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THERMAL

ENVIRONMENT AND
COMFORT ZONE

Adapted from ISO 7726: 1998 (E), 7730, 9920, ANSI / ASHRAE, 55 – 1992, ANSI / ASHRAE, 55a –
Introduction
 Operations involving high air temperatures,
radiant heat sources, high humidity, direct
physical contact with hot objects, or strenuous
physical activities have a high potential for
inducing heat stress in employees engaged in
such operations. Such places include: iron and
steel foundries, nonferrous foundries, brick-firing
and ceramic plants, glass products facilities,
rubber products factories, electrical utilities
(particularly boiler rooms), bakeries,
confectioneries, commercial kitchens, laundries,
food canneries, chemical plants, mining sites,
smelters, and steam tunnels.
 Outdoor operations conducted in hot weather,
such as construction, refining, asbestos removal,
and hazardous waste site activities, especially
those that require workers to wear
semipermeable or impermeable protective
Definitions
 Heat stress is defined as the physical and
physiological reactions of the worker to temperatures
that fall outside of the worker’s normal comfort zone.
 Comfort Zone: the condition of mind that expresses
satisfaction with the thermal environment
 The American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists (1992) states that workers should not be
permitted to work when their deep body temperature
exceeds 38°C (100.4°F).

Reference;
Accepted method of determining comfort zones is through
the use of an ASHRAE chart.
ASHRAE –American Society of Refrigeration, Heating, and Air-
Conditioning Engineers.
ASHRAE standard 55-1992/95 outlines human com ort zones
based on temperature and humidity.
Definitions
In physics, stress is the internal distribution of forces
within a body that balance and react to the loads applied
to it. Stress is a tensor quantity with nine terms, but which
can be described fully by six terms due to symmetry.
Simplifying assumptions are often used to represent stress
as a vector for engineering calculations.

Stress (roughly the opposite of relaxation) is a medical


term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both
physiological and psychological, which can cause a
physiological response

Any real or perceived adverse stimulus, physical or


psychological, that tends to disturb an individual¹s
homeostasis.

A condition in which the organism is subjected to


unfavorable or unfamiliar environmental conditions,
resulting in some alteration in normal physical functioning.
Short-term stress can often be overcome. Long-term stress
can reduce resistance to disease and parasites, inhibit self-
Definitions
Strain is the geometrical expression of deformation
caused by the action of stress on a physical body

Strain is defined as the amount of deformation an


object experiences compared to its original size and
shape. For example, if a block 10 cm on a side is
deformed so that it becomes 9 cm long, the strain is
(10-9)/10 or 0.1 (sometimes expressed in percent, in
this case 10 percent.) Note that strain is
dimensionless.

Muscle strain or muscle pull or even a muscle tear


implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons.
You can put undue pressure on muscles during the
course of normal daily activities, with sudden, quick
heavy lifting, during sports, or while performing work
tasks.
Definitions

Heat is a measure of energy in terms of quantity.

A calorie is the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram


of water 1°C (based on a standard temperature of 16.5 °C
to 17.5°C).

Conduction (K) is the transfer of heat between materials


that contact each other. Heat passes from the warmer
material to the cooler material. For example, a worker's
skin can transfer heat to a contacting surface if that
surface is cooler, and vice versa.

Convection (C) is the transfer of heat in a moving fluid.


Air flowing past the body can cool the body if the air
temperature is cool. On the other hand, air that exceeds
Reference
35°C (95°F) can increase the heat load
BSon
EN the body.
12515 : 1997
OSHA Technical Document
Definitions

Evaporative (E) cooling takes place when sweat


evaporates from the skin. High humidity reduces the
rate of evaporation and thus reduces the effectiveness
of the body's primary cooling mechanism.

Radiation (R) is the transfer of heat energy through


space. A worker whose body temperature is greater
than the temperature of the surrounding surfaces
radiates heat to these surfaces. Hot surfaces and
infrared light sources radiate heat that can increase
the body's heat load.

Metabolic heat (M) is a by-product of the body's


activity.
Reference
BS EN 12515 : 1997
OSHA Technical Document
Heat Balance Equation

M – W = Cres + Eres + K + C ± R + E =
S
Conduction (K)
Convection (C)
Cooling Radiation (R)
External Evaporation (E)
Heat Metabolic Heat (M)
Source Net Heat Storage (S)
Respiratory Conduction (Cres)
Internal
Respiratory Evaporation (Eres)
Heat
Source Mechanical power (W)
(Muscula
Reference
r Activity)
BS EN 12515 : 1997
OSHA Technical Document
Body heat production

 Body heat produced by cell metabolism


 Energy ingested as food is changed into other forms of energy.
 75-85% is released as heat energy
 The rate at which heat is produced by the body is a measure of the
rate at which energy is released from foods
 This is called the metabolic rate
 Exergonic reactions:
 Oxidation and ATP use.
 Most heat generated by brain, heart, liver and glands at
rest.
 Skeletal muscles 20-30% at rest. Can increase 30-40
times during exercise
Cooling the body

The body’s cooling system can be likened to


the cooling system of a car.

Coolant (blood) is circulated through a pump


(heart) and moves heat from the hot inner
core to a radiator (skin surface).
Thermoregulatory Center

 Hypothalamus:
– Preoptic area neurons: hypothalamic
thermostat:
Heat-losing center

Heat-promoting center

 Monitors temperature of blood and


receives signals from peripheral
thermoreceptors.
 Negative feedback loops
Thermoregulatory Center

 Heat-losing center:
 Activates heat losing mechanisms:
– Dilation of dermal arterioles: increase
blood flow to skin.
– Sweating.
– Increased respiration through mouth.
– Behavioral: remove clothing.
 Inhibits heat-promoting center.
Heat losing mechanisms: blood flow

14
skin
12 core
blood flow (L/ min)

muscles
10
organs
8

0
cool hot
Thermoregulatory Center

 Heat-promoting center:
 Activates heat generating mechanisms:
– SNS:
 Vasoconstriction of dermal arterioles: decrease
blood flow to skin
 Stimulates arrector pili muscles: hair stands on
end
 Shivering thermogenesis: spinal reflex of
alternating contractions in antagonistic
muscles
– Nonshivering thermogenesis:
 Long-term mechanism stimulating thyroid
hormone release T3 and T4.
– Inhibits heat-loss center.
Thermoregulatory Center

 Hypothalamus:

 Peripheral thermoreceptors:
– Temperature of skin.
 Central thermoreceptors:
– Temperature of core.
– Most important located in
hypothalamus.
Thermoregulation

Hypothalamus receives input


from thermoreceptors.

