re-distribution
J. P. Forth
(Acknowledgements: Dr A. N. Fried and the
Concrete Centre)
Moment distribution

• Simple hand calculation method of analysing
frames by distributing the fixed end moments
according to their relative stiffness.
• Used mainly for analysing sub frames or
continuous beams where a simplified analysis is
required.
• However, most structural analysis is undertaken
using convenient and efficient software
packages.
The stages of moment
distribution are

• Calculate member stiffness
• Calculate distribution factors
• Calculate fixed end moments
• Distribute moments according to stiffness
by an iterative process until balance is
achieved.

Member stiffness.
• Stiffness k of a member, defined as 4 x product
of elastic modulus and its second moment of
area divided by the length ; thus k = 4EI/L
• Greater the stiffness of a member, the more
moment it will attract.
• Stiffness is modified depending on the degree of
fixity at the ends of a member.
k =
k =
k =
k =
k =
k =
k=
k = 0.75(4EI/L)
F
k = 0.75(4EI/L)
E
k = 0
G
k = 4EI/L
C
k=4EI/L
B
k = 0.75(4EI/L)
D
k = 4EI/L
A
Effect of end fixity on stiffness
• Built in at one end and continuous at other k = 4EI/L {element A}
• Continuous at both ends k = 4EI/L {elements B and C}
• Continuous at one end and simply supported at the other k = 0.75(4EI/L) {elements D
and E}
• Built in at one end and simply supported at the other k = 0.75(4EI/L) {elements F}
• Simply supported at both ends k = 0 {element G}

Distribution factors
• Use member stiffness to find proportion of total
stiffness a member provides at a connection.
• Distribution factors enable the proportioning of
the stiffness.
Total stiffness at connection
k
1
+ k
2
+ k
3
+ k
4
= k
t

k
3
k
1

k
2

k
4

Member stiffnesses
f
1
= k
1
/k
t

f
2
= k
2
/k
t
f
3
= k
3
/k
t

f
4
= k
4
/k
t
f
3

f
1

f
2

f
4

Distribution factors
f
1
+ f
2
+ f
3
+ f
4
= 1.0
Distribution factors and carry over
• Out of balance moments are redistributed
at the joint using distribution factors.
• As part of re-distribution half of the
unbalanced moment is carried over to
other end of the beam.
Fixed end moments.
• These are the moments at the fixed ends of a
member due to a given vertical load.
• The values for a uniformly distributed load (UDL)
acting on the whole of a span and a point load
situation can be found in many reference books.
• Sign convention.
• Clockwise moments are considered to be
positive, anticlockwise moments negative.
Common Fixed end moments
Fixed end
moment
configuration
Fixed end
moment
wL
2
/12 wL
2
/12
WL/8 WL/8
(Wab
2
)/L
2
(Wba
2
)/L
2
w/unit length
L
W
L/2
W
a
b
Moment distribution – Example.
• Three span beam has fixed ends.
• Outer spans are 5.33m in length, and the inner
span 8.0m long.
• Beam is of the same section throughout and so
EI is a constant hence we only require relative
stiffnesses.
• For this purpose assume 4EI = 100, say (4EI
cancels out through all the terms so 100 is
chosen simply for convenience).
• A udl of 36kN/m exists over the beam.
Beam stiffnesses
• Beam stiffnesses = 4EI/L
• Outer span (2 No.) = 100/5.33 = 18.76
• Inner span = 100/8 = 12.5
k = 18.76
k = 12.5
k = 18.76
Setting up the problem
8.0m 5.33m 5.33m
12
33 . 5 36
2
×
85.23
-85.23 85.23 -85.23
192.0
-192.0
12
8 36
2
×
Fixed end moments
Distribution
Factors
5 . 12 76 . 18
76 . 18
+
5 . 12 76 . 18
5 . 12
+
0
0
0.6 0.4
0.6 0.4
No distribution
at fixed end
Moment distribution – Iteration 1
85.23 + 64.06
= 149.29
85.23 -85.23 85.23 -85.23 192.0 -192.0
0 0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4
Step 1. Start at left support.
Distributed moment
= - 85.23 x 0 = 0
Step 2. Next support along
Out of balance moment = (85.23 – 192.0) = -106.77
Distribution to left of support = 106.77 x 0.6 = 64.06
Distribution to right of support = 107.77 x 0.4 = 42.71
Carry over to left = 0.5 x 64.06 = 32.03
Carry over to right = 0.5 x 42.71 = 21.35
-85.23 + 32.03 = -53.02
192 + 21.35 = 213.35
149.29 -53.02
Step 3. Next support along
Out of balance moment = (213.35 – 85.23) = 128.12
Distribution to left of support = -128.12 x 0.4 = -51.25
Distribution to right of support = -128.12 x 0.6 = -76.87
Carry over to left = 0.5 x -51.25 = -25.62
Carry over to right = 0.5 x -76.87 = -38.43

