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Pipeline Transportation is the transportation of goods through pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent.

Pipeline are very important part of modern civilization. And pipeline transport has become the most important way of moving fluids from one point to other. Pipelines have been used for millennia for the movement of water and pipeline technology was able to revolutionize petroleum exploration in the 1800s. These days pipelines are used to move substances ranging from water, oil or natural gas, ethanol, hydrogen gas, to beverages and pneumatically driven particulate solids.

An

unique mode of transportation. They can move large quantities of certain types of commodities, mainly fluids, over long distances at relatively low cost. The operations are environmentally friendly, dependable and continuous The pipelines can be laid on a wide variety of terrains without much difficulty.

They

do not require the return of empties to the starting point and as such are ideal for un-directional traffic. They are insensitive to surface conditions such as storms, inclement weather, etc. Operating costs are low. They are environmentally friendly.

Gathering Pipelines -Group of smaller interconnected pipelines forming complex networks with the purpose of bringing crude oil or natural gas from several nearby wells to a treatment plant or processing facility. In this group, pipelines are usually short a couple of hundred meters and with small diameter. Also sub-sea pipelines for collecting product from deep water production platforms are considered gathering system. Transportation Pipelines -Mainly long pipes with large diameters, moving products (oil, gas, refined products) between cities, countries and even continents. These transportation networks include several compressor stations in gas lines or pump stations for crude and multiproduct pipelines. Distribution Pipelines -Composed of several interconnected pipelines with small diameters, used to take the products to the final consumer. Feeder lines to distribute gas to homes and businesses down stream. Pipelines at terminals for distributing products to tanks and storage facilities are included in this group.

Pipeline design includes the following; Selection of the route traversed by the pipe. Determination of the throughput. The operational velocity. Calculation of pressure gradient. Selection of pumps and other equipment. determination of pipe thickness and material. An engineering economic analysis and a market analysis to determine the optimum system based on alternate designs. In each design, careful consideration must be given to safety, leak and damage prevention, government regulations, and environmental concerns.

Pipeline construction is divided into three phases, each with its own activities: pre-construction, construction and post-construction. PRE-CONSTRUCTION

Surveying and staking Once the pipeline route is finalized crews survey and stake the right-of-way and temporary workplace. Not only will the right-of-way contain the pipeline, it is also where all construction activities occur. Preparing the right-of-way The clearly marked right of way is cleared of trees and brush and the top soil is removed and stockpiled for future reclamation. The right-of-way is then leveled and graded to provide access for construction equipment.

Digging the Trench Once the right-of-way is prepare, a trench is dug and the centre line of the trench is surveyed and restaked. The equipment used to dig the trench varies depending on the type of soil. Stringing the pipe Individual lengths of pipe are brought in from stock pile sites and laid out endto-end along the right-ofway.

CONSTRUCTION

Bending and Joining the pipe - Individual joints of pipe are bent to fit the terrain using a hydraulic bending machine. Welders join the pipes together using either manual or automated welding technologies. Welding shacks are placed over the joint to prevent the wind from affecting the weld. The welds are then inspected and certified by Xray or ultrasonic methods.
Coating the pipe -Coating both inside and outside the pipeline are necessary to prevent it from corroding either from ground water or the product carried in the pipeline. The composition of the internal coating varies with the nature of the product to be transported. The pipes arrive at the construction site pre-coated, however the welded joints must be coated at the site.

Positioning the pipe The welded pipeline is lowered into the trench using bulldozers with special cranes called side booms. Installing values and fittings Valves and other fittings are installed after the pipeline is in the trench. The values are used once the line is operational to shut off or isolate part of the pipeline. Backfilling the trench -Once the pipeline is in place in the trench the topsoil is replaced in the sequence in which it was removed and the land is re-countered and reseeded for restoration.

POST CONSTRUCTION

Pressure Testing The pipelines is pressure tested for a minimum of eight hours using nitrogen, air, water or a mixture of water and methanol. Final Clean-up The topsoil is replaced in the sequence in which it was removed and the land is recontoured and re-seeded for restoration.

TRANSPORTED SUBSTANCE

Conventional or energy pipelines - this refers to the pipeline that transport oil and natural gas Slurry pipelining -it is used in mining to transport mineral concentrate from a mineral processing plant near a mine. Capsule pipelining / Pneumatic Capsule -Capsule pipeline transport can be defined as the movement of goods or passengers through an enclosed length of tube, in membranes which enclose the cargo.