Too hot, results in vasodilation


to allow conduction of heat from
skin (and evaporation).

Too cold, results in vaso-


constriction of skin vessels and
reduces sweating to reduce
conduction of heat from skin.

Convection and radiation are


also involved in heat loss.

E.g.. Cool breeze moves warm


air around body away.
Factors Affect Heat Stress

• Physical factors
• Physiological factors
Physical Factor of Heat
Stress
Ambient temperature
Humidity
Radiant heat load
Air velocity
Insulation
Predisposing Physiological
Factors of Heat Stress
Physiological Factors:
 Metabolic heat
 Mechanical work
 Physical fitness
 Fatigue
 Dehydration
 Previous heat illness
 Poor physical condition
 Heart disease
 High blood pressure
 Diabetes
 Skin disease
 Liver, kidney, and lung problems
Predisposing Physiological
Factors of Heat Stress, Cont.
Predisposing Factors, cont’d:
 Age
 Gender
 Nutrition
 Pregnancy
 Drugs
 Alcohol , caffeine, nicotine intake
Heat Factor, cont’d - Drugs
Drugs that interfere with body’s thermo-
regulation:
Heat production:
– Thyroid hormone
– Amphetamines
– LSD
Decrease thirst:
– Haldol
Decrease sweating:
– Antihistamine
– Anticholinergics
– Phenothiazines
– Benztropine
What are the health
effects of
heat stress/strain?
Effects of heat on performance
 Physical Work Capacity
A two- to three-percent loss decreases
aerobic capacity by more than 10 percent.
Dehydration that reduces body weight by
4.3 percent also will decrease performance
by 22 percent

 Mental Work Capacity


Mental performance can be affected with an
increase in body temperature of 2oF above
normal.
Moderate heat stress is believed to affect
mental performance by lowering levels of
arousal. Conscious effort can counteract
this effect
Heat Effects and People

Heat affects people in different ways. People


come in all different sizes, shapes, and
tolerances for heat.
Some people can work comfortably in high
temperatures, while others will develop
sickness from heat stress/strain
health effects of heat
stress/strain
Heat Rash (prickly heat, miliaria rubra):

Cause: Heat buildup in the skin due to


clogged pores and sweat ducts. Prolonged
skin wetness from sweating.
Symptoms: Area becomes reddened and may
itch or hurt. Skin eruptions.
First Aid: Practice good personal hygiene;
keep the skin clean and the pores
unclogged, allow skin to dry, wear loose
clothing, see doctor if rash persists.
Seriousness: Relatively minor.
health effects of heat
stress/strain

Radiation Burns (Sunburn)

Cause: UV radiation is absorbed by the


skin.
Symptoms: Water molecules within skin
are disrupted, leading to drying-out of
tissues. Extreme cases involve blisters,
ruptures, and deep-tissue damage.
First Aid: Covering of exposed skin. Use of
protective creams (sunscreen).
Bandaging of serious burns.
Seriousness: Minor to relatively
serious.
health effects of heat
stress/strain

Transient Heat Fatigue:

Cause: Loss of fluids reduces circulatory


efficiency
Symptoms: General feeling of tiredness or
fatigue
First Aid: Fluid replacement and rest
Seriousness: No long-term adverse effects
Percentage of Weight Loss/Fluid Loss
with Respect to Time
% Weight Fluid Time* Effect & symptoms
loss loss (* timing may vary based on
intensity of work and
heat/humidity)
1% 0.75 L 1 hr unnoticed (at 1.5% weight
loss you are considered
2% 1.5 L 2-3 hrs dehydrated)
loss of endurance, start to
feel thirsty, feel hot,
3% 2.25 L 3-4 hrs uncomfortable
loss of strength, loss of
energy, moderate discomfort
4% 3L 4-5 hrs cramps, headaches, extreme
discomfort
5-6% 3.5-4 L 5-6 hrs heat exhaustion, nausea,
faint
7+% 5+ L 7+ hrs heat stroke, collapse,
unconsciousness
health effects of heat stress/strain

Heat Cramps:
Cause: Loss of important electrolytes in the
blood and muscle tissues due to excessive
amounts of “salts” being lost in the victim’s
sweat.
Symptoms: Cramping of either voluntary
(skeletal) muscles or involuntary (principally
abdominal) muscles (or both).
First Aid: Replenish electrolytes through
drinking of fluids constituted for this purpose
such as Gator-Aide. Rest in a cool
environment.
Seriousness: May debilitate the victim for
several days. Full recovery is necessary before
going back into heat stress conditions.
health effects of heat stress/strain

Heat Exhaustion:
Cause: Depressed condition of the circulatory
system due for the most part to a lack of
adequate fluid replacement (dehydration).
Blood vessels dilate and blood flow is
seriously reduced (clinical condition of shock
has occurred). A victim may be able to take
actions that will alleviate the condition, if the
symptoms are recognized early enough.

Symptoms: Nausea, dizziness, weakness,


headache, blurred vision, profuse sweating,
cold/wet (clammy) grayish skin,
unconsciousness, coma and death.
health effects of heat stress/strain

Heat Exhaustion (continued):

First Aid: Place victim in a face down position


in a cool location, administer fluids if the
victim is conscious. If unconscious, seek
medical care or transport to a medical
emergency room.

Seriousness: Shock is a serious medical


condition regardless of the cause of its
onset. Victims may require several days or
even weeks to recover. Even longer periods
may be necessary before the victim can
resume working in heat stress conditions.
health effects of heat stress/strain

Heat Stroke:
Cause: The body’s temperature regulation
mechanism, located in the hypothalamus,
fails and sweating stops. Core body
temperature rises dramatically and the
victim’s condition becomes a serious medical
emergency. The victim is unlikely to be able
to reverse the condition without assistance
or medical intervention.

