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Training Topics: • • • Understanding the process of Creativity and Problem Solving Removing Blocks and Barriers to finding the best solution Looking at Problem Solving in 2 steps:
– Problem Identification – Problem Solving and Decision Making
Problem Solving Tools:
– Problem Identification
– Pareto Principle – Problem Re-statement (5 Whys) – Problem Solving – Brainstorming – Cause and Effect Analysis
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: • Understand the link between problem solving and organizational success • Recognize that problems are a normal part of organizational life and a sign of organizational health
• Proactively apply problem finding to bring continuous improvement to the workplace • To enable delegates to analyse a problem so that appropriate problem solving techniques may be applied
Learning Outcomes (cont’d)
• To recognise the importance of dealing with the cause of a problem, rather than just dealing with the effect of a problem • To learn how to generate alternative solutions, using creative thinking and brainstorming • To learn the different stages of the decision making process and understand the importance of each stage in ensuring effective decisions are made • To enable delegates to apply the problem solving and decision making model to the workplace
How DO we solve problems?
How SHOULD we solve problems?
Because our minds cannot cope with the intricacies of complex problems, we settle for partial solutions, thus tending to oversimplify.
Keep an open mind.
Analyze the situation by breaking down the problems into smaller parts. Structure your findings.
What is Problem-Solving?
• “The world is full of problems” • A Problem is: – A situation in need of improvement – A goal, intention, or desire – A project or task – An obstacle to be overcome
• Problem solving is a part of living.
• Without a process, one may become overwhelmed with options.
innovation • Creative problem-solving (CPS) ~ Design – A sequence of actions that lead to a specific goal or product.What is Creative Problem-Solving? • Creativity = uniqueness. process with a purpose. • Creative Problem-Solvers make living look easy. • To be effective. . a problem solving process must be consistent AND flexible. – An intentional.
. human beings tend to avoid Analytic Structure as we are not taught those techniques at early ages. However.Why is Problem Solving so Challenging? Analysis is the core element of efficient problem solving.
• It focuses on one element at a time. it is like a road map for a trip.What is Structuring? • Structuring is to analysis what a blueprint is to building a house. • It allows us to compare and weigh one element against another. • It helps the mind make sense out of complex problems. .
Top management will never go for it. That’s not our problem. Don’t be ridiculous. You’re two years ahead of your time. We’re not ready for that. We don’t have time. We’ve never done it before. . It costs too much. That beyond our responsibility. It isn’t in the budget. Are our competitors doing it? Can’t teach an old dog new tricks. We tried that before. Has anyone else tried it? Let’s form a committee. We’ll be the laughing stock.Attitudes That Kill Creative Ideas Not practical for operating. It’s too radical a change.
what is wanted to happen Problem Solving – The process of taking corrective action to meet objectives.The Relationship among Objectives. Decision Making – The process of selecting an alternative course of action that will solve a problem. . Problem Solving. – First decision is whether to take corrective action. and Decision Making • • • Problem – Exists whenever objectives are not being met. – What is happening vs.
Problem Solving and Decision Making • The Relationship among the Management Functions. Decision Making. and Problem Solving – Managers need to make proficient decisions while performing the functions of management. .
The Decision-Making Model • A six-step process that when properly utilized increases chances of success in decision making and problem solving. Exhibit 4–1 .
• Reflective Style – Takes plenty of time to make decisions. . • Consistent Style – Tends to make decisions without either rushing or wasting time. gathering considerable information and analyzing several alternatives.Decision-Making Styles • Reflexive Style – Makes quick decisions without taking the time to get all the information that may be needed and without considering all the alternatives.
. • Nonprogrammed Decisions – Significant and nonrecurring and nonroutine situations in which the decision maker should use the decision-making model.Decision Structure • Programmed Decisions – Recurring or routine situations in which the decision maker should use decision rules or organizational policies and procedures to make the decision.
recurring. nonrecurring. and nonroutine (Longer period of time to make decisions) Programmed Decision: Nonsignificant. and routine (Shorter period of time to make decisions) Exhibit 4–2 .Decision Structure Continuum Nonprogrammed Decision: Significant.
Risk – Probabilities can be assigned to each outcome.Decision-Making Conditions • Certainty – Each alternative’s outcome is known in advance. • • . Uncertainty – Lack of information or knowledge makes the outcome of each alternative unpredictable such that no probabilities can be determined.
selecting the first alternative that meets the minimal criteria for solving the problem.Decision-Making Models • Rational Model (Classical Model) – The decision maker attempts to use optimizing. The Bounded Rationality Model – The decision maker uses satisficing. • . selecting the best possible alternative.
