Nature of the Learner
Human Development – is the dynamic process of change that occurs in the physical, psychological, social, spiritual & emotional constitution. Types of changes:


Growth – is quantitative involving increase in the size of the parts of the body. Development – is qualitative involving gradual changes in character.

Major Processes of Human Development
1. Learning - Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience. It is a complex process which involves changes in mental processing, development of emotional functioning and social transactional skills develop and evolve from birth to death.

2. Maturation – Includes bodily changes which are primarily a result of heredity or the traits that a person inherits from his parents.

Prenatal Development – Includes the time from conception to birth.Periods of Lifespan Development 1.  Hereditary – Is the sum of total characteristics which are biologically transmitted thru parents to offspring. Two types of cells in the human body:  Body or Somatic Cells  Germ or Productive Cells .

. Infancy – Extends from birth up to 18 or 24 months. crawls. It characterized by: 0 Time of extreme dependence on adults 0 Babyhood  Sensimotor Development – Head turns to direction of touch. holds head & erect. sits with support. reaches for objects. lifts chain & head. stands with help.Periods of Lifespan Development 2. walks with support.

Behavior of a child during early childhood ( Pre-school)  First Grade marks end of early childhood  Pre-school experience affects his/her growth & development. Early Childhood – begins from the end of infancy to about 5-6 years.  The relationship that the child has with the “significant others” .Periods of Lifespan Development 3.

Middle and Late Childhood – School age from 6 – 11 years. .Periods of Lifespan Development 4. Also called as “elementary school years”.  The child becomes more achievement centered with increased self-control when he/she is exposed to the world and culture. writing and arithmetic are mastered.  The fundamental skills of reading.

approximately from 10-12 years and ending at 18-22 years.Periods of Lifespan Development 5. Adolescence – Marks the transition of childhood to adulthood.  Puberty – Development of sexual characteristics. and idealistic  More time is spent outside the family .  Thoughts are more logical. Characteristics of adolescence  Pursuit of independence and an identity is prominent. abstract.

Periods of Lifespan Development     Developmental Task of Adolescence Development independence in preparation for adulthood Establishing a sense of identity Physical Aspect of Development More marked internal than external development during later adolescence Spends more time with the physical looks and improving appearance .

Early Adulthood – Begins in late teens or early twenties through the thirties. Characteristics of early adolescence Establishing personal and economic independence. Career development Selecting a mate Intimate relationships Starting a family      .Periods of Lifespan Development 6.

Periods of Lifespan Development 7. Middle Adulthood – begins from 35-45 years old up to 65 years old Characteristics of middle adulthood  Menopause of women  Climacteric or andropause for men  Time of expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility. .

Late Adulthood or Senescence – begins from 65 to 80 years and lasting until death. Characteristics of late adulthood Time adjustment to decreasing strength & health Life Review Retirement Adjustment to new social roles Affiliations with members of one’s age group      .Periods of Lifespan Development 8.

Four Theories of Human Development .

Theory of Psychosexual Development Sigmund Freud – Father of Modern Psychology .

Theory of Psychosexual Development Believed that human beings pass through a series of stages that are dominated by the development of sensitivity in particular erogenous zone or pleasure giving area in the body. .

crucial period of increase vulnerability and heightened potential.  Epigenetic Principle – personality continues to develop throughout the entire life sopa .Erikson’s Psychological Stages of Development  Crisis – A turning point.

Major Stages of Social-Emotional Development
2. 3.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Infant: Trust vs. Mistrust Toddler: Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt Preschool: Initiative vs. Guilt Schoolage: Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence: Identify vs. Role confusion Young adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle adulthood: Generatively vs. Stagnation Old age: Ego Integrity vs. Despair

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Universal Constructivist perspective

All humans construct their understanding of the world in predictable ways.  Humans take an active role in their own development by acting on the physical environment.

Key Concepts




Mental Structures – begins with reflexes in infancy evolving into schemata and more complex structure “Operations” Schema – metal concept formed through experiences with objects and events Schemata – are building blocks of cognitive structures Operations – mental actions allowing children to interact with the environment using their minds and bodies. Organization – humans have natural and innate tendency to organize their relationship with the environment.

