DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION ANDHRA PRADESH

Name Designation Branch Institute Year Subject Subject Code Topic Duration Sub. Topic Teaching Aids : Swathi K.N : Lecturer : Computer Engineering : Kamala Nehru Polytechnic For Women, Hyd. : I year : Computer Fundamentals and Office Automation : CM-105 : Fundamentals Of Computers : 100 minutes : Various number system used in digital computers :PPT, Images
CM105.18TO19 1

Objective:
On completion of this period, you would be able to know: Various number systems used in digital computer

CM105.18TO19

2

Recap:
Number systems Importance of binary number system

CM105.18TO19

3

Prerequisite

What are various number systems used in computers? Binary number system. Octal number system. Hexadecimal number system.
CM105.18TO19 4

DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM

CM105.18TO19

5

Decimal number system:
 The number system that we use in our daily life is called the decimal number system.  The decimal number system is a base-10 system.  It uses 10 digits, from 0 to 9.
CM105.18TO19 6

Decimal number system (contd...) :

 Example – (1234)10 subscript 10 denotes decimal number.  The base or radix of a number system is defined as the number system uses ten digits.  The weight of each digit of a decimal number depends on its relative position within the number. CM105.18TO19

7

Weight of each digit of a decimal number:
6498 = 6000 + 400 + 90 + 8 = 6*103 + 4*102 + 9*101 + 8*100  The weight of the 1st digit of the number from right hand side = 1st digit * 100  The weight of the 2nd digit of the number from right hand side = 2nd digit * 101
CM105.18TO19 8

Weight of each digit of a decimal number (contd) :
 The weight of the 3rd digit of the number from right hand side = 3rd digit * 102

 The weight of the 4th digit of the number from right hand side = 4th digit * 103
CM105.18TO19 9

Weight of each digit of a decimal number (contd) :
General expression The weight of the nth digit of the number from right hand side = nth digit * 10n-1 = nth digit * (Base)n-1
CM105.18TO19 10

BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM

CM105.18TO19

11

Binary number system:
 Binary number system is used in digital computers.  The base (or radix) of binary system is 2.  It uses only two digits 0 or 1 and these digits are abbreviated as bits.

CM105.18TO19

12

Binary number system (contd) :

 Example – (11010)2 = (26)10  The weight of each digit of a binary number depends on its relative position within the number.

CM105.18TO19

13

Weight of each bit of a binary number:
1101 (binary number) = 1*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 =8+4+0+1 = 13 (decimal number)  The weight of the 1st bit of the binary number from right hand side = 1st bit * 20  The weight of the 2nd bit of the number from right hand CM105.18TO19 14 side = 2nd bit * 21

Weight of each bit of a binary number (contd) :
 The weight of the 3rd bit of the number from right hand side = 3rd bit * 22

 The weight of the 4th bit of the number from right hand side = 4th bit * 23
CM105.18TO19 15

Weight of each bit of a binary number (contd) : General expression The weight of the nth bit of the number from right hand side = nth bit * 2n-1 = nth bit * (Base)n-1
CM105.18TO19 16

Binary equivalent of decimal numbers:
Decimal No. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Binary equal 0 01 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 Decimal No. 11 12 13 14 15 16 31 32 63 64 128
CM105.18TO19

Binary equal 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 11111 100000 111111 1000000 10000000
17

OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM

CM105.18TO19

18

Octal number system:
 Octal means 8.  The base of octal number system is 8.  It uses eight digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7.  The decimal number 8 is represented by 10, 9 by 11, 10 by 12 and so in octal number system.

CM105.18TO19

19

Octal number system (contd) :
 As 8 = 23, each octal digit is represented by a group of three binary bits.  This system was issued to provide a shorthand way to deal with long strings of 0s and 1s created in binary.  Example – (2056)8 = (1070)10
CM105.18TO19 20

Binary representation of octal digits:
Decimal 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 15 Octal number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 12 17
CM105.18TO19 21

Conversion of octal to binary:
To convert a binary number to octal.  Group binary digits in group of three.  Convert each group to its equivalent octal digit.  Example – (101110)8= 56 101 110
5 6
CM105.18TO19 22

Hexadecimal number system
 Hexadecimal means 16(6+10)  It contains 16 symbols  Its base is 16.

CM105.18TO19

23

Hexadecimal number system (contd)

 The first ten digits are represented by digits 0 to 9 and remaining six by the letters A through F.  Each hexadecimal digit is represented by four binary bits.  Example – (A3)16 = (1010 0011)2
CM105.18TO19 24

EQUIVALENT VALUES OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
DECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 BINARY 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 OCTAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 20 CM105.18TO19 HEXADECIMAL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10

25

Summary:
In this class, you have learnt about Various number systems used in digital computer

CM105.18TO19

26

Frequently Asked Questions
1. What is meant by base of a number system ? 3. What is the value of the base for decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems? 5. What are octal and hexadecimal number systems ?

CM105.18TO19

27

Quiz
1. The decimal number system is a a. base 2 b. base 16 c. base 10 Answer: c

CM105.18TO19

28

Quiz
2. The base of octal number system is a. 8 b. 16 c. 2 Answer: a

CM105.18TO19

29

Quiz
3. The first ten digits in hexa decimal system are represented by digits 0 to 9 and remaining six by the letters a. 10 to 16 b. A to F c. A1 to A6 Answer: b

CM105.18TO19

30

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful