 Pull the material through a heated die  Good for continuous uni-direction fiber layups  A starting composite lay up needs to have sufficient

strength to survive being pulled through the heated die.

Vacuum forming
 Vacuum and heat is used to mold composites into a

final product  A composite is usually laid-up and placed in a bag where a vacuum is placed on it. The bag is placed in an autoclave where heat and pressure may be added.  This method is usually slow and expensive.  Preserve fiber’s length and complex shapes may be formed.

Thermoset composites  Particle board  Fiberboard (MDF, HDF, cardboard, hardboard)  Paper and hardboard – in general does not rely on an adhesive, but relies on hydrogen bonding from fiber to fiber  Thermoplastic  Wood-natural fiber composites (WPC)  Non-wovens

Assuming that the fiber diameter (d) and the spacing between fibers (s) does not change, the maximum fiber loading is the case where s = d.

vf 

  2 3 s

 d 


vf 

 d 
  4s


Max(Vf) where s=d: Vf = 0.785

Max(Vf) where s=d: Vf = 0.907 In , max(Vf) = 0.5 – 0.8

Much of the composites volume can be occupied by voids because of inefficient packing.

paper. packaging .   Construction  WPC are used in decking and exterior applications  Particleboard may be used as underlayment  HDF may be used in some flooring laminates Automotive Consumer  Furniture.

Product Constituent Adhesive/ Density Matrix (g/cm^3) UF 0.96 .80 – 1.83 Modulus (GPa) 2. PVC 0.56 – 0.12 1.2 2.5 Particleboard Particles MDF Hardboard WPC Fibers Fibers Flour UF None HDPE.4 NA 3. PP.0 The mechanical properties are based on bending values for representative material .0 18.0 24.0 31.4 Strength (MPa) 16. LDPE.64 – 0.

but require shorter spans than wood.  WPC outperforms wood in compression perpendicular loading allowing for use in exterior doors. and some load bearing applications. windows. .  WPC are designed for exterior uses. Mechanical properties  These products are not ideally suited for structural applications with few exceptions. This requires reformulating by adding waterproof adhesives and waxes.  Particleboard is almost exclusively for interior use. but the ability to produce a variety of shapes and improved thermal stability over unfilled plastics lends itself for use in automotive interiors.  Physical properties  MDF and hardboard – can be manufactured for exterior/siding applications.  WPC are used as decking.

2000 Particleboard Downstream Markets Household Furniture 23% Kitchen & Bath 20% NEC 15% Office Furniture 8% Custom Laminators 7% Flooring Products 7% Door Core 5% Stocking Distributors 5% All Other Categories 10% 2000 MDF Downstream Markets Household Furniture 20% Other (NEC) 20% Moulding 11% Millwork 10% Stocking Distributors 9% Source: United Nations FAO – FAOSTAT Kitchen & Bath 8% Custom Laminators 7% All Other Categories 15% Source: Composite Panel Association .


shaving. chip. The core of the panel is lower density and contains larger particles to reduce the density of the overall panel.Particle board is a panel product made by compressing small particles of wood and bonding them with adhesive.  It is usually made in three layers.  Resin: urea-formaldehyde (UF-amino based) adhesives are the most commonly used resin to hold the particles together:  Boards with UF are intended for interior use only  . excelsior. and wafers are reduced to particles. silver. sawdust. The outer layers will contain more fines and be a higher density to provide a good surface for finishing or laminating.  Particle types used include. flake. strand.

cut. as this minimizes the process adjustments and assures quality control.  Some type of milling is required for any raw material. or sawdust. hammer mills.  Whatever the raw material used – it should not be mixed. tear or otherwise reduce the wood into the range of particle size called furnish. dry planer shavings are the best and sawdust is valued least. mixed mill residue.  . either all chips. and flakers grind. all sawdust. chips.  Refiners. etc.  Raw material is bought by weight.Raw material is brought to the plant in the form of shavings.

The rate of cure/the press time for 0. tear or otherwise reduce the wood into the range of particle size). UF resin is a water emulsion that usually contains 5560% of actual resin (solids).5 inch thick UF bonded board is less than 3 minutes.         After drying. UF resin level is usually 4-10% on a solids basis. After mats are formed. The outer faces usually have a higher resin loading than the core due to the increase in the amount of fines used. (Furnish = grind. they are moved into a press loader. cut. Resin and wax (blending) is added to the particles to provide some water repellency or sizing to the panels. the particle are screened to remove fine dust-like particles called fines. The process of depositing furnish into a mat is termed forming.43 MPa. The quantity of resin used is the major factor determining strength and dimensional properties. Pressing is conducted at 140-165°C with a pressure of 1. If fines are not removed.3 – 1% addition level to improve moisture performance. they absorb much of the resin. . A large amount of this moisture is from the resin.37 – 3. Wax is added at 0. Panel moisture contents start at 8-12% moisture entering the press and 5-8% MC exiting the press.