Post-conventional Level  Stages V – Social contract orientation  Stages VI – Universal ethical principle orientation.Moral development Theory “Lawrence Kohlberg” Three Levels and Six Stages I. Conventional Level  Stages III – Good boy\ nice girl orientation  Stages IV – Law and other Orientation III.relativist orientation II. Pre-conventional Level  Stages I – Punishment\ obedience orientation  Stages II – Instrumental. .


THE DETERMINANTS OF LEARNING Haggard (1989)  states that educators role in learning is primarily to assess the learner in relation to:  Learning needs  Learning readiness  Learning style .

observation . Informal conversations or interviews 2.The Determinants of Learning LEARNING NEEDS  Are gaps in knowledge that exist between a desired and actual level of performance. Structural interviews 3. Written pretests 4. 1.

emotional functioning and or behavior as a result of experience.LEARNING  Is a relatively permanent change in mental processing.  it is a lifelong process that is constantly evolving that takes place from the mother of conception up to death.  is an ongoing process that is dynamic and constantly evolving from “womb to womb” .

(Bastable. 3. 2. Collect data on the learner – determining the characteristics learning needs of the target population. Choose the right setting – establish a trusting environment by ensuring privacy and confidentially. .Steps in the Assessment of Learning Needs. Include the learner as a source of information – allow the learner to actively participate in identifying his needs and problems 1. group or individual and what are learner needs. patient or any recipient of learning material 4. 2003) Identify the learner – who is learner.

7. 6. available. . easy and simple to manipulate. 5. It should be appropriate. vision. mission and goals to know what its educational focus is. Assess demands of the organization – its philosophy. affordable. Determine availability of education resources – demonstrate the materials and equipment will be used. Is more on health promotion and preventive disease.Steps in the assessment of learning needs Include members of the healthcare team – collaborate with the healthcare professionals who may have insights or knowlegde of the patient or learner.

 minimize distractions\interruptions during planned assessment interviews. .  identify potential opportunities to assess patient anytime. 9. anywhere. Consider time-management issues – allow learner to identify their learning needs. Priority needs – it maybe based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs.Continuation of steps assessment 8.


3 Criteria for Prioritizing Learning Needs (HC Educ. II. III. 1985) I.    Mandatory – must immediate care for life threatening or needed for survival Desirable – must met to promote well-being and are not life-dependent Possible – “nice to know” learner needs which are not directly related to daily activities. Readiness to Learn. Is the time when the patient is “willing to learn” Is receptive to information . Ass.

flexibility and endurance is needed to teach a patient.Types of Readiness to Learn (PEEK) 1.     P = Physical Readiness Measures of ability – adequate strength. Complexity of task Difficulty level of the subject or the task to be mastered. 2. psychomotor skills require varying degrees of manual dexterity physical energy output but once acquired or mastered usually retained better and longer than learning in the cognitive and effective domains .

5.Types of Readiness to Learn 3.   that is conductive to learning Health status – patient in a state of good health or ill health Gender Is a changing perspective in attention-seeking behavior with the blending of roles in the home or workplace increased attention to healthy lifestyle (men and women) . Environmental effects – refers to an environment 4.

Types of Readiness to 1.     E = Emotional Readiness Anxiety Level May or may not be hindrance to learning Some degree of anxiety may motivate a person to learn either high or low will interfere anxiety moderate level of anxiety contributes to ability fear greatly contributes to anxiety and exerts negatives effects on readiness to learn. .

frustration and a high level of anxiety. Motivation – is a strongly associated with emotional readiness or willingness to learn . despair.Types of readiness to learn 2. Support system  Strong support system composed of the immediate family and friends  Weak or absent support system elicits sense of insecurity.  Emotional support paves the way for the teachable moment 3.

without much thought to what negatives consequences or effects might be.Types of readiness to Learning 4.  1. Frame of mind – depends on what the priorities of the learner are in terms of his needs Developmental stage – determines the peak time for readiness to learn “teachable moment” E = Experiential Readiness refers the previous learning experience whether its positive or negative Level of aspiration – depends on short or long term goal which influence motivation to achieve . 6. Risk-taking behavior – activities that are undertaken 5.