Pipelines are generally the most economical way to transport large quantities of oil, refined oil products or natural gas over land. Compared to shipping by railroad, they have lower cost per unit and higher capacity. Although pipelines can be built under the sea, that process is economically and technically demanding, so the majority of oil at the sea is transported by the tanker ship. Great example of oil or natural gas pipelines in the Philippines are: Offshore NW Palawan, the Malampaya natural gas is delivered to the on shore gas processing plant in Batangas. The gas then supplied through offshore pipelines to Sta.Rita, San Lorenzo and Ilijan power plants, all in Batangas province in Luzon Crude Oil pipeline exist in the country and runs from Batangas to Pandacan in Manila. The proposed natural gas pipelines from Batangas to Manila including spur lines will pass through economic zones in Laguna province, south Manila.

The 36-hectare Pandacan Terminals house the oil companies distribution terminals and depot facilities. The refineries of Chevron and Shell in Tabangao and Bauan, both in Batangas, respectively, are connected to the Pandacan Terminals through a 114-kilometer underground pipeline system. Petrons refinery in Limay, Bataan, on the other hand, also services the depot. The terminals store fuel and other petroleum products and supply 95% of the fuel requirements of Metro Manila, 50% of Luzons consumption and 35% nationwide. The First Philippine Industrial Corporation supplies oil and operates the pipeline from Batangas to Pandacan oil depots. The pipeline is buried underneath residential and largely populated areas in Metro Manila.

Offshore

pipelines transport natural gas from the Malampaya Field to Batangas Bay, South Luzon Island for conversion to electric power. Hydrocarbons produced from Malampaya subsea wells in 850m water depth flow through two 16 inch CRA clad pipelines to a shallow water platform in 40m water depth. After separation, sales gas is transported through a 500km long 24-inch offshore pipeline to Batangas.

Malampaya Pipeline Project

Malampaya Pipeline Project

The concentrate of the ore is mixed with water and then pumped over a long distance to a port where it can be shipped for further processing. At the end of the pipeline, the material is separated from the slurry in a filter press to remove the water. Water is usually subject to a waste treatment process before disposal or return to the mine. Slurry pipelines offer an economic advantage over railroad and much less noise disturbance to the environment, particularly when mines are in extremely remote areas.

Typical Slurry Pipeline Applications Mineral Ore Transport System


large volume transport low to medium pumping head medium distance pipeline (20 to 50 km) used when a mine plant and concentrator can not be located near the ore

bodies due to terrain difficulty, or when the mine plant and concentrator is installed near the tailings impoundment site.

Tailings Disposal System


Concentrate Transport System A vital part of the mining system, as a poor delivery system can affect the mines ability to market its product effectively.
low volume transport at high pressure lines Long distance pipelines (25 to 1,000 km)

high volume solid transport low head to transport mine tailings to impoundment. Short distance pipelines (up to 5 km to 60 km)

Safer Can

and more reliable

traverse difficult terrain

Environment-friendly

May be buried ROW is quickly reclaimed

Facility

Location

Site Elevation Terminal Elevation


Pipeline

Route

Ideal Pipeline Route & Profile Constructability

Slurry Properties Slurry Classification: 1) Homogenous slurries are only pseudo homogenous due to force of gravity and settling characteristics; 2) Heterogenous the concentration of the slurry particles varies greatly from top to bottom of the pipes cross section; and 3) Complex not completely homogeneous nor heterogeneous pseudo-homogenous and not truly

Slurry Properties Slurry Properties considered: a) For carrier Fluid (usually water but may be alcohol, liquid CO, oil and fuels:

Density Viscosity Bulk Modulus Vapor Pressure Density (specific gravity) Shape Particle Size Distribution Surfactants

b) For Solids

c) Mixture (Slurry)
Settling characteristics Rheological characteristics

Slurry Properties Slurry types based on physical properties: 1) Conventional Mineral Slurries prepared as a consequence of their beneficiation process with a degree of concentration and particle size control. 2) Conventional Tailings - lack the high degree of concentration and particle size control. Therefore, the tailings pipeline designer prepares for many scenarios using heterogeneous and homogeneous models order to account for all possibilities. 3) Non-conventional Slurries - are highly concentrated non Newtonian (e.g., fuels). 4) Thickened Tailings (paste) - It has the advantage of disposing of highly concentrated tailings and therefore reduces the storage volume required. Also, it eliminates the need to install water reclaim

Slurry Minimum Velocity Transition Velocity associated with homogeneous flow. Where solids in the slurry exhibits settling tendency, slurry flow must be maintained in the turbulent regime. Calculation considers the following:
Critical Reynolds Number Determine Hedstrom Number

Deposition

Velocity associated with heterogeneous flow where a gradient exists in the distribution of solid particles across the cross section of the pipeline. These slurries involve fast settling solids (coarse particles) that would require turbulent flow for resuspension.