213.15 – 51.25 = 162.10
213.35
162.10
-85.23 -76.87 = -162.10
-162.10
85.23 -38.43 = 46.80
-149.29 – 25.62 = -174.91
-192 + 42.71
= -149.29
46.80
Boxed numbers below the beam only indicate the method and are to be omitted.
Step 4.
Distributed moment = 46.80 x 0 = 0
-149.29
-174.91
Iteration 2
85.23 -85.23 85.23 -85.23 192.0 -192.0
0 0 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4
162.1
-162.1
213.35 149.29
-53.02
-149.29
46.80
-174.91
-45.33
167.2
164.7
165.2
-165.3
-165.68
-164.7
45.27
Moment diagram
• Draw support moment diagram
• Superimpose free moment diagrams on
support moment diagram.
Fixed end moments
-165.32 165.32 165.32
-45.18
45.18 -165.32
Free body moments
M
ss
= 36 x 8
2
/8
= 288 kNm

M
ss
= 36 x 5.33
2
/8
= 127.1 kNm
M
ss
= 36 x 5.33
2
/8
= 127.1 kNm

Superimpose diagrams
165.32 165.32
45.18
127.8
127.8 288.0
Shear Force Diagrams.

• The shear force along a beam is the
summation of the individual effects of end
Final shear force diagram
144
118.4
95.9
-22.5
118.4
144
73.4
Shear force diagrams and reactions.
• Using virtual work or similar
• Reactions at A, B, C and D can be found.
• They are the same as the sum of the shear
forces at the ends of the beams spanning onto
the support :
• Reaction at A = 73.4kN
• Reaction at B = 144 + 118.4 = 262.4kN
• Reaction at C = 118.4 + 144 = 262.4kN
• Reaction at D = 73.4Kn
Moment dist. (Practical applications)
• Usually analysis of elements is undertaken using some form of
computer package.
• Using moment distribution on the sub frames in a 10 storey building
would be most unusual these days.
• Computers reduce errors
• Check moments using wL
2
/8, or wL
2
/12 depending on the fixity to
ensure you are not an order of 10 out.
• Engineers call this “having a feel” for the structure. In reality it is
unlikely that any project which is big would not be checked at least
four or five times.
• With a number of load cases, number of computations rapidly
expands.
• Consequently, if at all possible use electronic methods to assist the
analysis.
Redistribution of moments.

• In BS 8110 considerable information on
moment redistribution is included. Very
little is given in the European Code. The
entire clause on this aspect of concrete
Moment re-distribution - background

• Moment re-distribution is an optional
procedure and may be applied to frames,
sub-frames and continuous beams.
Interior span –
continuous rect. beam
of length L & subject
to a udl of w/m
Beam but with ends
fully fixed
Beam but simply
supported.
The overall amount of moment between span and supports remains the
same, it’s just the distribution of the moment that changes, the support
and span moments could be equal.
Relationship between a fully fixed, simply
supported and continuous beam’s
moments.
wL
2
/8
wL
2
/12

wL
2
/8
wL
2
/16

wL
2
/8
Case for moment re-distribution
• A beam fixed at both ends supports an
ever increasing UDL.
• Bending strengths are equal at the span
and supports.
• If the ultimate bending moment at a
support is reached at a UDL of 30kN/m,
what will be the value of the UDL at
collapse.
Solution
w kN/m
L
u kN/m
uL
2
/8
for hinges at each end
At collapse M
u
(at centre span) = wL
2
/12
= wL
2
/24 + uL
2
/8
So u = w/3 and collapse load = 30 + 30/3 = 40 kN/m

wL
2
/12

wL
2
/12
wL
2
/24

Bending moment diagram
Benefits of Moment Re-
distribution.
• A more balanced distribution of moments
results in terms of the magnitude of span
and support moments.
• A reduction in the range of the moment
envelope may occur.
• A corresponding reduction in the
easier placement and fit.

Summary of Code Guidance
• Moments calculated from a linear elastic analysis may be re-distributed in a
continuous beam or slab where the ratio of adjacent spans is between 0.5 and 2.0.
• Equilibrium between internal and external forces must be maintained under all
appropriate combinations of design ultimate load.
• When using high ductility steel (Class B and Class C – Characteristic yield strength
between 400 – 600MPa ) sections may be designed for moments down to 70% of the
maximum moment obtained from a linear elastic analysis at that section for any load
case.
• For normal ductility steel the figure is reduced to 80%.
• When the maximum moment at a support or in the span is reduced the section
should be designed so that :-

• Where,
• x
bal
is the depth of the neutral axis. The suffix “bal” is used
when the beam is balanced.
• d is the effective depth
• δ is the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment
before distribution
• According to the UK annex, k
1
= │0.4│
• k
2
= │0.6 + 0.0014/ε
cu3
│ assuming a rectangular stress
block.
2 1
/ ) ( k d k x
bal
÷ s o
Flexure and Shear design of beams.
• z
bal
= d – 0.8x
bal
/2
• Moment of resistance of concrete
= M
bal
= F
c
x z
bal
= (0.453f
ck
bx
bal
)z
bal

• And K
bal
= M
bal
/bd
2
f
ck
= 0.453 x
bal
z
bal
/d
2

• or K
bal
= 0.453(x
bal
/d)(z
bal
/d)

• The following table summarises this data in a
design friendly way.

