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PROJECT

LEADERSHIP
Presented by

Praveen Kumar .K 221079


Aishwarya .K 221085
Jagadeesh Kumar .M 221093
Ram Kumar.M.V. 221105
OBJECTIVES
• Definitions
• Features
• Importance
• Functions
• Relationship between management and leadership
• Theories
DEFINITIONS OF LEADERSHIP
• Leadership is the ability of influencing people to strive willingly
for mutual objectives-TERRY

• Leadership is influencing people to follow the achievement of


common goal. It is the ability to exert interpersonal influencing by
means of communication towards the achievement of goals -
KOONTZ O ,DONNEL

• Managerial leadership is a process of directing and influencing


the task related activities of group members - RELPH M.STODILL
FEATURES OF LEADERSHIP
• Influence process
• The Followers
• Reciprocal Relationship
• Common Goal
• Situation bound
• Power based
• Satisfaction of members
• Scope of leadership
IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP

•Guiding and inspiring subordinates


• Securing co-operation of the members
•Creating confidence among employees
•Creating confidence among employees
•Implementing change
•Maintaining discipline among members
•Representing the members
 

FUNCTIONS OF A LEADER

• Leadership renders a service


• Leadership makes a decision
• Leadership elicits response
• Leadership achieves results
• Leadership is willingness to be different
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND
LEADERSHIP
MANGEMENT LEADERSHIP

• Involves physical as well as • Confined to direction of


human resources human resources

• Position of the manger is • Leader drives power from


marked by formal authority these to influence the followers

• Effective manger has to • One becomes leader because


acquire the knowledge of he has a desire to so and he is
management through formal accepted by the followers to do
education and training so
MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP

• Manager places more emphasis • Leaders lay emphasis more on


on formal authority relationship social and personal relationship
of superior and subordinate with the follower

• Managers are selected in highly • Leaders are generally elected by


rational, objective and formal the members in a highly
manner subjective and informal manner

• Knowledge of management is • Leadership situation is highly


applied on the work setting and flexible, unstructured
organizations having
predetermined policies,
procedures, rules and methods
LEADERSHIP THEORIES

3.Personality theories of leadership


• Greatman theory
• Trait theory of leadership

5.Behavioral approach of leadership


• High initiating structure or task-oriented leadership behavior
• High consideration or employee oriented leadership
a) Management/leadership grid
b) Likert’s management systems

7.Situational or contingency approach to leadership


• Leadership continuum
• Contingency theory
• Path goal theory
GREAT MAN THEORY
Advocates of this theory forwarded the following

•Leaders are god’s gift to mankind and they have come on earth
for seeking welfare of mankind by using their gifted qualities
•No one else can become such a great leader because these
qualities of leadership cannot be acquired through formal
education and training.
•It is only a personality and inborn qualities associated with it has
made them great leaders
TRAIT THEORY OF LEADERSHIP

•Leadership qualities and trades are not in born

•Qualities that are essential for effective leadership, namely physical and
nervous energy, a sense of purpose and direction, enthusiasm,
friendliness and affection etc.

•Effective leader should have the qualities like drive for responsibility,
task orientation, problem solving skills, drive to exercise, initiative in
social situations, self-confidence and ability to influence other persons
etc
MANAGEMENT GRID
LIKERT’S MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
System 1: Explotative or Authoritative
•Highly autocratic
•Leader sets goals and action plans at his own
•No participation of followers
•Close supervision and control
AUTOCRATIC
•Use of negative motivators
LEADER
•Unfriendly relation with followers

FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER


System 2: Benevolent Authoritative
•Autocratic
•Leader sets goals and action plans at his own
•One way communication
•Master-servant relation
•Negative and positive motivator
•Close supervision and control
System 3 : Consultative
• Participation of subordinates in goal setting and decision
making to a lesser degree
•Two way communication
•More emphasis on positive motivators than negative one
•Flexible and goal oriented control
•Recognition of human factor.
System 4 : Participative democratic
•Fully humanistic approach
•Active participation of subordinates
•Friendly relation with subordinates
•High degree of decentralization
DEMOCRATIC OR
•Relaxeo and self control PARTICIPATIVE
LEADER
•Positive motivators

FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER


SITUATIONAL/ CONTINGENCY APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP

The situational factors or variables which dominate the effectiveness of


leadership may be described as under

•Leadership factors
•Group factors
•Other factors
SITUATIONAL THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership continuum:

Robert Tannenbaum and Warren Schmidt have described various


leadership styles and have placed leadership behaviour on a
continuum having two extremes and many styles in between them.
At one end of the continuum behaviour of the leader is authoritative
while at the other end authority, power and influence structure
moves towards subordinate and they get lot of freedom and
participation in management.
CONTINGENCY THEORY
The performance of a leader depends on two interrelated factors.

•The degree to which situation gives a leader control and influence


that is the likelihood that the leader can successfully accomplish
the job

•The leaders basic motivation that is whether leaders self esteem


depends primarily on accomplishing the tasks or as having close
supportive relations with others
PATH GOAL THEORY
Advocates of path theory believe that managers need to rely
contingently on the following different leadership styles

•Directive style
•Supportive style
•Participative style
•Achievement-oriented style
Leaders aren't born, they are made. And they are made
just like anything else, through hard work. And that’s the
price we will have to pay to achieve that goal, or any goal.
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THANK YOU!!!