Friction Loss Calculation


Homogeneous Flow For homogeneous flow, Darcys equation is utilized

for determining friction loss. However, the friction factor for flowing in the turbulent regime is determined by the use of Colebrooks equation. Heterogeneous Flow requires a more complex calculation as both homogeneous and hetergeneous conditions are evaluated. Most practices utilizes Wasp methodology for this calculation.

Steady State Hydraulic Calculation


The Steady State Calculation is performed based on the committed pipeline

profile, slurry minimum velocity and calculated friction losses. This calculation will determine the required pipeline diameter, wall thickness, pumping head and any choking requirements.

Transient Hydraulic Calculation


The transient hydraulic calculation is performed to confirm that the pipelines

maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) is not exceeded under transient condition. Since, this is involves a dynamic propagation of pressure, this is better performed through graphical computer simulation.

Major elements for a slurry pipeline:


Usually provided with others

the slurry preparation facilities such as a mineral concentrator carrier liquid supply (e.g. water) slurry surge storage at the preparation facility the mainline with pump stations, valve stations, and in some cases energy dissipation stations communications and control system intermediate slurry storage facilities (if required) Terminal slurry storage facilities

Slurry

pipelines are not new in the Philippines, although of limited use pipeline technology has advanced while local mining industry slackened major mining operation should consider utilizing pipelines

Slurry

Any

To

convey concentrate from inland copper or iron mines

To

convey Ni ore from minesite to plant

To

convey concentrate from inland copper or iron mines

To

aggregate contiguous deposits

Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills, or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation, pollution, or environmental impact. The purpose of water pipelines is to transport surface water or groundwater from one area to another without causing erosion and reducing the chance of evaporation. Water pipelines provide a solution to areas lacking a continual and sustainable water source. These massive pipelines can transfer water quickly and effectively, avoiding evaporation which can occur in an open water can be extracted from deep within the earth through well pumping. Also, water can be directly taken from a surface water source.

Water pipelines are large in diameter and can supply water to communities and industries over both short and long distances. Pipelines can be installed underground or above ground. They can be used to bring in freshwater, or transport and dispose of wastewater. Pipelines need to be monitored continually water quality must be constantly checked. Because of great distances that major water pipelines can cover, maintenance fees are extreme.

The construction of water pipelines is also very taxing on the land. Thousands of miles of massive pipes can disrupt ecosystems, ruin scenery, and act as an obstruction. Underground pipelines require huge trenches to be dug, also disrupting the land.

Service

lines - Pipes from a water users property line to the household or other point of use

Lateral

- Pipes from mainlines to service lines


Mainlines

- Pipes from water sources to laterals

Technology

Pipeline networks are composed of several pieces of equipment that operate together to move products from location to location. The main elements of pipeline system are;
Initial injection station

Known also as supply or inlet station, is the beginning of the system, where the product is injected into the line. Compressor/pump stations Pumps for liquid pipelines and Compression for gas pipelines, are located along the line to move the product through the pipeline. Partial delivery station Known also as intermediate stations, these facilities allow the pipeline operator to deliver part of the product being transported.

Block valve station

These are the first line of protection for pipelines. With these valves the operator can isolate any segment of the line for maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak. Regulatory station This is a special type of valve station, where the operator can release some of the pressure from the line. Final delivery station Known also as outlet stations or terminals, this is where the product will be distributed to the consumer. It could be a tank terminal for liquid pipelines or a connection to a distribution network for gas pipelines.

Pipelines are the most economic and safest PIPELINE TRANSPORT systems for mineral oil, gases and other fluid products. As a means of long-distance transport, pipelines have to fulfill high demands of safety, reliability and efficiency. Most pipelines, regardless of what they contain, are designed with a typical life span of 25 years. When they do begin to fail, they do so slowly beginning with leaks at poor construction joints, corrosion points and small structural material cracks, and gradually progress to a catastrophic ending. But there are also other reasons for leak disasters such as accidents, terror, sabotage, or theft. Pipeline leak detection systems are also beneficial because they can enhance productivity and system reliability thanks to reduced downtime and reduced inspection time. Leak Detection Systems (LDS Systems) are therefore an important aspect of pipeline technology.

Improved

safety of infrastructure and for personnel - leaks are detected quickly and located accurately. Enhanced system reliability through reduced downtime and reduced inspection time Lower risk of environmental damage Suitable for use in hazardous zones.

Health, Security, Safety and Environment

Pipelines

are the safest most reliable and efficient manner of transporting crude oil and other liquid petroleum products. Each year, billions of gallons of petroleum are transported thousands of miles quietly from production fields to refineries and on airports, factories and distribution centers in communities through the country. Pipeline companies take active steps to ensure that health, safety, security and environmental concerns are addressed through the planning, construction and operational phases of pipeline operation.