2 / ) (
2 1
EC from k d k x
bal
÷ s o
The effect or moment re-distribution on K
bal
Redistribution
(%)
δ x
bal
/d z
bal
/d K
bal
d’/d
0 1.0 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
10 0.9 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
15 0.85 0.45 0.82 0.167 0.171
20 0.8 0.4 0.84 0.152 0.152
25 0.75 0.35 0.86 0.137 0.133
30 0.7 0.3 0.88 0.120 0.114
k
1
= 0.4, k
2
= 1.0. UK National Annex case
Moment re-distribution
Conceptual example.
• A three span continuous beam is analysed using
conventional elastic analysis. Three load cases are
assessed and these are given in the Figure below
min max min
max min max
max max max
L1 L2 L3
240
144
375
349
358
Bending moment diagrams
550
452
Explanation
• Load case which produces the maximum support
moments of 452 and 550kNm does not produce the
maximum span moment of 375kNm.
• If maximum support moments were reduced to the
maximum support moments produced by the maximum
span moment case, namely 358 and 349kNm, we would
produce an identical moment diagram because both load
this context means of the same shape and overall value,
but obviously in a different vertical positions.
• Therefore it is possible to reduce the maximum support
moments without increasing the maximum span
moment.
Redistribution in accordance with the code.
• For high ductility steel - code permits 30% reduction in
moment :
• Our example : support moments may become :-
• 452 x 0.7 = 316.4kNm
• 550 x 0.7 = 385kNm
• Problem … Reducing 452 below 358 [value for min max
min case has no advantage. Support moment will
increase.
• Therefore, only reduce LH moment by 21% to 358.
• If we then superimpose the free bending moment from
this load case on support moments of 358 and 385, the
diagram shown below is obtained.
Final Bending Moment
349
240
358 = 0.79 x 458
144
375
550
452
FINAL BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE AFTER RE-
DISTRIBUTION
385 = 0.7 x 550
Free body diagram
between two redistributed
support moments
Solving a continuous beam.
• Span above (centre) has been considered in
isolation to explain the process of re-distribution
and to satisfy the conditions given in the code.
• In practice, consider the effects of moment re-
distribution on all spans,
• For example reducing a support moment for a
given load case, not only increases the span
moment in this span but also in the adjacent
span.
Moment re-distribution
Example
Example – Moment re-distribution
• Design the main tensile reinforcement in a
beam which is to carry a moment of
400kNm after 30% re-distribution. Use
25mm diameter bars, a cover of 30mm,
and take the beam section as 350 x
550mm deep. Characteristic strength of
concrete = 40N/mm
2
.
Solution
• Maximum bending moment = 400kNm

• Effective depth d = 550 – 12.5 – 30 -10 = 497.5mm

• Limiting depth to neutral axis x
bal
= (δ – k
1
)d/k
2
• From the National Annex, k
1
= 0.4 and k
2
= 1.0
• So limiting x
bal
= (0.7 – 0.4)497.5/1.0 = 149.25mm
• And z
bal
= d – 0.4x
bal
= 437.6mm

• K = M/(bd
2
f
ck
) = (400 x 10
6
)/(350 x 497.5
2
x 40) = 0.115
• K
bal
= 0.453(x
bal
/d)(z
bal
/d) = 0.453 x (149.25/507.5)(437.6/497.5) = 0.12
• K ≤ K
bal
so singly reinforced beam

• A
s
= M /(0.87 f
yk
z) = (400 x 10
6
)/(0.87 x 500 x 442.8 = 2076mm
2

• Use 5 No. 25mm diameter bars, Area = 2454mm
2

• Shear design as previous
( ) | | 133 . 1 / 25 . 0 5 . 0 K d z ÷ + =
( ) | | d mm d d z 95 . 0 8 . 442 89 . 0 133 . 1 / 115 . 0 25 . 0 5 . 0 s = = ÷ + =
Solution continued
Max. and min. reinforcement areas
EN 1992-1-1:2004 – 9.2.1.1). Clause 9.2.1.1

• A
s,min
≥ 0.26 (f
ctm
/fyk) bd and ≥ 0.13%bd
• f
ctm
= 0.3 x f
ck
2/3
=0.3 x 40
2/3

= 3.55N/mm
2
or see Table 3.1 code

• A
s,min
≥ 0.26 x (3.55/500) x (350 x 507.5) = 328mm
2
• A
s,min
≥ 0.13% = 0.13/100(350 x 507.5 = 230.9mm
2