Symptoms: Chills, restlessness, irritability,


euphoria, red face and skin, disorientation,
hot/dry skin (not always), collapse,
unconsciousness, convulsions and death.
health effects of heat
stress/strain
Heat Stroke (continued):
First Aid: Immediate, aggressive cooling of the
victim’s body using wet cloths, immersion into
cool water or using alcohol wipes. Transport to
emergency medical facility.

Seriousness: Heat Stroke is a MEDICAL


EMERGENCY. Without outside intervention, the
victim will die. By the time the victim realizes
s/he is in trouble, it is usually too late to employ
effective self-intervention procedures that can
reverse the thermo-regulatory failure and
reduce core temperatures. Recovery times from
heat stroke are generally the longest of any
heat-related disorder.
Human Response to Heat
Thermal Indices
 Direct Indices
– Dry Bulb Temperature
– Wet Bulb Temperature
 Rational Indices
– Operative Temperature
– Belding Hatch Heat Stress Index
– Skin Wettedness (%SWA)
 Empirical Indices
– Effective Temperature (ET, CET & ET*)
– Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT)
 Other Index
– Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (P4SR)
Thermal Indices
 Direct Indices

Purpose Drawbacks

Dry Bulb Estimating comfort conditions Use is not justified when


Temperatur for sedentary people wearing the temperature is above
e (ta) conventional indoor clothing. comfort zone
For every 29watt or 25 cal
reduce ta by 1.7oC
Wet Bulb Assessing heat stress and Use is not justified where
Temperatur predicting heat strain under radiant temperature and
e (twb) conditions where radiant air velocity are present
temperature and air velocity
are not large factors and
where
Twb approximate ta. Twb
30oC is the upper limit for
unimpaired activity of
sedentary tasks and 28oC is
Thermal Indices
 Rational Indices
Purpose Drawbacks
Operative Heat exchange between a For convective heat exchanges
Temperatur worker and the environment measure of air velocity is needed
e (to) by radiation & convection in a
uniform environment as it Important factors of humidity and
would occur in an actual metabolic heat production are
industrial environment can be omitted
Belding obtained.
It is the ratio of the amount of Not applicable at very high heat
Hatch Heat body heat that is required to stress conditions
Stress Index be lost to the environment by It does not identify the heat stress
evaporation for thermal differences resulting from hot, dry
equilibrium (Ereq) divided by and hot, humid conditions.
the maximum amount of sweat Strain from metabolic vs.
evaporation allowed through environmental heat is not
the clothing system that can differentiated
be accepted by the Ereq /Emax is a ratio, their absolute
environment (Emax). values are not addressed to.
Assumes: a sweat rate of 1l/hr Measurements are difficult limiting
over 8 hr day for an average the use of the index in field situation.
healthy worker without
Thermal Indices
 Rational Indices
Purpose Drawbacks
Skin Skin Wettedness considers the The measurement
Wettednes variables basic to heat balance requirements are time
s (%SWA) (air temperature, humidity, air consuming
movement, radiative heat
metabolic heat & clothing Wind speed at worksite is
characteristics) and require that difficult to measure with
these variables be measured or any degree of reliability; it
calculated for each industrial can only be an
situation. It is an indicator of approximation.
strain under high humidity and
low air movement where For routine environmental
evaporation is restricted. monitoring, they are too
The index is satisfactory as a complicated, require
basis for calculating the considerable recording
magnitude of thermal stress equipment.
and strain and for
Thermal Indices
 Empirical Indices

Purpose Drawbacks
Effective The ET combines dry bulb & wet bulb ET & CET seem to
Temperatu temperatures and air velocity. In a later over estimate the
re (ET, version of ET, Corrected Effective effects of high
CET & ET*) Temperature (CET), the black globe humidity and under
temperature is considered. estimate the effects
The index values for ET & CET were derived of air motion and thus
from subjective impressions of equivalent tend to over estimate
heat loads between a reference chamber at heat stress
100% humidity and low air motion and an
exposed chamber where temperature and
air motion were higher and humidity lower.
They are used in studies of physical,
psychomotor and mental performance
changes as a result of heat stress.
The recently developed new Effective
Temperature (ET*) uses 50% reference
relative humidity. It is useful in calculating
ventilation or air conditioning requirements
Thermal Indices
 Empirical Indices

Purpose Drawbacks
Wet Bulb The WBGT combines the effect of When impermeable
Globe humidity and air movement (in clothing is worn, the
tnwb), air temperature and WBGT will not be a
Temperatur radiation (in tg), and air relevant index as
e (WBGT) temperature (ta) as a factor in evaporative cooling
outdoor situations in the presence (wet bulb
of sunshine. While for indoors, temperature) will be
only the natural wet bulb and the limited.
black globe temperatures are Psychometric wet
needed. The application of WBGT bulb temperature is
index was used for training independent of
schedules for military recruits radiation & prevailing
during summer season resulted in wind and so can’t be
a striking reduction of heat used in computing
casualties. WBGT index
Thermal Indices
 Empirical Indices

Purpose Drawbacks
Wet Globe The heat exchange by convection, The WGT is good
Temperatur radiation and evaporation is for screening and
integrated into a single instrument monitoring, but it
e (WGT / reading. WGT is used in many does not yield data
Botsball) laboratory studies and field for solving the
situations. When compared to WBGT, equations for heat
in general the correlation is high, exchange between
however it is not he same for all the worker and the
combinations of environmental industrial
factors. A simple approximation of environment.
relationship is WBGT=WGT+20C for
conditions of moderate radiant heat
and humidity
Thermal Indices
Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (PSR)

The PSR is an old physiological Heat Stress Index based on amount of sweat
that would be produced in 4 hours, knowing the air movement, dry and wet
temperature and globe temperature in case of radiant heat. Workload &
clothing has to be taken into account.
Thermal Heat
Stress
Heat stress indices
WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe
Temperature) is the accepted
method for determining true
temperature
–Accounts for air currents,
relative humidity, solar load
Reference
Yaglou and Minard
1957.
ISO 7243,1989.
WBGT Formulae
For indoor or shaded environments:
WBGT = 0.7 X Tnwb + 0.3 X Tg
Tnwb = natural wet-bulb temperature
Tg = globe temperature

For direct sunlight exposure:


WBGT = 0.7 X Tnwb + 0.2 X Tg + 0.1 X
Tdb
Tdb = dry-bulb temperature
TLV Workload Definitions
Light: Standing with light work at
machine/bench using mostly arms;
using table saw
Moderate: Walking about with
moderate lifting or pushing;
scrubbing in a standing position
Heavy: Shoveling dry sand; cutting with
a hand saw
Very Heavy: Shoveling wet sand
TLV’s
Estimating Energy Cost of Work by Task Analysis
(TLV-1)
A. Body Position and Movement Kcal/min
Sitting 0.3
Standing 0.6
Walking 2.0 - 3.0
Walking uphill add 0.8/meter rise

B. Type of work Average Kcal/min Range Kcal/min


Hand work
Light 0.4 0.2 – 1.2
Heavy 0.9
Work one arm
Light 1.0 0.7– 2.5
Heavy 1.8
Work both arms
Light 1.5 1.0 – 3.5
Heavy 2.5
Work whole body
Light 3.5 2.5 – 9.0
Moderate 5.0
Heavy 7.0
Very Heavy 9.0

C. Basal metabolism 1.0

D. Sample Calculation Average Kcal/min


Assembling work with heavy hand tools
1. Standing 0.6
2. Two-arm work 3.5
3. Basal metabolism 1.0
Total 5.1 Kcal/min
For standard worker of 70 kg body Wt.and 1.8 m2 body
Recommended Heat- Stress Exposure Limits
Heat –Acclimatized/Unacclimatized Workers
Clo: a unit to express the thermal insulation provided by
garments and clothing ensembles,
Where 1 clo=0.155 m2. 0C/W
One clo will maintain a sitting resting man , whose metabolism is
50 kcal/m2.h (58W/m2) indefinitely comfortable in an environment
of 21oC, relative humidity 50% and air movement 20ft/min
(0.01m/s)

Reference
ANSI/ASHRAE 55-1992
Thermal insulation for typical combination of
garments
Clo Insulation Units for Individual Items of Clothing
TLV WBGT Correction
Factors with Clo Value
The following correction factors for
the WBGT should be used:
Effective Temperature (ET)
 Effective temperature is defined as that
temperature of still, saturated air which produces
the same feeling of warmth as the given
environment, with its particular combinations of
air temperature, humidity and air movement.

 Effect of additional radiation is not considered, so


that the ET scales are applicable when the mean
radiant temperature of the surroundings and,
therefore, the black globe temperature do not
differ significantly from the dry bulb temperature.
Effective Temperature (ET)
Two scales for ET were introduced, both
meant for sedentary subjects:

 The basic scale of ET; applicable to


subjects striped top the waist

 The normal scale of ET; applicable to


subjects in ordinary indoor clothing (about
1 clo).
Effective
Temperature (ET)

Basic Scale
Effective
Temperature (ET)

Normal Scale
Effective Temperature (ET)
Certain features

 ET gives one numerical measure of the combined effect of


air temperature, humidity and air movement.

 The two scales, basic and normal make allowance for only
two levels of clothing.

 ET scales do not make provision for different levels of activity

 The ET scales are based on subjective feelings of comfort /


discomfort, these are found to correlate very well with
physiological responses, though within a limited range of
thermal severity of the environment.

 The ET scale is best suited in the middle range of thermal


stress i.e. covering the comfort zone and the zone of the
evaporative regulation within which a man could maintain his
thermal balance through evaporative cooling of sweat.
Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (PSR)
The PSR is a physiological
Heat Stress Index based on
amount of sweat that
would be produced in 4
hours, knowing the air
movement, dry and wet
temperature and globe
temperature in case of
radiant heat. Workload &
clothing has to be taken
into account.
P4SR of 4.5 l for a limit
where no incapacitation of
any fit, acclimatized young
men occurred.

McArdle et al.
(1947)
Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (PSR)
Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (PSR)
Predicted 4-hour sweat rate (PSR)
Heat Stress Index

The Heat Stress Index is the ratio of evaporation


required to maintain heat balance (Ereq) to the
maximum evaporation that could be achieved in the
environment (Emax), expressed as a percentage
(Belding and Hatch 1955)
Heat Stress Index (HSI)
Operative temperature
Operative Temperature

ta •√ 10 • Va + tr
tO =
1+√ 10 • Va
Va air velocity, in meters per sec.
tr mean radiant temp in 0C
FORCED
CONVECTION
1.1 X 108 X va0.6
tr= [(tg + 273)4 (t – ta)] 1/4
- 273
ε gx D 0.4 g

STANDARD GLOBE
tr=[ ( tg + 273)4 + 2.5 X 108 X va 0.6 (tg – ta)] ¼
-
273
Heat Stress Index (HSI) Interpretation of Heat Stress
Index (HSI) values
HSI Effect of eight hour exposure

-20 Mild cold strain (e.g. recovery from heat exposure).

  0 No thermal strain

10-30 Mild to moderate heat strain. Little effect on physical work


but possible effect on skilled work

40-60 Severe heat strain, involving threat to health unless


physically fit. Acclimatization required

70-90 Very severe heat strain. Personnel should be selected by


medical examination. Ensure adequate water and salt
intake
100 Maximum strain tolerated daily by fit acclimatized young
men
Over Exposure time limited by rise in deep body temperature
100
Hot Environment Dangers
Hot environments - analytical
determination and interpretation
of thermal stress using
calculation of required sweat
rate
BS EN 12515 :
1997
Heat balance equation
Heat balance equation M – W = Cres + Eres +K + C + R + E +
S
M = W/m2…………………………………(1) M: Metabolic Heat
W=0 W: skin wettedness
Cres = 0.0014M (Eres – ta) …………(2) Cres : Respiratory Conduction
= 0.0014M 350C – ta)
Erec = 0.0173M (Pex– Pn) Erec : Respiratory Evaporation
= 0.0173M (5.624KPn – Pn)…..(3)
C = hc . Fcl (tsk – ta) C : Convection
hc = 3.5 + 5.2 Var < 1m/s hc : Convective heat transfer
= 8.7 Var0.6 ≥ 1m/s Coefficients
( Force convection)…..(4) Fcl : heat changes
2.38(tsk – ta)0.25 tsk: mean skin temp.
(Normal convection)…..(5) ta : Ambient temp.
Var = Va + 0.0052 (M – 58) Var : relative air velocity
Fcl = 1/[(hc + hr)/Icl + 1/fcl] Va : air velocity
fcl = 1+1.97 Icl Icl : thermal insulation of the
Reference
R = hr Fcl(tsk – tr) clothing in square meter kelvin per
BS EN 12515 :
watt
1997
Heat flow by respiratory convection
(Cres)
Heat flow by respiratory convection
can be estimated from metabolic
power M

Cres = 0.0014M (tex – ta) W/m2


= 0.0014M (350C – ta) W/m2
Where tex is the temperature of the
expired air and can be approximated
to 35oC
Heat Transfer
Evaporation (E) W/m2
The heat flow by respiratory evaporation (Eres) can be
stated algebraically.

