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DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION

ANDHRA PRADESH
Name : U.Rajya Lakshmi
Designation : Lecturer
Branch :Computer Engg.,
Institute :Govt.Polytechnic for Women,
PALAMANER.
Year/Semester : III Semester
Subject : Computer Architecture
Subject Code : CM-303
Topic : Memory Organization
Duration : 50 Min
Sub Topic : Memory Characteristics
Teaching aids : PPT,drawings
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Do you Know

• What are the different types of memories?

• What are the two different types of main memory?

• What are the two different types of RAM s?

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Recap of previous lesson
Different types of memory
• CPU registers
• Main memory
• Secondary Memory
• Cache memory
Different types of main memory
• RAM
• ROM
Different types of RAM s
• Static RAM
• Dynamic RAM
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Objectives

On completion of this period you would be able to


know
• the characteristics of memory

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Memory Characteristics

Performance of memory device is determined by


the following characteristics
• Access time
• Access rate
• Alterability
• Permanence of storage
• Cycle time
• Access method
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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,

• Access time (tA)


• the average time required either to read from
or write to memory, one word of information
• Access rate (bA)
• the number of words that can be accessed per
unit time
• Alterability
• the ability to change the contents of memory
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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,
• Permanence of storage
• In some technologies the stored information is
lost over a period of time

• three important characteristics that destroy


information
– Destructive read out (DRO)
– Dynamic storage
– Volatility

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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,

• Destructive read out (DRO)

– Method of reading destroys the stored information

– In DRO memories each read operation must be

followed by a write operation that restore the

contents

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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,
• Dynamic storage
– Memories which require periodic refreshing
– In some memories stored charge tends to leak
over time
– Leakage of charge causes loss of information
– Charge is restored by a process called
refreshing

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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,
• Volatility

– loss of power destroys the stored information

– information can be stored indefinitely by

providing battery backup

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Memory Characteristics
Contd.,
• Cycle Time (tM)
– the total time required to access and restore or
refresh a word
• Access method
– order or sequence in which information can be
accessed
– Two types
» Sequential access
» Random access

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Memory Characteristics
• Sequential access
– Storage locations can be accessed only in a
specific linear sequence
– Cheaper and slower than random access memories

• Random access
– Storage locations can be accessed in any order
– Access time is independent of location being
accessed
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Summary

In this class you have studied


• Various memory device characteristics

Access time, Access rate, Alterability, Cycle


time, Permanence of storage and Access
method

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QUIZ

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1. The time required to access one word of
information from memory is known as

a) Access method
b) Access rate
c) Access time
d) alterability

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1. The time required to access one word of
information from memory is known as

• Access method
• Access rate
• Access time
• alterability

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2. Time required to access and restore a word is

a) Access time
b) Access method
c) Cycle time
d) alterability

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2. Time required to access and restore a word is

• Access time
• Access method
• Cycle time
• alterability

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3. Destructive read out memories require

a) refreshing
b) restoring
c) alterability
d) None of the above

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3. Destructive read out memories require

• refreshing
• restoring
• alterability
• None of the above

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Explain the significance of the following


memory device characteristics
a) access time
b) access rate
c) alterability
d) permanence of storage
e) cycle time
d) access method

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