Past coping mechanisms – refers how the learner 3. Cultural background – Awareness of the culture of the learner is of prime importance find out also if the patient understands the language that is being used to communicate with.Experiential Readiness 2. was able to cope with or handle previous problems or situations and how the effective were the strategies used. Locus of control – refers motivation to learn .   4.

Internal locus of control (intrinsic) B. Parochial – close-minded thinking. B. external locus of control (extrinsic) 5. conservative in their approach to new situation. less wiling to learn new materials. Orientation – refers to a person’s point-of-view A.2 types of locus of control A. Cosmopolitan orientation – more worldly perspective and more receptive to new or innovative ideas .

Knowledge K = Knowledge Readiness 1. 3. some learn better from auditory sources than from visual stimuli. 2. recalling or recognizing concept and ideas. Present knowledge base – refers as stock knowledge 2. some are global (holistic) thinkers and some are analytic. . Cognitive ability – involves lower level of learning includes: memorizing. Learning Styles  Indicates how people learn in uniquely different ways: 1. Some learn better when with the group than independently or alone.

analytic thinking Holistic (global) thinkers – interested in the “gist” of things.think logically and objectively looking at the details first Verbal vs. visual representation see or hear as in terms of words or verbal associations see or hear as mental pictures or images .Basic Concept of cognitive styles     Holistic vs. the essence or general idea Analytic thinkers .

heredity  interaction with the environment.Learning Style Models Two most commonly used learning models that are frequently used in nursing  David Kolb’s Cycle of Learning (1984)  Anthony George’s Cognitive Styles model (1982) Kolb’s model (Cycle of Learning)  learning is a continuous process which is a cumulative result of previous or past experiences. .

Kolb’s Theory of Experiential Learning  Concrete experience (CE) abilities: Learning from actual experience  Reflective observation (RO) abilities: Learning by observing others  Abstract conceptualization (AC) abilities: Creating theories to explain what is seen  Active experimentation (AE) abilities: Using theories to solve problems .

problem solving o prefers dealing with technical work than interpersonal relationships  Learning Methods:  learns best through demonstration  Diverger: stresses CE and RO: o people and feeling oriented and likes to work in groups .Kolb’s theory and their characteristic predominantly manifested by the learner  Converger: learns by AC and AE: o Good at decision-making.

instinct or gut feelings rather than o o o o on logic. Learning Methods: o learns best through group discussion and brainstorm  Accommodator: relies heavily on CE and AE: o acts more on intuition. They learn best through new and exciting learning experience  Assimilator: emphasizes AC and RO: more concerned with abstract ideas than people very good in inductive reasoning interacting ideas. uses logical thinking . an achiever  Learning Methods: most challenging to educators bec.

one-to-one instruction o self instruction methods with ample reading materials . Learning Methods: o learn best through lectures.


. Ordering ability  way one arranges and systematizes incoming stimuli in continuum or scale ranging from sequence to randomness 1.Gregorc Cognitive Styles Model Perception Ability  way one receives or grasps incoming information  stimulus in a continuum ranging from abstractness to concreteness 2.

visuals and gives on details may interpret words literally. esp. are rational and logical 1. looks for alternatives 3. quiet learning environments without interruptions like concrete learning materials. 2. Concrete random (CR) intuitive. Abstract sequential (AS) learners are holistic thinkers and need consistency in learning environment do not like interruptions have good verbal skills. .4 Mediation Channels o o o o o o o Concrete sequential (CS) learners like highly structured. trial-and-error method of learning.

4. Abstract random (AR) o o learn a lot from visual stimuli prefer busy. unstructured learning environments o focused on personal relationships .