Eres = 0.0173 M(pex – pa ) W/m2

Where the saturated water vapour pressure of the


expired air Pex is equal to 5.624 kPa for expired air
temperature (tex) of 350C
Pressure of saturated water vapour pressure
(kPa) between 10o C to 37oC shown in steps 1oC

T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
emp
(oc)
10 1.23 1 1 1.50 1 1 1.82 1 2.06 2
.31 .40 .60 .70 .94 .20

20 2.34 2 2 2.81 2 3 3.36 3 3.78 4


.49 .64 .98 .17 .56 .00

30 4.24 4 4 5.03 5 5 5.94 6 - -


.49 .75 .32 .62 .25
Heat Transfer
Convection W/m2
Convection (C) is the transfer of heat in a
moving fluid. Air flowing past the body can
cool the body if the air temperature is
cool. On the other hand, air that exceeds
35°C (95°F) can increase the heat load on
the body.
Heat Transfer
Convection ( C ) W/m2
The rate of heat exchange between a person and an ambient air can be stated
algebraically, where hc represents convective heat transfer coefficient

C = hc . Fcl (tsk – ta) C : Convection


hc = 3.5 + 5.2 Var < 1m/s hc : Convective heat transfer
= 8.7 Var0.6 ≥ 1m/s Coefficients
( Force convection)…..(1) Fcl : heat changes
2.38(tsk – ta)0.25 tsk: mean skin temp.

Var is defined as the ratio of


(Normal the air velocity relative
convection)…..(2) to the ground
ta : Ambient temp. and the
speed of the body or the parts of the body relative to the ground. If body
movement is due to muscular work, Var can be calculated by the following
equation:
V = V + 0.0052 (M – 58) V : air velocity in ms -1
ar a a

The reduction factor for loss of sensible heat exchange due to the wearing of
clothes (Fcl) can be calculated by the following equation :

Fcl = 1/[(hc + hr)/Icl + 1/fcl] Icl : thermal insulation of


the
Mean Skin Temperature

Key
1 Forehead
2 Neck
3 Right scapula
4 Left upper chest
5 Right arm -upper
location
6 Left arm -lower
location
7 Left hand
8 Right abdomen
9 Left paravertebral
10 Right anterior thigh
11 Left posterior thigh
12 Right shin
13 Left calf
Figure -Position of measuring sites
14 Right instep
Mean Skin Temperature
Measuri Weighting coefficient
ng site 4 8 14
point points points
s The mean skin
1 0.07 1/14 temperature is
2 0.28 1/14 calculated by weighting
3 0.28 0.175 1/14 each of the local
temperatures with a
4 0.175 1/14
coefficient
5 0.07 1/14
corresponding to the
6 0.07 1/14
relative surface of the
7 0.16 0.05 1/14 body area that each
8 1/14 measuring point
9 1/14 represents.
Mean skin
10 1/14
11 1/14
temperature
12 0.28 1/14
13 0.2 1/14
tsk = ∑kitski
14 1/14
Heat Transfer
Convection ( C ) W/m2
 Factors that influence hc are
 Parts of body, Air speed & direction, Clothing and
 Values of tsk vary depending on the method used
for the measurements, the number and location
of measuring points on the body and values used
for weighting temperatures measured at the
different location
Radiation (R) W/m 2

Radiation (R) is the transfer of heat energy


through space. A worker whose body
temperature is greater than the
temperature of the surrounding surfaces
radiates heat to these surfaces. Hot
surfaces and infrared light sources radiate
heat that can increase the body's heat load.
Heat Transfer
Radiation (R) W/m2
The rate of radiant heat exchange between a person and the
surrounding solid objects can be stated algebraically.

R = hr Fcl (tsk – tr) W/m2

hr (W/m2) = radiant heat transfer coefficient


hr= σЄsk Ar / ADu [(tsk + 273)4 – (tr + 273)4]/(tsk – tr)
Fcl = reduction of the sensible heat exchange due to clothing
Fcl= 1/((hc+hr)Icl+1/fcl)
fcl = 1+1.97Icl
wher
eσ = the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, equal to 5.67 x 10-8 w/(m2 x k4)
Єsk = skin emissivity (0.97);
Ar / ADu = the fraction of skin
surface involved in heat
exchange by radiation.

This fraction is equal to 0.67


for a crouching subject, 0.70
for a seated subject, and 0.77
for a standing subject.

tr = mean radiant temperature


BSA(m²) = Wt(kg)0.425 x
Ht(cm)0.725 x 0.007184
Heat Transfer
Radiation (R) SI Units
Value of hr will depend on body position of the exposed
worker and on the emissivity of the skin and clothing, as
well as on insulation of clothing

Body position will determine the total body surface


actually exposed to radiation.

Emissivity of the skin and clothing will determine the


radiant energy absorbed on those surfaces.