Continuum of Decision-Making Conditions Exhibit 4–3 .
Satisficing 3. Good training • Potential Disadvantages 1. creativity. Conformity and groupthink Exhibit 4–4 . Greater commitment to the decision 5. Improved morale and motivation 6.Potential Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Group Decision Making • Potential Advantages 1. Wasted time and slower 2. alternatives. Better understanding of the decision 4. and innovation 3. Better-quality decisions 2. More information. Domination and goal displacement 4.
Continua for Classifying a Problem Exhibit 4–5 .
Continua for Classifying a Problem (cont’d) Exhibit 4–5 cont’d .
– Removing the cause should cause the symptoms to disappear or cease. • Symptom: Customer dissatisfaction • Cause: Poorly trained employees • Solution: Implement customer relations training program for employees .Define the Problem • Distinguish Symptoms from the Cause of the Problem – List the observable and describable occurrences (symptoms) that indicate a problem exists. – Determine the cause of the problem.
– Objectives state what the decisions should accomplish in solving a problem or taking advantage of an opportunity.Set Objectives and Criteria • Setting Objectives – Involves establishing clear objectives that will make for better decisions. Setting Criteria – Involves setting standards that an alternative must meet to be selected as the decision that will accomplish the objective. • .
Generate Creative Alternatives • Innovation – The implementation of a new idea • Product innovation (new things) • Process innovation (new way of doing things) Creativity – A way of thinking that generates new ideas The Creative Process – Preparation – Incubation and illumination – Evaluation • • .
Stages in the Creative Process Become familiar with the problem. generate as many solutions as possible. Before implementing the solution. evaluate the alternative to be sure it is practical. Take some time before working on the problem again to gain additional insight. Exhibit 4–6 .
Group Decision-Making Techniques That Foster Creativity Exhibit 4–7 .
ranking. recording. discussion. Synectics – The process of generating novel alternatives through role playing and fantasizing. • • . and voting to select an alternative. clarification. Nominal Grouping – The process of generating and evaluating alternatives using a structured voting method that includes listing.Generating Creative Alternatives • Brainstorming – The process of suggesting many possible alternatives without evaluation.
Generating Creative Alternatives (cont’d) • Consensus Mapping (Ringi) – The process of developing group agreement on a solution to a problem. Delphi Technique – The process of using a series of confidential questionnaires to refine a solution. • .
Decision Tree Exhibit 4–8 .
Implement. • Control – Use checkpoints to determine whether the alternative is solving the problem. – Avoid escalation of commitment to a bad alternative.Plan. • Implement the Plan – Communicate and delegate for direct action. . and Control • Plan – Develop a plan of action and a schedule of implementation.
Vroom. “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process. skipping decisions that are not appropriate to the situation and avoiding crossing any horizontal lines.” Organizational Dynamics 28 (4). Exhibit 4–11a . Source: Adapted from Victor H. Define the problem statement. then move from left to right and answer each question by responding either high (H) or low (L).Participative Decision-Making: Time-Driven Model The model is a decision tree that works like a funnel. 87. p. Copyright © 2000 with permission from Elsevier. The last column indicates the appropriate leadership decision-making style for that situation.
Source: Adapted from Victor H.” Organizational Dynamics 28 (4). skipping decisions that are not appropriate to the situation and avoiding crossing any horizontal lines. Vroom.Participative Decision-Making: Development-Driven Model The model is a decision tree that works like a funnel. Define the problem statement. The last column indicates the appropriate leadership decision-making style for that situation. then move from left to right and answer each question by responding either high (H) or low (L). Exhibit 4–11b . 87. p. “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process. Copyright © 2000 with permission from Elsevier.
. as group development takes time.Time-Driven versus Development-Driven Model Time-Driven Making effective decisions with minimum cost Development-Driven Focus Making effective decisions through maximum development of group members Emphasizes timely decision making Value Emphasizes group development Has a short-term time horizon Orientation Has a long-term horizon.
What .Why .How • Mind mapping .Creative Problem Solving Tools & Techniques • Root Cause Analysis Technique .When .Five Why’s • Fishbone Diagram (Ishikawa Diagram) • Basic Questions to Ask in Defining the Problem (regardless of the technique used) .Where .Who .