3. Use Several Senses Actively Involve Clients in the Learning Process Provide an Environment Conducive to Learning Assess Learning Readiness Determine the Relevance of Information Repeat the Information Generalize Information Make Learning a Pleasant Experience Be Systematic Be Steady . 9. 6. 5. 2. 10. 4.Steps in helping to motivate the learner 1. 7. 8.

1990)  is a coherent framework and set of integrated constructs  principles that describe. Cognitive 3. 1996. Behaviorist 2.Learning Theories (Bigge & Shermis. 1992. explain or predict how people learn. Hill. Social Learning . how learning occurs and what motivates people to learn and change Major learning theories (patient education and health care practice) 1. higard and bower.

Behavioral Theories of Learning John B. Watson  is the proponent of behaviorist theory which emphasizes the importance of observable behavior in the study of human being  he defined behavior as muscle movement and it came to be associated with the Stimulus-Response psychology  he postulated that behavior results from a series of conditioned reflexes. that all emotions and thoughts are product of behavior learned through conditioning .

Respondent Conditioning 1. elicits the same UCR . even without the UCS.     Classical or Pavlovian conditioning a process which influences the acquisition of new responses to environment stimuli: NS ( neutral stimulus ) – is a stimulus that has no particular value significance or meaning to the learner UCR ( unconditional response ) – through repeated pairings with an UCS there comes a time when the NS.

  medicine to reduce fear and anxiety in the patient (Wolpe.Respondent Conditioning 2. 1982 ) is also a stress-reducing strategy that is adapted to help preoperatively patients. tension headaches and phobias.  4. among other Bastable Stimulus generalization is the tendency to apply to other similar stimuli what was initially learned Spontaneous recovery is usually applied in relapse prevention programs (rpp ) explain why it is quite difficult to completely eliminate “unhealthy habits and addictive behaviors” . rehabilitating drug addicts. Systematic desensitization  another technique is widely used in psychology even in  3.

Learning activities 4. School responsibilities 5. Incentive feedback 7. Status indications 6. Recognition 2. Personal activities .Ways of Employing Positive Reinforcement  Verbal ways  Non-verbal ways Classification of Educational Reinforcers ( Tosti and Addison 1972 ) 1. Tangible rewards 3.

and ways of processing and structuring information . memory.Cognitive Theories of Learning Cognition  is more than knowledge acquisition  it involves intelligence which is the ability to solve problems or fashion products that are valued in more than one setting  deals with perception. thinking skills.

 3.Paigets four major periods of Cognitive or ID 1.   4.  2.  Sensorimotor stage: (birth-2yrs) determined basically on actual perception of the senses and the external or physical factors Abstract thinking: represent reality using symbols that can be manipulated mentally Logical thinking: more systematic uses scientific method Assimilation and Accommodation: Characterized by hypothesis testing .

 Metacognition – self-reflection wherein ideas and imagination are tried out to be aware of existing realities (internal dialogue)  Social Learning Theories – emphasizes the importance of environmental or situational determinants of behavior and their continuing interaction  Reciprocal Determination (Albert Bandura)  environmental conditions shape behavior through learning. .

Four Operations 1.   3.  Attentional processes: determined what a person can do what he or she can attend to Retentional processes:: determined how experience is en coded or retained in memory Motor reproduction processes: determined what behavior can be performed Motivational and reinforcement: determined the circumstances under which learning is translated into performance .  4.   2.

SOCIAL LEARNING THOERY DEALT WITH COGNITIVE VARIABLES Walker Mischel (1993)           Competence refer to a various skills Encoding strategies personal experiences that are retained and categorized by the individual Subjective values what a person consider as a worth having or accomplishing Self-regulating system or plans different standards Rules for regulating their behavior Plans for reaching his or her goals. .

Pedagogy versus Andragogy  Pedagogy  art and science of helping children learn.  Andragogy  art and science of helping adults learn .

Theory of Adult Learning (Knowles’ 1990) Adult Learning  more learner-centered than teacher-centered  becomes an independent self-directed human being  previous experience of the adult serves as a rich source of learning  readiness to learn is more oriented to the developmental tasks of social roles  there is a shift of learning orientation from being subjective-centered to problem-oriented .

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