1999,

the gasoline from the pipeline leaked which burnt houses and commercial establishments in Muntinlupa. A person died in this incident. July 2010,Oil leaks from Petron pipeline in Cavite September 2010 the oil leak that has been seeping into the basement of a 22-story West Tower condominium in Makati City was coming from the pipeline of the First Philippine Industrial Corp. (FPIC).

A underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers.

tunnel is relatively long and narrow; in general the length is more (usually much more) than twice the diameter.

A tunnel project must start with a comprehensive investigation of ground conditions by collecting samples from boreholes and by other geophysical techniques. An informed choice can then be made of machinery and methods for excavation and ground support, which will reduce the risk of encountering unforeseen ground conditions. In planning the route the horizontal and vertical alignments will make use of the best ground and water conditions. In some cases conventional desk and site studies yield insufficient information to assess such factors as the blocky nature of rocks, the exact location of fault zones, or the stand-up times of softer ground. This may be a particular concern in large diameter tunnels. To give more information a pilot tunnel, or drift, may be driven ahead of the main drive. This smaller diameter tunnel will be easier to support should unexpected conditions be met, and will be incorporated in the final tunnel. Alternatively, horizontal boreholes may sometimes be drilled ahead of the advancing tunnel face.

Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management. There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use:

Cut and cover tunnels, constructed in a shallow trench and then

covered over. Bored tunnels, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section. Immersed tube tunnels, sunk into a body of water and sit on, or are buried just under, its bed.

Cut-and-cover is a simple method of construction for shallow tunnels where a trench is excavated and roofed over with an overhead support system strong enough to carry the load of what is to be built above the tunnel. Two basic forms of cut-and-cover tunnelling are available:
Bottom-up method: A trench is excavated, with ground support as necessary, and the

tunnel is constructed in it. The tunnel may be of in situ concrete, precast concrete, precast arches, or corrugated steel arches; in early days brickwork was used. The trench is then carefully back-filled and the surface is reinstated. Top-down method: Here side support walls and capping beams are constructed from ground level by such methods as slurry walling, or contiguous bored piling. Then a shallow excavation allows making the tunnel roof of precast beams or in situ concrete. The surface is then reinstated except for access openings. This allows early reinstatement of roadways, services and other surface features. Excavation then takes place under the permanent tunnel roof, and the base slab is constructed.

Shallow tunnels are often of the cut-and-cover type (if under water, of the immersed-tube type), while deep tunnels are excavated, often using a tunneling shield. For intermediate levels, both methods are possible.

An

open building pit consists of a horizontal and a vertical boundary that keeps groundwater and soil out of the pit. There are several potential alternatives and combination's for (horizontal and vertical) building pit boundaries. The most important difference with Cut-and-cover is that the open building pit is muted after tunnel construction, no roof is placed.

Clay-kicking is a specialized method developed in the United Kingdom, of manually digging tunnels in strong clay-based soil structures. Unlike previous manual methods of using mattocks which relied on the soil structure to be hard, clay-kicking was relatively silent and hence did not harm soft clay based structures. The clay-kicker lies on a plank at a 45-degree angle away from the working face, and inserts a tool with a cup-like rounded end with his feet. Turning the tool with his hands, he extracts a section of soil, which is then placed on the waste extract.

Tunnel

boring machines (TBMs) and associated back-up systems are used to highly automate the entire tunneling process, reducing tunneling costs. Tunnel boring in certain predominantly urban applications, is viewed as quick and cost effective alternative to laying surface rails and roads. Expensive compulsory purchase of buildings and land with potentially lengthy planning inquiries is eliminated.

Pipe

Jacking, also known as pipe jacking or pipe-jacking (or pipe ramming in US English), is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways. Tunnels constructed by pipe jacking are normally small diameter tunnels with a maximum size of around 2.4m.

Box

jacking is similar to pipe jacking, but instead of jacking tubes, a box shaped tunnel is used. Jacked boxes can be a much larger span than a pipe jack with the span of some box jacks in excess of 20m. A cutting head is normally used at the front of the box being jacked and excavation is normally by excavator from within the box.

shaft is sometimes necessary for a tunnel project. They are usually circular and go straight down until they reach the level at which the tunnel is going to be built. A shaft normally has concrete walls and is built to be permanent. Once they are built, Tunnel Boring Machines are lowered to the bottom and excavation can start. Shafts are the main entrance in and out of the tunnel until the project is completed. Sometimes if a tunnel is going to be long, multiple shafts at various locations will be bored so that entrance into the tunnel is closer to the unexcavated area.

There

are also several approaches to underwater tunnels, the two most common being bored tunnels or immersed tubes. Submerged floating tunnels are another approach that has not been constructed.

Drilling

and Blasting Splitter machine

Hydraulic

Slurry-shield Wall-cover

construction method.