• A
s,max
≤ 0.04 x bd = 0.04 x (350 x 507.5) = 7105mm
2

• And A
s,min
= 328 ≤ 2454 ≤ 7105 = A
s,max
so OK.
Ultimate capacity of beam

• Set K’= 0.12

• M
u
= K
bal
bd
2
f
ck
= 0.12 x 350 x 497.5
2
x 40 x 10
-6

= 415.8kNm

( ) | | d mm d d z 95 . 0 438 88 . 0 133 . 1 / 12 . 0 25 . 0 5 . 0 s = = ÷ + =
Example – Moment re-distribution
• Design the main tensile reinforcement in a
beam which is to carry a moment of
600kNm after 30% re-distribution. Use
25mm diameter bars, a cover of 30mm,
and take the beam section as 350 x
550mm deep. Characteristic strength of
concrete = 40N/mm
2
.
Solution
• Maximum bending moment = 600kNm

• Effective depth d = 550 – 12.5 – 30 -10 = 497.5mm

• Limiting depth to neutral axis x
bal
= (δ – k
1
)d/k
2
• From the National Annex, k
1
= 0.4 and k
2
= 1.0
• So limiting x
bal
= (0.7 – 0.4)497.5/1.0 = 149.25mm
• And z
bal
= d – 0.4x
bal
= 437.8mm

• K = M/(bd
2
f
ck
) = (600 x 10
6
)/(350 x 497.5
2
x 40) = 0.17
• K
bal
= 0.453(x
bal
/d)(z
bal
/d) = 0.453 x (149.25/497.5)(437.8/497.5) = 0.12
• K ≥ K
bal
so doubly reinforced beam

• Compressive steel = (K – K
bal
)f
ck
bd
2
/(f
sc
(d-d’)
• d’ = 52.5mm, so steel compressive strain = 0.0035x (149.25 – 52.5)/149.5 = .0023,
• Therefore, steel has yielded (>0.00217) so use f
yk
= 500N/mm
2
• Area comp steel = (0.17 – 0.12)40 x 350 x 497.5
2
/ [0.87 x 500 x (497.5 - 52.5)]
= 895mm
2
[3 H25 – 1470mm
2
]

• Area of tens steel = [K
bal
f
ck
bd
2
]/[0.87f
yk
z] + A
s

= [0.12 x 40 x 350 x 497.5
2
]/[0.87 x 500 x 437.8] + [895]
= 3078mm
2
. 7 H25 bars [3436mm
2
]

• (A’
s,prov
– A’
s,req
) ≥ (A
s,prov
- A
s,req
) so (1470 – 895) = 575mm
2
≥ (3436 – 3078) = 358mm
2
so OK

Solution continued
Max. and min. reinforcement areas
EN 1992-1-1:2004 – 9.2.1.1). Clause 9.2.1.1

• A
s,min
≥ 0.26 (f
ctm
/f
yk
) bd and ≥ 0.13%bd
• f
ctm
= 0.3 x f
ck
2/3
=0.3 x 40
2/3

= 3.55N/mm
2
or see Table 3.1 code

• A
s,min
≥ 0.26 x (3.55/500) x (350 x 507.5) = 328mm
2
• A
s,min
≥ 0.13% = 0.13/100(350 x 507.5 = 230.9mm
2

• A
s,max
≤ 0.04 x bd = 0.04 x (350 x 507.5) = 7105mm
2

• And A
s,min
= 328 ≤ 3436 ≤ 7105 = A
s,max
so OK.

Moment distribution
• Simple hand calculation method of analysing frames by distributing the fixed end moments according to their relative stiffness. • Used mainly for analysing sub frames or continuous beams where a simplified analysis is required. • However, most structural analysis is undertaken using convenient and efficient software packages.

The stages of moment distribution are
• • • • Calculate member stiffness Calculate distribution factors Calculate fixed end moments Distribute moments according to stiffness by an iterative process until balance is achieved.

Member stiffness.
• Stiffness k of a member, defined as 4 x product of elastic modulus and its second moment of area divided by the length ; thus k = 4EI/L • Greater the stiffness of a member, the more moment it will attract. • Stiffness is modified depending on the degree of fixity at the ends of a member.
k= k= k= k= k=

k=

k=

75(4EI/L) {elements D and E} Built in at one end and simply supported at the other k = 0.75(4EI/L) {elements F} Simply supported at both ends k = 0 {element G} k=4EI/L k = 4EI/L A k = 4EI/L B C k = 0.75(4EI/L) F .75(4EI/L) D k=0 G k = 0.Effect of end fixity on stiffness • • • • • Built in at one end and continuous at other k = 4EI/L {element A} Continuous at both ends k = 4EI/L {elements B and C} Continuous at one end and simply supported at the other k = 0.75(4EI/L) E k = 0.

0 . Member stiffnesses k2 Distribution factors f2 f3 f1 k1 k4 k3 f4 Total stiffness at connection k1 + k2 + k3 + k4 = kt f1 = k1/kt f2 = k2/kt f3 = k3/kt f4 = k4/kt f1 + f2 + f3 + f4 = 1.Distribution factors • Use member stiffness to find proportion of total stiffness a member provides at a connection. • Distribution factors enable the proportioning of the stiffness.

• As part of re-distribution half of the unbalanced moment is carried over to other end of the beam. .Distribution factors and carry over • Out of balance moments are redistributed at the joint using distribution factors.

