An analysis by: Mustika Hidayati(0805120) Mahadi Surya(0805120) Vinda Agustaria(08051208) David Marpaung(0805120894


 by Siti Muniroh
 A teacher in a private university in

Indonesia  Graduated from State University of Malang, East Java

The Definition of Literature Circle:
Hsu (2004)--is incorporates collaborative learning and

independent reading Daniels (1994)-- literature circle is a small, temporary group which has been chosen to read the same book

Why the observer choose this method?

Method focused on Reading

Skill Rreading English textbooks that prior to a class discussion was hardly done by the students

The Problems in this research:
So many new and difficult words
Reluctant to continue reading

because of unsuccessful comprehension discouraged to speak English fluently and hesitated to talk

The Goal of this research:
 to have an engaged class discussion

where every student gave his/her views about the reading material  to improve students’ attitude towards reading, practical knowledge on reading strategy, and motivation to talk.

Literature Circle
 Literature circles are literary discussion

groups which creates a forum for participants to make sense and develop understanding of a selected text through social interaction.  Harvey Daniels (1994) -- an effective means for fostering independent reading and collaborative learning in a stimulating environment.

LC model by Daniels (1994)
 Literature circles are small, temporary discussion

groups who have chosen to read the same story, poem, article, or book.  While reading each group-determined portion of the text  each member prepares to take specific responsibilities in the upcoming discussion, and everyone comes to the group with notes needed to help perform that job.  The circles have regular meetings, with discussion roles rotating each session.

3 basic elements in LC(Daniels, 1994)
 Diversity consists of members with varied levels of proficiency  Self-choice the book being discussed is chosen by the students  Student initiative students are in charge of their own learning and have responsibilities leading discussion and deciding the volume of the material to be read for each meeting (Peralta-Nash & Dutch, 2000)

The implementation of LC
 MacGillivray et al. (1995), successfully implemented

any classroom, from kindergarten to university, whether in L1 or L2 setting.  Lin (2002) -- LC provides chances for students to think critically about literature, express their ideas in oral and written forms, and better enjoy their literacy experiences.  Sai and Hsu (2007) introduced LC in two classes: Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) and EFL.

The implementation of LC by Sai and Hsu (2007)
 The JFL group considered their LC class a

slightly more effective than the EFL group  The factors affecting the success of their LC class included students’ self-selecting of the reading material  Their preference towards discussion roles  Allotted class time for real discussion  Teachers’ feedback on weekly journals, and grading policy.

The benefits of LC:
 provides a chance for students to learn to work in a

team and how to create a democratic group (King, 2001; Day, 2003).  students create connection between texts and personal experiences, there by deepening their understanding and heightening their enjoyment of the text (Lin, 2002).  able to enhance reading skills by learning from each other, gain self-confidence, discover important themes that run through literature, and have fun in socially interactive environment (Pitman, 1997).  Atwell (1998) adds that free selection of books has a strong impact on learners’ fluency, reading rate, and comprehension.

The benefits of LC:
 Grambell (1996) says that opportunities for choice give

students a real purpose to invest and commit themselves, thus becoming highly motivated “engaged reading”.  Ediger (2002) emphasizes that LC gives a chance for students to meet up with their personal learning styles and thus optimize achievement and progress in literary activities.  Day’s (2003) and Pitman’s (1997) studies which show that through LC students increase their independence and have better oral and written communication skills such as ability to clarify, crystallize and justify their thoughts and ideas.

Results from research in an SMA:
 The students’ ability to achieve reading

comprehension and a group dynamic were significant aspects affecting their attitude towards LC.  There was a negative correlation between students’ reading attitudes towards English texts and their attitude towards LC.  There was also a positive correlation between students’ attitudes towards group work in the previous reading class experience and their attitudes towards LC.  Most students got benefits on vocabulary learning and collaborative learning experiences.

The procedures of LC by Siti
 Give the material for the students, after studying the

level of difficulties of their English textbooks.  Selected some folklore from the internet for them with the under level of difficulties even under range of difficulty level of the passages in their textbooks. NB: most students still faced difficulties with the vocabulary found in the reading material and not all group members were able to perform their roles well

The activities of LC --Daniels (1994)
1. Students choose their own reading material 2. Small temporary groups are formed, based on book 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

choice Different groups read different books Groups meet on a regular, predictable schedule to discuss their reading Students use written or drawn notes to guide both their reading and discussion Discussion topic come from students Group meeting aim to be open, natural conversation about books, so personal connections, digression, and open ended questions are welcome

The activities of LC --Daniels (1994)
7. In newly forming groups, students play a rotating assortment of task roles 8. The teacher serves as a facilitator, not as a group member or an instructor 9. Evaluation is done by the teacher’s observation and the students’ self-evaluation 10. A spirit of playfulness and fun pervades the room, and when books are finished, readers share with their classmates, and then new groups are formed around new reading choices.

The common procedure of LC
1. Introducing and modeling LC to the 2. 3. 4. 5.

students Choosing the reading material Literature circle discussion Group presentation Reflection

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