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HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE MODERN MIDDLE EAST
The Ottoman era • one of the largest and longest lasting empires in history • Was inspired and sustained by Islam and Islamic institutions. • In 16th and 17th century, controlled territories in southeast Europe, western Asia and north Africa. • Collapse of the empire as a regime under a monarchy
Syria. Egypt. Oman. Bahrain. Palestine. morocco. Qatar. Algeria Italy: Libya . Transjordan etc French mandated territories: hatay.EUROPEAN DOMINATION • • • • • Ottomans alliance with Germany in the 1st world war against British and France. British and French governments concluded the war with a secret treaty (Sykes-picot agreement) to partition the middle east between them. Lebanon. Tunisia. British mandated territories: Iraq. Kuwait. Yemen.
ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT Conflict between Jewish and Zionist yishuv and the Arab population living in Palestine under Ottoman or British rule. British mandate of Palestine : the Balfour declaration Arab-Israeli war of 1948 .
who later became the first Tunisian President . world war II and independence: • was officially made a French protectorate according to the treaty of bordo in 1883. • was the scene of the third major operations by the Allied Forces (the British Empire and the United States) against the Axis Powers (Italy and Germany) • achieved independence from France in 1956 led by Habib Bourguiba.TUNISIA Political history o French era.
Tunisia under Bourguiba (1956-87) Political rule • the Neo-Destour Party ensured that Tunisia moved quickly with reforms in the areas of education. and legal reforms. the liberation of women. • Bourguiba centralized power under his progressive but increasingly personalized rule .
Economic life Four stages can be identified in the country‘s post-independence economic life under Bourguiba Initial stage of attempted economic decolonization. Ideological stage of socialist transformation Attempt at stage managed. private sector funded industrialization The stabilization programme of mid 80s. .
and he assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless coup d'état. Tunisia • • • ‘11) Ben Ali was appointed Prime Minister in October 1987. Ben Ali instituted economic reforms that increased Tunisia's growth rate and foreign investment under Ben Ali ‗87- . such as freedom of the press. had problems with human rights violations.
Freedom House. especially among youth. • They criticized Tunisian officials for not observing international standards of political rights and interfering with the work of local human rights organizations. Tunisia continued to suffer from a high unemployment. • Ben-Ali's government was deemed authoritarian and undemocratic by independent international human rights groups such as Amnesty International. • . and Protection International.However.
Western encounter with the middle east .
In comparison to European powers such as Britain and France. the United States was ‗popular and respected throughout the Middle East‘ .The United States‘ relationship with the Middle East prior to the Second World War was minimal.
• For British orientalists. Africans and Arabs as decadent. • The waxing of America's power after 1945 subconsciously shaped US popular attitudes and foreign policy towards the middle east. ottoman despotism. alien and inferior by the west. Islamic obscurantism and Arab racial inferiority had combined to produce a backward culture that was badly in need of Anglo-Saxon tutelage. .ORIENTALISM • A self serving view of the Asians.
confirmed that orientalism had sunk deep roots into the US popular culture. Alladin in 1992. Release of Disney studios.• • • Orientalist images of the middle east and the third world were generated and disseminated by the national geographic. exotic and occasionally dangerous who have needed and will continue to need US guidance and support. The subliminal messages depicted the middle east as backward. .
including Europe and the Englishspeaking world • ideologies or visions of the West developed in either the West or non-West.OCCIDENTALISM • Is a stereotyped and dehumanizing view of the Western world. • secular Occidentalism takes the form of a hatred of certain ideas and practices of the West. • Occidentalism is often the result of a hatred of the West as the Infidel. .
MIDDLE EAST AND THE US Persian Gulf oil support and protection of the new nation of Israel containment of the Soviet Union .
On 21 November 1949. world war II and independence The Italian rule in Libya started with the Italian conquest of coastal Tripolitania and Cyrenaica from the Ottomans in 1911. . the UN General Assembly passed a resolution that Libya should become independent before 1 January 1952.LIBYA Italian rule.
on 28 March 1953. Libya joined the Arab League. . Two years after independence. Libya declared its independence with representatives from Cyrenaica. Tripolitania and Fezzan declaring a union with the country being called the United Kingdom of Libya. Kingdom of Libya (1951-1969) On 24 December 1951.
In April 1955. although imposing a resource curse on Libya. oil exploration started in the kingdom with its first oil fields being discovered in 1959. The first exports began in 1963 with the discovery of oil helping to transform the Libyan economy. . popular resentment grew as wealth was increasingly concentrated in the hands of the elite.
with the motto "freedom. and unity de . socialism. Libyan revolution the RCC headed by Gaddafi abolished the monarchy and the old constitution and proclaimed the new Libyan Arab Republic. Libya under Gaddafi • Gaddafi became the • • facto leader of the country on 1 September 1969.
viewing fundamentalism as a potential rallying point for opponents of the regime. . began to pursue an anti-fundamentalist Islamic policy domestically.In 1988. faced with rising public dissatisfaction with shortages in consumer goods and setbacks in Libya's war with Chad.
Opposition to the Jamahiriya reforms . became a strong supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization. which ultimately harmed Libya's relations with Egypt.• • • Gaddafi was a major financier of the "Black September Movement" which perpetrated the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics.
Foreign relation • principal foreign
policy goals: Arab unity, elimination of Israel, advancement of Islam, support for Palestinians, elimination Western—influence in the Middle East and Africa. • supported international terrorism and subversion against moderate Arab and African governments. • Closure of American and British bases on Libyan territory and partially nationalized all foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya.