• Sign convention. anticlockwise moments negative. • Clockwise moments are considered to be positive. • The values for a uniformly distributed load (UDL) acting on the whole of a span and a point load are shown. . • These are the moments at the fixed ends of a member due to a given vertical load.Fixed end moments. The formulae for other loading situation can be found in many reference books.

Common Fixed end moments Fixed end moment wL2/12 WL/8 (Wab2)/L2 W a b Loading configuration w/unit length L W L/2 Fixed end moment wL2/12 WL/8 (Wba2)/L2 .

0m long. • A udl of 36kN/m exists over the beam. • For this purpose assume 4EI = 100. and the inner span 8. • Three span beam has fixed ends. .Moment distribution – Example. • Beam is of the same section throughout and so EI is a constant hence we only require relative stiffnesses.33m in length. say (4EI cancels out through all the terms so 100 is chosen simply for convenience). • Outer spans are 5.

Beam stiffnesses • Beam stiffnesses = 4EI/L • Outer span (2 No.5 .33 = 18.76 • Inner span = 100/8 = 12.) = 100/5.

33m 0.23 0 85.5 Distribution Factors .76 0.76  12.4 0.Setting up the problem Fixed end moments 36  8 12 2 36  5.76 No distribution 18.23 85.5 192.23 -192.76 k = 18.33m 0 18.23 k = 18.0 -85.6 5.76  12.6 5.0 k = 12.4 8.5 18.0m 0.33 2 12 -85.5 at fixed end 12.

29 – 25.06 = 149. .77 x 0. Start at left support.80 85.03 = -53.25 Distribution to right of support = -128.4 -149.71 Carry over to left = 0.77 x 0.4 0.23 0. Next support along Out of balance moment = (213.29 192 + 21.62 Carry over to right = 0.23 x 0 = 0 Step 3.02 85.29 -192.23 + 64.0 0.5 x -76.25 = -25.10 -149.6 149.87 Carry over to left = 0.02 -85.35 192.23 0 -53.35 = 213.87 = -38.15 – 51.Moment distribution – Iteration 1 Step 1.35 – 85.10 85.35 -85.12 Distribution to left of support = -128.23 0 46.80 85.43 = 46.35 -162.12 x 0.29 -174.06 Distribution to right of support = 107.23 -38.06 = 32.71 = -149.43 Step 4.25 = 162.71 = 21.6 213.23 0.87 = -162.5 x -51.23 – 192.5 x 64.03 Carry over to right = 0.0 -85.0) = -106.5 x 42.23 + 32. Distributed moment = .23) = 128.4 = 42.4 = -51.77 Distribution to left of support = 106. Distributed moment = 46.23 -76.12 x 0.29 -85. Next support along Out of balance moment = (85.80 x 0 = 0 Step 2.6 = 64.10 162.91 213.62 = -174.10 Boxed numbers below the beam only indicate the method and are to be omitted.6 = -76.91 -192 + 42.85.

33 85.29 -174.3 167.7 -165.23 0 -53.0 0.29 164.6 149.80 213.27 .35 -162.23 0.2 165.6 85.0 0.68 192.1 -165.2 45.02 -45.23 0 46.4 -149.91 -164.Iteration 2 -85.1 162.7 -192.23 0.4 -85.

.Moment diagram • Draw support moment diagram • Superimpose free moment diagrams on support moment diagram.

32 45.32 -165.18 Free body moments Mss = 36 x 5.18 165.Fixed end moments -45.32 -165.332/8 = 127.332/8 = 127.1 kNm .1 kNm Mss = 36 x 82/8 = 288 kNm Mss = 36 x 5.32 165.

18 165.32 .Superimpose diagrams 127.32 165.0 127.8 45.8 288.

. • The shear force along a beam is the summation of the individual effects of end moments and loads.Shear Force Diagrams.

4 -22.4 144 95.9 118.Final shear force diagram 73.4 .5 144 118.

B.Shear force diagrams and reactions.4kN • Reaction at C = 118.4Kn . C and D can be found.4kN • Reaction at D = 73. • Using virtual work or similar • Reactions at A.4 + 144 = 262.4 = 262.4kN • Reaction at B = 144 + 118. • They are the same as the sum of the shear forces at the ends of the beams spanning onto the support : • Reaction at A = 73.

(Practical applications) • Usually analysis of elements is undertaken using some form of computer package. • Engineers call this “having a feel” for the structure. or wL2/12 depending on the fixity to ensure you are not an order of 10 out. In reality it is unlikely that any project which is big would not be checked at least four or five times. number of computations rapidly expands. • Consequently. • Using moment distribution on the sub frames in a 10 storey building would be most unusual these days. . • With a number of load cases. if at all possible use electronic methods to assist the analysis. • Computers reduce errors • Check moments using wL2/8.Moment dist.

5 pages.Redistribution of moments. Very little is given in the European Code. The entire clause on this aspect of concrete design covers about 1. . • In BS 8110 considerable information on moment redistribution is included.