Source: Wood Handbook .

MDF & HDF Grade: E0 . CARB P2 & NAF Fire-proof :ASTME-E84 Glue:MDI Size:1220mmX2440mmX3mm-42m . F**** of Japan JIS .E1.

Structure of straw Annual plants as wheat and rice-straw are less homogenous than the perennial softwoods or hardwoods in the morphological structure. the stem is divided into nodes and internodes. The straw is the structural material that makes the plant to stand up and is composed of the stem and leaves. and the internodes are separated by the nodes at which the leaves are The internodes are the parts containing fibres of sufficient amount and quality that are of interest for refining and manufacture of MDF. .

.The different types of fibres. 2008). (b) microfibers and (c) TEM images (magnification x 15. SEM micrograph of the (a) wheat-straw crosssection. micro fibres and single cell are below.000) of the wheat-straw nanofibre adapted from (Alemdar and Sain. These fibres and bundle of fibres will be the basic component in the produced straw MDF.


The panels can be used in virtually all applications where conventional boards are used. manufactured from agrifibre (agricultural residue) that is milled to form flakes. industrial grade panels. • interior decoration • industrybuilding industry •construction industry •industrial packaging formaldehyde (LF) and the USA (HUD 24) CARB . and conventional fibreboards (including MDF. •These panels can replace plywood. hard-board and soft-board) for a wide range of applications.1.•Straw based mdf panels are high quality. •Panels can be custom made to specifications. •They were benchmarked against wood based particleboard in terms of strength and specification and can be cross referenced to any international particleboard standard such as BSEN 312 P4 to P1 or ANSI A208. chipboard. • The flakes are than mixed with a specially designed formaldehyde free resin and compressed under high temperature to form a stable homogeneous panel.

Straw based mdf boards are suitable for use in environmentally sensitive areas such as : • nurseries •children's furniture •hospitals •public buildings •laboratories •nursing homes or any domestic application with concern for the living environment and sustainable lifestyle like The Beijing Olympic Gymnasium were Eco-boards were used.44m x 1.22m ( 8 foot x 4 foot ) indexes of ZEROE STRAW BOARD and traditional boards . Thickness and Sizes Standard boards thickness ranges from 8mm to 3 mm and density 650 to 850 kg/m³ Soft boards thickness ranges from 35 mm to 43 mm and density 350 to 530 kg/m³ Standard size panels are 2.

. Less dust and released toxins allows a cleanier and healthier working environment. similar to MDF. contruction site). Machinable: ECOBoard Bio-Composite Panels are made in a Single Layer process giving homogenous consistency throughout its thickness. etc. The Single Homogeneous Layer and Its superior internal bond (cross tensile) allows smooth strong profiling and sharp machined edges. Lighter Weight: The High strength to lighter weight ratio of the ECOBoard panels further eases panel handling (manufacturing plant. wall cladding. flooring. Painting after priming gives excellent results. screw types). mouldings. since they scorch rather tan burn. Finishing: When sanded to agrifibers create an excellent finish and readily accept Paper and Foil Laminates. skirting boards. in addition ECOBoards has a full range of fire rated panels and door cores to fit most applications. Screw Tightness: The tenacious screw holding ability adds flexibility to the choice of fitment hardware that can be used (hinges. brackets. Formica and Natural Wood Veneers. Melamine.non rated . Tools show less ware and tare. Fire Resistantance: ECOBoards are standard >20min fire resistant . . High Strength.General characteristics Moisture Resistance: Unlike traditional woodbased boards these are extremely moisture resistant and are specified for use in the most strenuous humid domestic interior conditions where dimensional stability and retained strength are of great importance such as Kitchen & Bathroom furniture.

24 ZEROE STRAWBOARD ≥500-900 ≥13 ≥0.Comparison of major performance indexes of ZEROE STRAW BOARD and traditional boards Index Name density Static bending strength UNIT Kg/m3 Mpa Mpa PB ≥400-900 ≥11.5 ≥0.35 MDF ≥450-880 ≥20 ≥0.45 Internal bond strength Nail-holding power of the vertical surface N ≥1100 ≥11 ≥1000 Nail-holding power f the paralleling surface N ≥750 ≤10 9mg/100g30mg/100g ≥700 ≤6 ≥750 ≤8 9mg/100g30mg/100g Swelling rate of 2h % Releasing amount of free formaldehyde(desiccator Mg/100g ) method 0 .