Verify the correction action(s) D6 .Define and verify root causes D5 .Prevent problem recurrence D8 .Creative Problem Solving Tools & Techniques • The Problem Solving Process – 8 Disciplines D1 .Congratulate the team .Use a team approach D2 .Implement permanent corrective actions D7 .Describe the problem D3 .Implement and verify interim containment actions D4 .
easy to complete without statistical analysis.Five Why’ • Benefits Of The 5 Whys – Help identify the root cause of a problem.Root Cause Analysis Technique . . – One of the simplest tools. – Determine the relationship between different root causes of a problem.
. In day-to-day business life. can be used within or without a Six Sigma project.• When Is 5 Whys Most Useful? – When problems involve human factors or interactions.
If the answer you just provided doesn't identify the root cause of the problem that you wrote down in step 1. ask Why again and write that answer down. 4. Write down the specific problem. this may take fewer or more times than five Whys. Again.• How To Complete The 5 Whys 1. 3. 2. It also helps a team focus on the same problem. Ask Why the problem happens and write the answer down below the problem. . Writing the issue helps you formalize the problem and describe it completely. Loop back to step 3 until the team is in agreement that the problem's root cause is identified.
3. Why did it run out of gas? . Why didn't you have any money? .Because I'm not very good at "bluffing" when I don't have a good hand. .Because I lost it all last night in a poker game. 2. Why did you lose your money in last night's poker game? . 5.Because I didn't have any money.5 Whys Examples • Problem Statement: You are on your way home from work and your car stops in the middle of the road. Why did your car stop? . 1. Why didn't you buy any gas this morning? . 4.Because I didn't buy any gas on my way to work.Because it ran out of gas.
• In the examples the final Why leads the team to a statement (root cause) that the team can take action upon. • It is much quicker to come up with a system that keeps the sales director updated on recent sales or teach a person to "bluff" a hand than it is to try to directly solve the stated problems above without further investigation .
you can use the 5 Whys technique to drill down to the root causes. Once all inputs are established on the fishbone. • The fishbone diagram helps you explore all potential or real causes that result in a single defect or failure.5 Whys And The Fishbone Diagram • The 5 Whys can be used individually or as a part of the fishbone (also known as the cause and effect or Ishikawa) diagram. .
cause-and-effect diagrams. or Fishikawa) are causal diagrams that show the causes of a certain event -.Fishbone Diagram (Ishikawa Diagram) • Ishikawa diagrams (also called fishbone diagrams. Causes are usually grouped into major categories to identify these sources of variation . • Common uses of the Ishikawa diagram are product design and quality defect prevention. or herringbone diagrams . to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. • Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variation.created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1990).
• It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories.Description • The fishbone diagram identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem. • It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. .
• Especially when a team’s thinking tends to fall into ruts.When to Use a Fishbone Diagram • When identifying possible causes for a problem. .
If this is difficult use generic headings: – Methods – Machines (equipment) – People (manpower) – Materials – Measurement – Environment . Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it. marking pens. • Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem.Fishbone Diagram Procedure • Materials needed: flipchart or whiteboard. • Agree on a problem statement (effect). Write it at the center right of the flipchart or whiteboard.
• Again ask “why does this happen?” about each cause. . Ask: “Why does this happen?” As each idea is given. the facilitator writes it as a branch from the appropriate category. Continue to ask “Why?” and generate deeper levels of causes.• Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow. Layers of branches indicate causal relationships. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories. • When the group runs out of ideas. • Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. Write sub-causes branching off the causes. focus attention to places on the chart where ideas are few.
Fishbone Diagram Example .
and also under “Measurement” as a cause of lab error.” the idea “materials of construction” shows four kinds of equipment and then several specific machine numbers.• For example. “Iron tools” can be considered a “Methods” problem when taking samples or a “Manpower” problem with maintenance personnel. . “Calibration” shows up under “Methods” as a factor in the analytical procedure. • Note that some ideas appear in two different places. under the heading “Machines.
Copyright © 2006 Thomson Business and Economics. All rights reserved. 4–53 .
–Can be risky for individuals.Brainstorming – A Creative Technique • Brainstorming is a great way of generating radical ideas. • During the brainstorming process there is no criticism of ideas. but tends to be less effective at developing them. Valuable but strange suggestions may appear stupid at first sight. • Individual Brainstorming: –It is best for generating many ideas. as free rein is given to people's creativity (criticism and judgment cramp creativity). .
Brainstorming – A Creative Technique • Group Brainstorming: –tends to develop fewer ideas. which are great for creating cohesion in a team . but takes each idea further –needs formal rules for it to work smoothly –group brainstorming sessions are usually enjoyable experiences.
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