.Moment re-distribution .background • Moment re-distribution is an optional procedure and may be applied to frames. sub-frames and continuous beams.

simply supported and continuous beam’s moments. Interior span – Beam but with ends continuous rect. beam fully fixed of length L & subject to a udl of w/m wL2/8 wL2/16 wL2/8 wL2/8 wL2/12 The overall amount of moment between span and supports remains the same. it’s just the distribution of the moment that changes. the support and span moments could be equal.Relationship between a fully fixed. . Beam but simply supported.

• Bending strengths are equal at the span and supports. what will be the value of the UDL at collapse.Case for moment re-distribution • A beam fixed at both ends supports an ever increasing UDL. . • If the ultimate bending moment at a support is reached at a UDL of 30kN/m.

Solution w kN/m L wL2/12 wL2/24 u kN/m Additional load wL2/12 Loading diagram Bending moment diagram uL2/8 Additional moment for hinges at each end At collapse Mu (at centre span) = wL2/12 = wL2/24 + uL2/8 So u = w/3 and collapse load = 30 + 30/3 = 40 kN/m .

• A more balanced distribution of moments results in terms of the magnitude of span and support moments. .Benefits of Moment Redistribution. • A corresponding reduction in the reinforcement requirements leading to easier placement and fit. • A reduction in the range of the moment envelope may occur.

0014/εcu3│ assuming a rectangular stress block.6 + 0. . • • • • • • • • • xbal xbal  (  k1 ) d / k 2 is the depth of the neutral axis.4│ k2 = │0. When the maximum moment at a support or in the span is reduced the section should be designed so that :Where. When using high ductility steel (Class B and Class C – Characteristic yield strength between 400 – 600MPa ) sections may be designed for moments down to 70% of the maximum moment obtained from a linear elastic analysis at that section for any load case. Equilibrium between internal and external forces must be maintained under all appropriate combinations of design ultimate load. The suffix “bal” is used when the beam is balanced. d is the effective depth δ is the ratio of the redistributed moment to the moment before distribution According to the UK annex.5 and 2. k1 = │0.0. For normal ductility steel the figure is reduced to 80%.Summary of Code Guidance • • • Moments calculated from a linear elastic analysis may be re-distributed in a continuous beam or slab where the ratio of adjacent spans is between 0.

453fckbxbal)zbal • And Kbal = Mbal/bd2fck = 0.Flexure and Shear design of beams.453(xbal/d)(zbal/d) • The following table summarises this data in a design friendly way. .8xbal/2 • Moment of resistance of concrete = Mbal = Fc x zbal = (0.453 xbal zbal/d2 • or Kbal = 0. xbal  (  k1 ) d / k 2 from EC 2 • zbal = d – 0.

133 0.167 0.88 Kbal 0.171 0.167 0.4 0.75 0.0 10 15 20 25 30 0.171 0.3 0.85 0.45 0.7 xbal/d zbal/d 0.9 0.82 0. k2 = 1.120 d’/d 0.152 0.82 0.152 0.137 0.171 0.45 0.82 0.4.0.86 0.84 0.167 0.8 0. UK National Annex case .35 0.The effect or moment re-distribution on Kbal Redistribution δ (%) 0 1.45 0.114 k1 = 0.

• A three span continuous beam is analysed using conventional elastic analysis. Three load cases are assessed and these are given in the Figure below max L1 max L2 max L3 min max min max min max .Moment re-distribution Conceptual example.

Bending moment diagrams 550 452 358 144 349 240 375 .

Identical in this context means of the same shape and overall value. • Therefore it is possible to reduce the maximum support moments without increasing the maximum span moment. . we would produce an identical moment diagram because both load cases have maximum loading on the span. namely 358 and 349kNm. but obviously in a different vertical positions. • If maximum support moments were reduced to the maximum support moments produced by the maximum span moment case.Explanation • Load case which produces the maximum support moments of 452 and 550kNm does not produce the maximum span moment of 375kNm.

4kNm • 550 x 0. only reduce LH moment by 21% to 358. the diagram shown below is obtained. • For high ductility steel .7 = 385kNm • Problem … Reducing 452 below 358 [value for min max min case has no advantage. Support moment will increase.code permits 30% reduction in moment : • Our example : support moments may become :• 452 x 0. • If we then superimpose the free bending moment from this load case on support moments of 358 and 385.7 = 316.Redistribution in accordance with the code. • Therefore. .

Final Bending Moment 452 358 = 0.79 x 458 144 Free body diagram between two redistributed support moments 550 349 240 385 = 0.7 x 550 375 FINAL BENDING MOMENT ENVELOPE AFTER REDISTRIBUTION .

• For example reducing a support moment for a given load case. . • In practice.Solving a continuous beam. not only increases the span moment in this span but also in the adjacent span. • Span above (centre) has been considered in isolation to explain the process of re-distribution and to satisfy the conditions given in the code. consider the effects of moment redistribution on all spans.

Moment re-distribution Example .

Characteristic strength of concrete = 40N/mm2. . and take the beam section as 350 x 550mm deep. Use 25mm diameter bars. a cover of 30mm.Example – Moment re-distribution • Design the main tensile reinforcement in a beam which is to carry a moment of 400kNm after 30% re-distribution.

Solution • • • • • • • • • Maximum bending moment = 400kNm Effective depth d = 550 – 12.453 x (149.5 – 30 -10 = 497. k1 = 0.25  K / 1.12 K ≤ Kbal so singly reinforced beam z  d 0.87 x 500 x 442. 25mm diameter bars.0 = 149.6/497.89d  442.8 = 2076mm2 Use 5 No.5)(437.4 and k2 = 1.52 x 40) = 0.0 So limiting xbal = (0.95d = M /(0.115 Kbal = 0.6mm K = M/(bd2fck) = (400 x 106)/(350 x 497.133  0.5   0.5  • • • As  0.133 z  d 0.5) = 0.25mm And zbal = d – 0. Area = 2454mm2 Shear design as previous .5mm Limiting depth to neutral axis xbal = (δ – k1)d/k2 From the National Annex.8mm  0.87 fyk z) = (400 x 106)/(0.4)497.4xbal = 437.115 / 1.25  0.453(xbal/d)(zbal/d) = 0.25/507.7 – 0.5/1.

1).04 x (350 x 507.5) = 7105mm2 • And As.13/100(350 x 507.1 code • As.max ≤ 0.5 = 230.2.26 (fctm/fyk) bd and ≥ 0.min = 328 ≤ 2454 ≤ 7105 = As.min ≥ 0.1. and min.3 x 402/3 = 3.max so OK.5) = 328mm2 • As.04 x bd = 0.2.9mm2 • As. .13% = 0.Solution continued Max.13%bd • fctm = 0.3 x fck2/3=0.min ≥ 0.55N/mm2 or see Table 3.min ≥ 0. reinforcement areas EN 1992-1-1:2004 – 9.1.26 x (3.55/500) x (350 x 507.1 • As. Clause 9.

25  0.Ultimate capacity of beam • Set K’= 0.52 x 40 x 10-6 = 415.95d • Mu = Kbalbd2fck = 0.88d  438mm  0.133  0.12 z  d 0.8kNm .5   0.12 x 350 x 497.12 / 1.

Use 25mm diameter bars. a cover of 30mm.Example – Moment re-distribution • Design the main tensile reinforcement in a beam which is to carry a moment of 600kNm after 30% re-distribution. and take the beam section as 350 x 550mm deep. Characteristic strength of concrete = 40N/mm2. .

00217) so use fyk = 500N/mm2 Area comp steel = (0. Therefore.req ) so (1470 – 895) = 575mm2 ≥ (3436 – 3078) = 358mm2 so OK • .4xbal = 437.req) ≥ (As.87 x 500 x 437.17 – 0.5mm.5)(437.0035x (149.prov .0023.25mm And zbal = d – 0.5/1.52 x 40) = 0.5)/149.5 .8mm K = M/(bd2fck) = (600 x 106)/(350 x 497.453 x (149.0 = 149.52 / [0.52.4)497.8/497.As.7 – 0.12)40 x 350 x 497.0 So limiting xbal = (0.5) = 0.5 – 30 -10 = 497.8] + [895] = 3078mm2.52]/[0.87 x 500 x (497.25/497.12 x 40 x 350 x 497.17 Kbal = 0. 7 H25 bars [3436mm2] (A’s. steel has yielded (>0.453(xbal/d)(zbal/d) = 0.prov – A’s.4 and k2 = 1. k1 = 0.25 – 52.87fykz] + As’ = [0. so steel compressive strain = 0.12 K ≥ Kbal so doubly reinforced beam Compressive steel = (K – Kbal)fckbd2/(fsc(d-d’) d’ = 52.5 = .5mm Limiting depth to neutral axis xbal = (δ – k1)d/k2 From the National Annex.5)] = 895mm2 [3 H25 – 1470mm2] Area of tens steel = [Kbalfckbd2]/[0.Solution • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Maximum bending moment = 600kNm Effective depth d = 550 – 12.

9mm2 • As.26 (fctm/fyk) bd and ≥ 0.13%bd • fctm = 0.Solution continued Max.2.max ≤ 0.min ≥ 0.1. .3 x fck2/3=0.13/100(350 x 507.5 = 230.max so OK. and min.1 code • As.min ≥ 0.04 x (350 x 507.55/500) x (350 x 507.2.1).min = 328 ≤ 3436 ≤ 7105 = As.04 x bd = 0.min ≥ 0.26 x (3. Clause 9.1.5) = 328mm2 • As.13% = 0.55N/mm2 or see Table 3. reinforcement areas EN 1992-1-1:2004 – 9.5) = 7105mm2 • And As.3 x 402/3 = 3.1 • As.

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/ W %014439.-08:22. .9. /0831703/.780898/.3.

 #0/897-:943 .94724203970 /897-:94343-.%00110.

            -..

/ -..

       / ./             -.

330.80 ../            &.943.