Insulation of clothing will determine the amount of radiant


heat transferred by the garments to the skin
Evaporation
 Evaporative (E) cooling takes
place when sweat evaporates
from the skin. High humidity
reduces the rate of evaporation
and thus reduces the
effectiveness of the body's
primary cooling mechanism.
Heat Transfer
Evaporation (E) SI Units
The maximum evaporation rate Emax ( W/m2) is that which can be achieved in
hypothetical case of the skin being completely wetted.
Emax = (psk.s – pa)/RT
Where
Psk.s = saturated vapour pressure at skin temperature (kilopascals)
Pa = partial water vapour pressure in the working environment
(kilopascals)
RT = evaporative resistance of the limiting layer 2of air and clothing
For partially wetted skin, the evaporation rate E (W/m )
(kilopascals)2
E = wEmax where, w is skin wettedness
Pressure of saturated water vapour pressure
(kPa) between 10o C to 37oC shown in steps 1oC

T 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
emp
(oc)
10 1.23 1 1 1.50 1 1 1.82 1 2.06 2
.31 .40 .60 .70 .94 .20

20 2.34 2 2 2.81 2 3 3.36 3 3.78 4


.49 .64 .98 .17 .56 .00

30 4.24 4 4 5.03 5 5 5.94 6 - -


.49 .75 .32 .62 .25
Equation

Emax = (Psk,s – Pa)/RT

RT = 1/(he . Fpcl)
he = 16.7 hc
Fpcl = 1/(1 + 2.22 . hc (Icl – (1 – 1/fcl)/(he +
hr)) R :is the total evaporative resistance of the limiting layer of air and
T
clothing, in square meter kilopascals per watt.
Fpcl: reduction factor for latent heat exchange
he : evaporative heat transfer coefficient
Icl : thermal insulation of the clothing in square meter Kelvin per watt
hr : heat transfer coefficient
Heat Transfer
Evaporation (E) W/m2

A few major limitations to the maximum amount of


sweat evaporated from skin (Emax) are

Human sweating capacity


Maximum vapour uptake capacity of the ambient air

The resistance of the clothing to evaporation


Required Evaporation Rate
(Ereq, in watts per square meter)

Ereq = M – W – Cres – Eres – C -


REvaporation rate required for the maintenance of
the thermal equilibrium of the body and, for a
heat storage equal to zero. Convection (C)
Radiation (R)
Metabolic Heat (M)
Respiratory Conduction
(Cres)
Respiratory Evaporation
Equation
Ereq = M – W – Cres – Eres – C - R
M = W/m2…………………………………(1) M: Metabolic Heat
W=0 W: skin wettedness
Cres = 0.0014M (Eres – ta) …………(2) Cres : Respiratory
Conduction
= 0.0014M 350C – ta)
Erec = 0.0173M (Pex– Pn) Erec : Respiratory
Evaporation
= 0.0173M (5.624KPn – Pn)…..(3)
C = hc . Fcl (tsk – ta) C : Convection
hc = 3.5 + 5.2 Var < 1m/s hc : Convective heat
transfer
= 8.7 Var0.6 ≥ 1m/s Coefficients
( Force convection)…..(4) Fcl : heat changes
2.38(tsk – ta)0.25 tsk: mean skin temp.

(Normal convection)…..(5) ta : Ambiant temp.


Required skin wettedness (Wreq
dimensionless)

Required skin wettedness (Wreq dimensionless) is


defined as the ratio between the required evaporation
rate, Ereq and the maximum evaporation rate, Emax

Wreq = Ereq / Emax

Required skin wettedness


(Wreq)
Required Evaporation (Ereq)
Maximum Evaporation (Emax)
Reference
BS EN 12515 :
The Required Sweat Rate (SWreq, in Watts per square
meter)

SWreq = Ereq / rreq

Evaporated efficiency of sweating


(dimensionless), which corresponds to
the required skin wattedness (rreq)
Required evaporation rate (Ereq)

The sweat rate in watts per square meter represents the


equivalent in heat of the sweat rate expressed in grams of
sweat per meter of skin surface and per hour. 1 W/m2
corresponds to a flow of 1.47 g/(m2-h) (1.8 m2 of body
surface), a flow of 2.6 g/h).
Evaporative Efficiency of Sweating
r (dimensionless)

r = 1 – W /2 2

W skin wettedness.
Interpretation of required sweat
rate
Basis for method of interpretation
 Criteria
– Maximum skin wettedness (wmax)
– Maximum sweat rate (SWmax)
 Limits
– Max heat storage (Qmax in watt hours per squire
meter)
– Maximum water loss (Dmax in grams)
Interpretation of required sweat
rate
Analysis of the situations
If wreq<wmax and SWreq<SWmax
then
wp = wreq

Ep=Ereq

SWp=SWreq

However if wreq>wmax then


Wp=wmax

Ep=wp.Emax

SWp=SWmax
Interpretation of required sweat
rate
 Determination of allowable exposure Time
Ep=Ereq
SWp<Dmax/8
Then no limit has been suggested

 If one or other of these condition is not satisfied and


if the required evaporation rate is not achieved , the
difference (Ereq – Ep) represents heat storage rate
which will be responsible for an increase in core
temperature

 The exposure tile limit will be


DLE1 = 60.Qmax/ (Ereq – Ep) in minute
 If predicted sweate rate involves exaggerated
sweate loss then
DLE2 = 60 Dmax/ SWp
Criteria for Thermal Limits Based on
Average Values
Heat ( Nonacclimatized ) Heat
( Acclimatized )

Heat Storage Q max W. h/m2 Alert 50 Danger 60 Alert 50


60 Danger

Sweat rate, m< 65 w/m2 ( SWmax) ( rest)


g/h 260 390 520
780
W/m2 100 150 200
300

Sweat rate, m> 65 w/m2 (SWmax) (work)


g/h 520 650 780
1040

W/m2 200 250 300


400

Maximum water loss (D max)


Body Temperature
 Shell temperature:
– Temperature closer to skin
– Oral temperature
 36.6o-37.0oC (97.9o-98.6oF)
 Core temperature:
– Most important temperature
– Temperature of “core” (organs in cranial,
thoracic and abdominal cavities)
– Rectal temperature
 37.2o-37.6oC (99.0o-99.7oF)
Measuring body temperature
• Body temp. measured via mouth, arm,
rectum and via the ear.
• Celcius and Fahrenheit scales
• Clinical thermometer holds value.
• Uses mercury as:
• easily seen
• good conductor
• uniform expansion
• doesn’t stick to glass
• Liquid, from -39 to 357 oC
• Poisonous! Cree & Rischmiller, Fig 2.1
Thermistor thermometers

• Uses a covered wire and


digital readout.
• Accurate & rapid
• Flexible-probe versions for
constant monitoring
• Can be inserted internally but
need lubrication & irritation
checks.
Body temperature factors

