Presented by Praveen Kumar .K Aishwarya .K Jagadeesh Kumar .M Ram Kumar.M.V. 221079 221085 221093 221105

OBJECTIVES • Definitions • Features • Importance • Functions • Relationship between management and leadership • Theories

DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP • Leadership is the ability of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives-TERRY • Leadership is influencing people to follow the achievement of common goal. It is the ability to exert interpersonal influencing by means of communication towards the achievement of goals KOONTZ O ,DONNEL • Managerial leadership is a process of directing and influencing the task related activities of group members - RELPH M.STODILL

FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP • Influence process • The Followers • Reciprocal Relationship • Common Goal • Situation bound • Power based • Satisfaction of members • Scope of leadership

IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP •Guiding and inspiring subordinates • Securing co-operation of the members •Creating confidence among employees •Creating confidence among employees •Implementing change •Maintaining discipline among members •Representing the members


FUNCTIONS OF A LEADER • Leadership renders a service • Leadership makes a decision • Leadership elicits response • Leadership achieves results • Leadership is willingness to be different


• Involves physical as well as • Confined to direction of human resources human resources • Position of the manger is • Leader drives power from marked by formal authority these to influence the followers • Effective manger has to acquire the knowledge of management through formal education and training • One becomes leader because he has a desire to so and he is accepted by the followers to do so



• Manager places more emphasis • Leaders lay emphasis more on on formal authority relationship social and personal relationship of superior and subordinate with the follower • Managers are selected in highly • Leaders are generally elected by rational, objective and formal the members in a highly manner subjective and informal manner • Knowledge of management is applied on the work setting and organizations having predetermined policies, procedures, rules and methods • Leadership situation is highly flexible, unstructured

LEADERSHIP THEORIES 3.Personality theories of leadership • Greatman theory • Trait theory of leadership 5.Behavioral approach of leadership • High initiating structure or task-oriented leadership behavior • High consideration or employee oriented leadership a) Management/leadership grid b) Likert’s management systems 7.Situational or contingency approach to leadership • Leadership continuum • Contingency theory • Path goal theory

GREAT MAN THEORY Advocates of this theory forwarded the following •Leaders are god’s gift to mankind and they have come on earth for seeking welfare of mankind by using their gifted qualities •No one else can become such a great leader because these qualities of leadership cannot be acquired through formal education and training. •It is only a personality and inborn qualities associated with it has made them great leaders

TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP •Leadership qualities and trades are not in born •Qualities that are essential for effective leadership, namely physical and nervous energy, a sense of purpose and direction, enthusiasm, friendliness and affection etc. •Effective leader should have the qualities like drive for responsibility, task orientation, problem solving skills, drive to exercise, initiative in social situations, self-confidence and ability to influence other persons etc


System 1: Explotative or Authoritative •Highly autocratic •Leader sets goals and action plans at his own •No participation of followers •Close supervision and control •Use of negative motivators •Unfriendly relation with followers




System 2: Benevolent Authoritative •Autocratic •Leader sets goals and action plans at his own •One way communication •Master-servant relation •Negative and positive motivator •Close supervision and control

System 3 : Consultative • Participation of subordinates in goal setting and decision making to a lesser degree •Two way communication •More emphasis on positive motivators than negative one •Flexible and goal oriented control •Recognition of human factor.

System 4 : Participative democratic •Fully humanistic approach •Active participation of subordinates •Friendly relation with subordinates •High degree of decentralization •Relaxeo and self control •Positive motivators





The situational factors or variables which dominate the effectiveness of leadership may be described as under •Leadership factors •Group factors •Other factors

SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP Leadership continuum: Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt have described various leadership styles and have placed leadership behaviour on a continuum having two extremes and many styles in between them. At one end of the continuum behaviour of the leader is authoritative while at the other end authority, power and influence structure moves towards subordinate and they get lot of freedom and participation in management.

CONTINGENCY THEORY The performance of a leader depends on two interrelated factors. •The degree to which situation gives a leader control and influence that is the likelihood that the leader can successfully accomplish the job •The leaders basic motivation that is whether leaders self esteem depends primarily on accomplishing the tasks or as having close supportive relations with others

PATH GOAL THEORY Advocates of path theory believe that managers need to rely contingently on the following different leadership styles •Directive style •Supportive style •Participative style •Achievement-oriented style

Leaders aren't born, they are made. And they are made just like anything else, through hard work. And that’s the price we will have to pay to achieve that goal, or any goal. _________________