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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH

Name : Swathi K.N


Designation : Lecturer
Branch : Computer Engineering
Institute : Kamala Nehru Polytechnic For Women,
Hyd.
Year : I year
Subject : Computer Fundamentals and Office
Automation
Subject Code : CM-105
Topic : Fundamentals Of Computers
Duration : 100 minutes
Sub. Topic : Various number system used in digital
computers
Teaching Aids :PPT, Images
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Objective:

On completion of this period, you would be able


to know:

Various number systems used in digital


computer

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Recap:

Number systems

Importance of binary number system

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Prerequisite

What are various number systems used in


computers?

Binary number system.


Octal number system.
Hexadecimal number system.

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DECIMAL NUMBER
SYSTEM

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Decimal number system:

 The number system that we use in our daily life


is called the decimal number system.

 The decimal number system is a base-10


system.

 It uses 10 digits, from 0 to 9.

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Decimal number system (contd...) :

 Example – (1234)10 subscript 10 denotes


decimal number.

 The base or radix of a number system is defined


as the number system uses ten digits.

 The weight of each digit of a decimal number


depends on its relative position within the
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Weight of each digit of a decimal number:
6498 = 6000 + 400 + 90 + 8
= 6*103 + 4*102 + 9*101 + 8*100

 The weight of the 1st digit of the number from


right hand
side = 1st digit * 100

 The weight of the 2nd digit of the number from


right hand
side = 2nd digit * 101
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Weight of each digit of a decimal number
(contd) :

 The weight of the 3rd digit of the number from


right hand
side = 3rd digit * 102

 The weight of the 4th digit of the number from


right hand
side = 4th digit * 103
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Weight of each digit of a decimal number
(contd) :

General expression

The weight of the nth digit of the number from right


hand side

= nth digit * 10n-1

= nth digit * (Base)n-1


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BINARY NUMBER
SYSTEM

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Binary number system:

 Binary number system is used in digital


computers.

 The base (or radix) of binary system is 2.

 It uses only two digits 0 or 1 and these digits are


abbreviated as bits.

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Binary number system (contd) :

 Example – (11010)2 = (26)10

 The weight of each digit of a binary number


depends on its relative position within the
number.

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Weight of each bit of a binary number:

1101 (binary number) = 1*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20

=8+4+0+1
= 13 (decimal number)

 The weight of the 1st bit of the binary number


from right hand side = 1st bit * 20

 The weight of the 2nd bit of the number from right


hand
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side = 2nd bit * 21
Weight of each bit of a binary number
(contd) :

 The weight of the 3rd bit of the number from right


hand
side = 3rd bit * 22

 The weight of the 4th bit of the number from right


hand
side = 4th bit * 23
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Weight of each bit of a binary number
(contd) :
General expression

The weight of the nth bit of the number from


right hand side
= nth bit * 2n-1

= nth bit * (Base)n-1

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Binary equivalent of decimal numbers:
Decimal No. Binary equal Decimal No. Binary equal
0 0 11 1011
1 01 12 1100
2 10 13 1101
3 11 14 1110
4 100 15 1111
5 101 16 10000
6 110 31 11111
7 111 32 100000
8 1000 63 111111
9 1001 64 1000000
10 1010 128 10000000
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OCTAL NUMBER
SYSTEM

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Octal number system:

 Octal means 8.
 The base of octal number system is 8.
 It uses eight digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6, and 7.
 The decimal number 8 is represented by 10, 9
by 11, 10 by 12 and so in octal number system.

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Octal number system (contd) :

 As 8 = 23, each octal digit is represented by a


group of three binary bits.

 This system was issued to provide a shorthand


way to deal with long strings of 0s and 1s
created in binary.

 Example – (2056)8 = (1070)10

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Binary representation of octal digits:
Decimal Octal number

0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
8 10
10 12
15 17

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Conversion of octal to binary:
To convert a binary number to octal.

 Group binary digits in group of three.

 Convert each group to its equivalent octal digit.

 Example – (101110)8= 56

101 110
5 6
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Hexadecimal number system

 Hexadecimal means 16(6+10)

 It contains 16 symbols

 Its base is 16.

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Hexadecimal number system (contd)

 The first ten digits are represented by digits 0 to


9 and remaining six by the letters A through F.

 Each hexadecimal digit is represented by four


binary bits.

 Example – (A3)16 = (1010 0011)2

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EQUIVALENT VALUES OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
DECIMAL BINARY OCTAL HEXADECIMAL
0 0000 0 0
1 0001 1 1
2 0010 2 2
3 0011 3 3
4 0100 4 4
5 0101 5 5
6 0110 6 6
7 0111 7 7
8 1000 10 8
9 1001 11 9
10 1010 12 A
11 1011 13 B
12 1100 14 C
13 1101 15 D
14 1110 16 E
15 1111 17 F
16 10000 20
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Summary:

In this class, you have learnt about

Various number systems used in


digital computer

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is meant by base of a number system ?

3. What is the value of the base for decimal,


binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems?

5. What are octal and hexadecimal number


systems ?

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Quiz
1. The decimal number system is a
a. base 2
b. base 16
c. base 10
Answer: c

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Quiz

2. The base of octal number system is


a. 8
b. 16
c. 2
Answer: a

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Quiz

3. The first ten digits in hexa decimal system are


represented by digits 0 to 9 and remaining six
by the letters
a. 10 to 16
b. A to F
c. A1 to A6
Answer: b

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