• Kept optimum in the range 36.1 – 37.1 oC


for cell chemistry & enzymes.
• Varies between places.
• Varies with
* Time of day
* Hormonal changes
* Age
* Exposure, illness, stress & exercise
Body temperature factors
Body temperature factors
Thermal Comfort

Thermal Comfort
PMV
ASHRAE
Thermal
Comfort
Are you in Thermal Environment
Comfort?
Please answer the following questions concerned with YOUR THERMAL
COMFORT.
1. Indicate on the scale below how you feel Now.
Hot
Warm
Slightly warm
Neutral
Slightly cool
Cool
Cold
2. Please indicate how you would like to be NOW
Warmer No change Cooler
3. Please indicate how you Generally feel at work:
Hot
Warm
Slightly warm
Neutral
Slightly cool
Cool
Cold
4. Please indicate how you would Generally like to be at work:
Warmer No change Cooler
5. Are you generally satisfied with your thermal environment at work?
Yes No
Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)
The PMV is an index that predicts the
mean value of the votes of a large group
of persons on the following 7-point
thermal sensation scale:

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Cold Cool Slightly Neutr Slightl Warm Hot


cool al y
warm

Reference
ISO 7730:1994
Predicted mean vote (PMV)
Predicted mean vote (PMV)
PMV Required:
M: is the metabolic rate, in watts per square meter of body surface
area2
W:
is the external work, in watts per square meter, equal to zero for
most activities;
Icl: is the thermal resistance of clothing, in square meters degree
Celsius per watt3 ;
F
is the ratio of mans surface area while clothed, to mans surface
cl :
area while nude:
ta : is the air temperature, in degree Celsius;
tr: is the mean radiant temperature, in degree Celsius;
Var : is the relative air velocity (relative to the human body), in
meters per second;
Pa : is the partial water vapour pressure, in Pascal;
hc : is the convective heat transfer coefficient, in watts per square
Predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD)
PPD
PMV: Predicted Mean
VotePMV Values for Air Temperature, Clothing and
Activity
(assume: mean radiant temperature=air temperature,
air velocity=0.15ms-l and relative humidity = 50 0/0)
Air temperature (OC)

Clothing Activity 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
(CLO) (Wm-2)

0.65 58 - -2.7 -2.0 -1.3 -0.6 0.0 0.8

1.0 58 -2.1 -1.6 -1.1 -0.5 0.0 0.6 1.2

1.5 58 - 1.1 -0.7 -0.3 0.2 0.6 1.1 1.5

0.65 70 -2.2 -1.7 - 1.2 -0.6 0.0 0.5 1.0

1.0 70 -1.3 -0.9 -0.5 0.0 0.4 0.9 1.3

1.5 70 -0.5 -0.2 0.2 0.5 0.9 1.2 1.6

0.65 100 -0.9 -0.5 -0.1 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.4

1.0 100 -0.3 0.0 0,3 0.6 1.0 1.3 1.6

1.5 100 0.3 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.5 1.8


Estimates of Typical Metabolic
Heat Production Values

Activity Metabolic heat production


(W m-2)
Seated, at rest 58

Standing, relaxed 70

Standing, light arm work 100

VDU operation 70

Driving 70-100
Thermal comfort clothing
clothing (clo )under various
conditions
Environm Resting Slow level Normal Fast level
ental sitting walking level walking
temp. walking
70°F– 1.50 0.70 0.4 0.3
Normal
outdoors
50°F– 3.1 1.50 0.90 0.7
Normal
outdoors
30°F– 4.7 2.3 1.5 1.1
Normal
outdoors
0°F– 7.2 3.5 2.3 1.7
Normal
outdoors
Estimates of Typical Clothing Insulation
Values
(1 CLO=0.155m2°CW-1)
Type of clothing Clothing insulation (CLO)
None 0
Light summer clothing 0.3
(briefs, shorts,
short sleeved shirt, light
socks, light shoes
Light work clothing (light 0.65
underwear,
cotton long sleeved work
shirt, light long
trousers, socks, shoes)
Light business suit 1.0
(including underclothing
etc.)
Heavy business suit 1.5
(including underclothing
etc.)
ASHRA
ASHRAE STANDARD; is to specify the combinations of
Eand personal factor that will produce
indoor space environment
thermal environmental condition acceptable to 80% or more of
activity and clothing.
Factors
 Environment factor
Temperature
Thermal radiation
Humidity
Air speed

 Personal factor
Activity
Clothing
ASHRAE
Scale
Sensation Cold Cool Slightl Neutral Slightly Warm Hot
y cool warn
PMV -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Same as PMV
Scale
psychrometric
chart

the dewpoint is:


Td = 8ºC
Wet bulb
temperature
(°F)

Saturation vapor pressure (mb)


Relative humidity

vapor pressure (mb)

dewpoint (°F)
ASHRA
ASHRAE STANDARD: A Standard specific thermal
E
zone of comfort expressing

On X axis; Operative
temp.(to)
Operative temperature
Operative Temperature

ta •√ 10 • Va + tr
tO =
1+√ 10 • Va
Va air velocity, in meters per sec.
tr mean radiant temp in 0C
FORCED
CONVECTION
1.1 X 108 X va0.6
tr= [(tg + 273)4 (t – ta)] 1/4
- 273
ε gx D 0.4 g

STANDARD GLOBE
tr=[ ( tg + 273)4 + 2.5 X 108 X va 0.6 (tg – ta)] ¼
-
273
ASHRAE gives optimum and acceptable range of operative
temperature for people during exposed to indoor space
environment condition
Light, primarily sedentary activity (≤ 1.2 met) at 50% relative humidity and mean
air speed ≤ 0.15m/s (30fpm)a

Season Description of Id Optimum Operative temperature


typical clothing (CLO) operative range (10% dissatisfaction
temperature criterion)
Winter Heavy slacks 0.9 220C 20 – 23.50C
710F 68 – 750F