 More and more “wood” is being combined with various other materials to meet manufacturing demands and the end result is:  Hardboard  Insulation board  Medium-density fiberboard  Insulation/Acoustical Board .

Properties are a uniform density = smooth. Also used for wall paneling and wainscot.     MDF = a panel product from of wood fiber bonded with synthetic resin which has been commercially produced for 40 years and the uses continue to grow. In contrast to particleboard. MDF requires no edge-banding prior to shaping. PF resins are used with a press temperature of 190°C. plywood. furniture trim. For these grades. sawmill cutoff blocks are reduced to chips Chips undergo thermomechanica l pulping Process closely resembles particleboard manufacturin g from this point . Logs. Pressing conditions are similar to particleboard except when producing exterior grades. tight edges that can be machined almost like solid wood and can be finished to a smooth surface and grain-printed which eliminates the need for surface veneers or laminates.

ss 175°C Board Formati on PrePres s HotPress Resin Added Hardboard . Chips are refined using thermomechanica l pulping Woo Pulpin d g chip Proce s Steam 165. Manufactured as sheets or shapes in a wet or dry process In the US hardboard production is decreasing: sensitive to water so interior use only (except for a few siding products). swelling and surface blisters. moisture causes linear expansion.   Hardboard is a high-density wood fiber product.

fluffy fiber The loosely piled fibers form a blanket which is hotpressed . resin added Furnish is introduced into a forming device that creates a “snowstorm” = dry. squeeze out water and dry the mat Wood pulp mixed with air Fiber is dried. water is squeezed out High pressure and heat form ligneous bonds.Wood Pulp mixed with water Wood-fiber mixture is metered onto a wire screen Water drained by suction from underneath wire screen The fiber mat is moved to a pre-press.

   Receiving logs Debarking Chip and hammer mill (particleboard)  This generates particles and finer flours for WPCs and other products  Refining (MDF and hardboard)  Pressure and atmospheric  Refining produces fibers with a high aspect ratio .

semshred.php/id/1017 .jpg particles to a size  More expensive to maintain  Requires less energy than a hammer mill Source: http://www.feedmachinery. Hammer Milling  Use the natural fracture planes to produce particles  Robust and cheap to maintain  Knife Mills  Use knives to cut Source:

has a slurry of water and chips move between them under heat and pressure or atmospheric  Source: Premier Pumps PVT. one stationary.Refining – a more in depth look  Large grooved plates. one rotating. LTD. .

Natural fibers must be dried prior to pressing  This consumes a massive amount of energy  Particles. fibers. Conductive transfer Convection Heat generation/RF pressing .      Numerous models: Suschland. Wang. Humphrey. and flour are fluidized in an airstream and conveyed pneumatically in an airstream through a steam tube or rotating drum dryer. etc. Lang and Wolcott.

1 GPa  $0. Density (specific gravity) 2.   Reinforcement Cost PP  12GPa wood vs.6 glass $0.  Durability .slows moisture diffusion requires water  Biological deterioration . .4 cell wall vs.96 PP vs.90/lb PP  1.0125/lb wood vs.

• • • • Natural flour or fiber • Often wood. etc. • Up to 60% addition level • Hydrophylic Thermoplastic • Most typically a polyolefin that is semi-crystalline • Needs to process below the thermal degradation temperature of the natural fiber • Hydrophobic and does not adhere readily to hydrophilic fillers Interphase • Nucleation of plastic crystals on fiber surface 3 phase morphology Bulk Interphase Wood . jute. straw.

Counter-rotating – the screws rotate in opposite directions to convey the material with little shear stress. Single – a single screw is rotated in a barrel to melt and convey the polymer melt. Source: polymerprocessing. A die may be place on the end to produce a desired shape. An image of a parallel co-rotating twinscrew extruder. this may simply serve to mix the composite constituents prior to a secondary molding step. Often. Otherwise. Little mixing of the natural fibers occurs in the type of . Parallel – the extruder barrel is the same diameter the entire length. mix. This method has the least amount of damage to natural fibers. and heat the composite. This helps build pressure in the melt and eliminates the need for a gear pump. a gear pump is needed on the barrel exit to fill a die. Conical – the extruder barrel is larger on the feeder end than on the outlet. Co-rotating – the screws rotate in the same direction to produce high sheer stress for mixing.   Extruders have a heated barrel with a screw(s) inside to convey. Twin      Conical. counter-rotating extruders are common for natural fiber composite compounding.