3.4203970 /897-:943 43. 23 2.250 W 970085.0.  2.880880/.03943... 23 2.  2.4393:4:8-0.808.  23 2./. .03390:70-04 2.059:.70.70 .3/9080.3.80/:83 .3.43.0.88 %7004.28.89.

03/3242039/.7.28        .

/.4:83.83902..08902.20.3/039..2:2 85.3/ 2/408349574/:.:80-494.80..2:28:55479 242039841..3242039.3 98.7...079./1107039.80 3./ .090 2.2:285.02.2:28:55479242039807070/:.208.943 W 4.808.50.3 /039./3439085.5489438  W %0701470985488-09470/:.242039/.:0  -:94-..2:285.3242039412  W 12.0/-902.2:24.4390920.07.0902.574/:.3.70.3 242039  ..0/9490 2.2:28:554792420398574/:..5.2-0..3841908.0.2:28:55479 242039894:93.3/4.3/2 04:/ 574/:.

0 \$:55479242039 3..80438:55479242039841..:0147232.4/0507298 70/:.2508:5547924203982..420 W   2 W   2 W !74-02 #0/:.4/0 W 47/:..80 W %0701470 4370/:.3.9433 242039 W :70.2843-0484-9.3-04.39.#0/897-:9433.-0.70. 23.7..3/ 90 /.80.30/ ./..47/.834./.0242039-94 W 109038:50725480901700-03/32420391742 984.0990.998900 .

3.7.2 -090039470/897-:90/ 8:554792420398        %' !%## \$%#&%  .03/342039     700-4//.

9439405.98190.984124203970 /897-:94343.70.25070/:. ..8:55479242039147..43/9438.3./.3.438/07900110.0884170 /897-:943 .38  W 470.03970 .3.2 W \$5.039 85.3-:9.438/070/3 84.85.03390.-4..8-003./.0 .8089085..80 349433.4393:4:8-0.4/0 W 357.034.3 .84390.0 .3/948.\$4.390574.9.3 24203939885.

3.290/.7./3 W #0/:.88  W 4/088099894 147/:.24:3994 2.4.242039/.47708543/3.24:394170 /897-:94394 900..99890094 70897.8390 2/ 85.0834.89..943419030 .7..39.2:3/0790.990749.580242039/.9390 0.70.4.:.2.3242039-.580 4. W -9.3..306:-7:2 W 083147.89.08:55479242039803.

250 .4203970 /897-:943 .

 -0.250 4203970 /897-:943 W 083902.7090 .20907-.280.43.3/9.090-0.77..8   22/005 .894.24203941  2.390380703147.2.0741 22  .020393.89703941 .4.943.7..90789..1907 70 /897-:943 &80 22/..78 .

22  .

  .2:2-03/3242039  2 110.8-.0/059/        22 293/0599430:97..\$4:943 W W W W W W W W W .9.

 /.

3/  \$4293-.330   .943.     . 74290.

  22 3/-. / -.  22  .

-/1.     .

      -..   -.

/ -..

/    .

    .

2   /    /  W W W 8    .    ^ -.0/-0. 8483703147.

  ) )    .

   /   22 A /  .

1     .

8570.78 70.    22 &804 22/.20907-.22 \$0.7/083.4:8 .

 .3/23 703147.70.4393:0/ .02039.\$4:943.:80    W 8 23 _  1.92.8         .

1 -/.92  1..3/_ -/ W 1.

  .

  .

4/0 W 8 23 _   .22 47800%.-0 .

      22 W 8 23 _  .

 84  . ^ -/       22 W 3/8 23 ^^ 8 2.     22 W 8 2.

90.&92..2 W \$09     /     ..941-0.5.

         2 .    /  22 A / ) W : -.-/1.

78 .77. -0.3/9.090-0.43.89703941 .7.0741 22  .8   22/005 .90789.250 4203970 /897-:943 W 083902.7090 .943.1907 70 /897-:943 &80 22/.2.390380703147.20907-.894..280.020393....24203941  2.4.

22  .

0/059/        22 293/0599430:97..8-.9.\$4:943 W W W W W W W W W W W W W .2:2-03/3242039  2 110.  .

 /.

943. 74290.330   .3/  \$4293-.     .

 / -.  22 3/-.  22  .

-/1.     .

.   -.       -.

/ -..

/    .

   .

2 4257088.    _ -. 1. 84/4:-703147.0/-0.08900  -.-/.

4257088.0897. 18. / /  /  22 848900.3      .

   %0701470 8900.80/0/   84:801  .

4258900        ..22 70.

-/(.       ( 22   22( 70.1.4190388900 -.

 1( 8     (.

 8 706 _ 8 574.7822(  8 574.   ( (  22 -. 8 706 84    22 _    22 84  W W .

\$4:943.8         .02039.70.:80    W 8 23 _  1.4393:0/ . .92.3/23 703147.

3/_ -/ W 1.1 -/..92  1.

  .

  .

-0 .22 47800%.4/0 W 8 23 _   .

      22 W 8 23 _  .

 ^ -/       22 W 3/8 23 ^^ 8 2. 84  .     22 W 8 2.