Long sleeve

Shirt and sweater

Summer Light slacks and 0.5 24.50C 23 – 260C


short – sleeve shirt 760F 73 – 790F
Minimal 0.05 270C 26 – 290C
810F 79 – 840F

a
Other than clothing, there are no adjustment for season or sex to the
temperature of this Table. For infants, certain elderly people, and individuals who
are physically disabled, the lower limits of this table should be avoided
Characteristics of Measuring
Instruments
Characteristics of Measuring Instruments,
Cont.
Characteristics of Measuring Instruments,
Cont.
Main Independent Quantities Involved in The Analysis of the
Thermal Balance Between Man and the Thermal Environment
Check List for Controlling Heat Stress and
Item
Strain
Action for consideration
I. Control
M, body heat production of task Reduce physical demands of the work;
powered assistance for heavy tasks
R, Rediative load interpose line-of-sight barrier;
furnace wall insulation,
metallic reflecting screen,
heat reflective clothing,
cover exposed parts of body
C, convective load if air temp is above 350C (950F)
reduce air temp,
reduce air speed across skin,
wear clothing
if air temp is below 350C (950F)
increase air speed across skin,
reduce clothing
Emax, maximum evaporative increase by :
cooling by sweating decrease humidity,
increase air speed, decrease clothing
Check List for Controlling Heat Stress and
Item
Strain
Action for consideration
II. Work practices Shorten duration of each exposure;
more frequent short exposures better than fewer
long
exposure
schedule very hot jobs in cooler part of day when
possible
Exposure limit Self – limiting, based on formal indoctrination of
workers and supervisor on signs and symptom of
overstrain
Recovery Air – conditioned space nearby

Acclimatization
III. Personal protection R,C, and Emax Cooled air, cooled fluid, or ice cooled conditioned
clothing
reflective clothing or aprons
IV. Other considerations determine by medical evaluation,
primarily of cardiovascular status
Careful break – in of unacclimatized workers
Water intake at frequent intervals to prevent
hypohydration
WHO
Recommendation
No worker should be exposed to
any combination of
environmental heat and
physical work which would
cause the workers body core
temperature to exceed 380 C
(100.40F) . (1969).
Criteria for Thermal Limits Based on
Average Values
Heat ( Nonacclimatized ) Heat
( Acclimatized )
Alert Danger Alert
Heat Storage Kcal 58 70 58
Danger
70
Rectal temp increase 0c (0F) 0.8 (1.4) 1.0 (1.8) 0.8 (1.4)
1.0 (1.4)
Skin temp increase 0c (0F) 2.4 (4.3) 3.0 (5.4) 2.4 (4.3)
3.0 (5.4)
Sweat rate, max rest g/h 260 390 520
780
Sweat rate, max work g/h 520 650 780 1040
Max 8h sweat production to-
Interpretation of PMV Values in terms of
Thermal Sensation and Predicted
Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD)

Sensatio Cold Cool Slightl Neutra Slightl W Hot


n y cool l y warn arm
PMV -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
PPD(%) - 75 25 5 25 75 -

Reference
•ISO 7730;1993
Prevention of Heat
Stress
Acclimatization
 The longer you do hard work in the heat
the better your body becomes at keeping
cool.
 If you are not used to working in the heat
then you must take a week or two to get
acclimatized or used to the heat.
 If you were ill or away from work for a
week or so you can lose your
acclimatization.
Acclimatization
There are two ways to acclimatize:
1. If you are experienced on the job, limit your time
in the hot environment to 50% of the shift on the
first day and 80% on the second day.
• You can work a full shift the third day.
• If you are not experienced on the job (for example, a new
worker)  you should start off spending 20% of the time in the
hot environment on the first day and increase your time by 20%
each following day.
 Instead of reducing the exposure times to the hot
job, you can become acclimatized by reducing the
physical demands of the job for a week or two.
Acclimatization
 If you have health problems or are not in
good physical condition, you may need
longer periods of acclimatization.
 Hot spells in tropical countries like
Malaysia last long enough to allow
acclimatization.
 When it is hot, consider some of the
following engineering and administrative
controls.
Modifying Work and the
Environment
 Management and the Joint Health and
Safety Committee can reduce heat stress
in the following ways:

• Engineering controls

• Administrative controls

• Personal protective equipment


Engineering Controls
 Control the heat at source through the
use of insulating and reflective barriers
(insulate furnace walls).
 Exhaust hot air and steam produced by
specific operations.
 Reduce the temperature and humidity
through air cooling.
 Provide air-conditioned rest areas.
Engineering Controls
 Increase air movement if temperature is
less than 35°C (fans).
 Reduce physical demands of work task
through mechanical assistance (hoists, lift-
tables, etc.).
Administrative Controls
 Health and safety committees should
assess the demands of all jobs and have
monitoring and control strategies in place
for hot days.
 Increase the frequency and length of rest
breaks.
 Schedule hot jobs to cooler times of the
day.
 Provide cool drinking water near workers
and remind them to drink a cup every 20
minutes or so.
Administrative Controls
 Workers should salt their food well,
particularly while they are acclimatizing to
a hot job (workers with a low salt diet
should discuss this with their doctor).
 Assign additional workers or slow down
work pace.
 Make sure everyone is properly
acclimatized.
Administrative Controls
 Train workers to recognize the signs and
symptoms of heat stress and start a
'buddy system' since people are not likely
to notice their own symptoms.
 Pregnant workers and workers with a
medical condition should discuss working
in the heat with their doctor.
Personal Protective Equipment
 Light clothing should be worn to allow free
air movement and sweat evaporation.
 Outside, wear light-coloured clothing.
 In a high radiant heat situation, reflective
clothing may help.
 For very hot environments, air, water or
ice-cooled insulated clothing should be
considered.
 Vapour barrier clothing, such as acid suits,
greatly increases the amount of heat
stress on the body, and extra caution is
necessary.
Personal Protective Equipment
 Threshold Limit Values for Heat
Stress published by the American
Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists used as
reference.
 These values are based on
preventing fit, acclimatized workers'
core temperatures from rising above
38oC.
References

Curtis, Rick. Outdoor Action Program.


Princeton University. 1995
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration 3154
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration 3156
Occupational Health Clinics for Ontario
Workers. Heat Stress Training. 2001
Plog, Barbara A. et al. Fundamentals of
Industrial Hygiene. 1996
USAF. Heat Stress Fact Sheet. 1998
www.firstworldwar.com/atoz/trenchfoot.html