PHB) – these are biodegradable and have similar processing properties as polyolefins . polyethylene terephthalate [PET]). it processes at a higher temperature. doors. however these materials generally process above the degradation temperature of natural fibers  Natural polyesters (PLA.  Polystyrene (PS) – not used extensively in WPC because of its very brittle quality. Polyesters  Aliphatic – usually not environmentally stable and are degradable such as polyethylene oxide (PEO)  Aromatic – very environmentally stable (e. Tupperware).g. PHA. Also.g. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) – a copolymer of acrylonitrile and styrene that is toughened to produce a wide range of properties. Generally. but is more expensive and more susceptible to UV degradation. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – is usually a formulation that can be tailored for a wide range of processing conditions and properties. Have been used in a large extent in windows. and siding.    Polyolefins  Polyethylene – this includes high density (HDPE) and low density (LDPE)  Polypropylene (PP) – used in many food storage applications (e. it has higher properties than HDPE.

The viscosity of the melt needs to be reduced to aid processing and reduce friction in the screws and extruder barrel.    Try to marry dissimilar materials  Polymer backbone similar to matrix  Polar component similar to adherent Silanes (thermoset or thermoplastics) Anhydrides (Polyolefin copolymers) Hydroxymethylat ed resorcinol (HMR)  Effective with traditional wood thermosets     Talc may be added to improve the stiffness Borates are often used as a fungicide Fire retardants UV stabilizers  Tannins  Others      Lubricants are added to modify the rheology of the melt. Waxes Stearates Polyesters Surfactants .

.   Injection molding can be used to produce small parts quickly from precompounded composite pellets Pellets are loaded into a hopper and injected into heated mold via a mechanism similar to a single screw extruder. Material is placed into an open mold (as opposed to a closed mold in injection molding) which is then molded under high heat and pressure.g.wikimedia. Many plastic components are manufactured in this manner.png Inconsistent product quality Throughput Limited in shapes able to produce compared to other door panels for cars) Can use continuous fibers with little damage Little material wasted Source: http://upload.  Advantages         Disadvantages Can mold large parts (e.

the use of finishing tools such as routers to create decorative edgings. Bracket feet . dados. bevels. bracket feet or it could be a set of legs. chamfers and shelving systems.Cabinets which rest on the floor are supported by some sort of a base. A face frame cabinet Cabinet making is the practice of using various woodworking skills to create cabinets. and so on. a scrolled based. shelving and furniture. This base could be a fully enclosed base . Cabinet making involves techniques such as creating appropriate joints.

Some wood joints employ fasteners. or adhesives. flexibility.derive from the properties of the joining materials and from how they are used in the joints. toys. while others use only wood elements. toughness. etc. The characteristics of wooden joints . to create furniture. appearance. structures. . bindings. and other items.strength. Therefore. .CUTTING AND JOINING  Joinery is a part of woodworking that involves joining together pieces of wood. different joinery techniques are used to meet differing requirements.

Door buffer Hidden hinge Various aspects of cabinet making Various joints Cabinet lock Sliding rails for drawers .


Production requires board stability . . low swelling rates.APPLICATIONS OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBRE BOARD Medium and High Density Fiberboards are formed by breaking down hardwood and softwood residuals into wood fibers. APPLICATION IN FURNITURE •Office furniture : evenly density. high moisture resistance and durable. PU is the ideal binder for MDF and HDF. perfect density curve design. Meeting all these requirements. low formadehyde release. These are combined with wax and resin binder before applying high temperature and pressure. smooth after painting. cost effective adhesive and fast curing time.

Its is durable to use. sound insulation. superior property. difficult to age.•Cabinets : smooth texture. water corrosion resistance . good heat insulation . dense texture. It can be applied to office. moisture oil. . kitchen. deform and damaged by worm bites. bedroom and bathroom doors. strong edge and good to decorate. Bathroom cabinets Living room cabinets Kitchen cabinets •Doors : The property of mdf / hdf doors are better than that of wood doors such as more impact resistance and fire.

decorative molding and custom furniture. It has big sheet sizes. stress distribution. level and smooth surface. acid and flame resistance. It is widely used in partition. environmental friendly. difficult to deform . various thickness. symmetry. low formaldehyde and low swelling rate. evenly structure. overcome the deficiency of natural wood. This is because it has a superior mechanical property.•Decoration : It is the first panel doors for interior furniture. •Other applications Faced panel speaker artwork Circuit board .

Shoe heels Stationary and sports products Electric fan crib Car interior decoration •Floors : .

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