Unemployment • High unemployment
in middle eastern countries, together with low labour force participation rates, resulted in very low ratios of employment to working-age population. the unemployment rate among those with college degrees exceeded 15 percent in Egypt, Jordan, and Tunisia in 2008.
offered some insight into the upheaval in Tunisia and other countries of the middle east. • overarching theme of the cables: corruption •were translated and disseminated through private websites and social networking sites
com www.References • • • • • • • ‗The modern middle east‘ by Mehran Kamrava ‗Libya: the struggle for survival‘ by Geoffrey Leslie Simmons ‗western footprints in middle east‘ by Rashid Khalidi ‗Tunisia: stability and reform in modern Maghreb‘ by Christopher Alexander www.wikipedia.org www.com .britannica.globalissues.
Aftermaths and Implications .
Scuffle b/w the police and the demonstrators follows. a fruit and vegetable seller immolates himself at Sidi Bouzid. Hundreds rally over rampant unemployment. January 2: The cyberactivist group ―Anonymous‖ announces Operation Tunisia with ―direct denial of services‖ attack.Tunisian Uprising – A Brief Timeline December 17: Mohammed Bouazizi. The protests start the same day. December 28: Ben Ali warns the protestors on national television broadcast. Struggle b/w the police and the protestors continue throughout January 5: Bouazizi dies of self-inflicted burns . Criticizes ―the use of violence in the streets by a minority of extremists‖ and says the law will be applied ―in all firmness‖ to punish the protestors.
January 7: a group of bloggers. shocking the Tunisians throughout the country and laying the seeds for the uprising to become a nationwide phenomenon January 13: Ben Ali makes a televised address announcing unprecedented concessions and promises January 14: Ben Ali imposes a state of emergency and fires the country‘s government. Flees the country with family (He is presently in Saudi Arabia) January 15: Tunisia‘s constitutional court appoints Fouad Mebazza as the interim president replacing Mohammed Ghannouchi . journalists. activists and a rapper arrested January 8-12: Snipers carry out a series of massacres in Kasserine and Thala.
Tunisians take to the streets protesting the lineup of the new government January 26: Interpol asked to arrest ousted president Ben Ali and his family January 27: Reshuffle in the cabinet announced. including several of Ben Ali‘s loyalists in key posts. January 16: a 4 –part series of US Diplomatic Cables released by Wikileaks puts US in a bad light January 17: A new government announced. key ministers of Ben Ali‘s government dropped .
Hundreds killed in fighting. Rebels push for a ―no-fly zone‖ over Libya . an effort to bring thousand of protesters into the streets February 20: Rebels take Benghazi.Libya Uprising – A Brief Timeline February 17: ―the official day of the revolt‖. Gaddafi starts launching sporadic attacks March 10: Gaddafi bombs cities. pushes back protesters.
March 19: NATO starts bombing Libya May 25: Due to NATO bombing and rebels‘ counter-offensive. taking control of cities . Gaddafi‘s forces withdraw from Misrata. Battle for Misrata declared over May-August: Struggle continues with rebels progressing.
officially recognizes NTC (National Transitional Council) as Libya‘s sole representative October 13-19: NTC conquers the final bastions of Gaddafi loyalists October 18: Hillary Clinton pays an unannounced visit to Libya October 20: NTC captures Sirte. September 15: Nicholas Sarkozy and David Cameron land in Libya September 16: UN lifts sanctions off Libya. Green Square renamed Martyr‘s square. promises to uphold the Islamic law . capture and kill Gaddafi October 23: NTC‘s leader Mustafa Abdel Jalil declares the liberation of Libya. August 20-21: Tripoli revolts.
his son and former aide put in public display in Misrata October 24: NTC orders probe into Gaddafi‘s death after international pressure October 25: NTC buries Gaddafi. October 20-24: The bodies of Gaddafi. his son Mutassim and the former aide at a secret location in the desert .
RCD dissolves.What Followed: Tunisia January: The process to form the new government begins Leader of the banned Congress for the Republic Party (CPR). Marcef Manzouki returns after years of exile in Paris Leader of the banned Islamist Ennahda Party. Rachid Ghannouchi returns after 22 years of exile Feb-March: Beji Caid-Essebsi replaces Mohammad Ghannouchi as the interim PM. May: Tunisian Higher Election Authority (ISIE) set up to oversee constituent assembly elections June: Ben Ali and his wife sentenced in absentia to 35 years in prison .
October 23: Constituent Assembly elections take place.7% Hamadi Jbeli is the party‘s preferred choice as the PM candidate . More than 90% turnout The Islamist Ennahda party wins the election with 41. followed by leftist CPR with 13.5% of votes.8% and Ettakotal with 9.
The New Players Ettakotal (Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties) .
Congress Party for the Republic (CPR) .
Ennahda (The Renaissance) .
the party legalized on March 1. advocated democracy and a ―Tunisian‖ form of Islamism 1989-91: Ennahda banned to participate in elections. thousands of activists jailed by Ben Ali In the wake of the Tunisian Revolution. 2011 after 22 years of exile in London Ghannouchi called ―a thought leader in the process of the Islamist embrace of equal citizenship and equal rights‖ Began to be described as ―moderate Islamists‖ in the 80s. Founded under the name of Movement of the Islamic Tendency in 1981 by Rached Al-Ghannouchi Al-Ghannouchi returned to Tunisia on January 30. 2011 .
outdistancing it‘s more secular counterparts Seeks to form an alliance with the CPR and Ettakotal Currently rejects radical Islamism ―supports workers‘ rights and women‘s education‖ and states that ―Sharia law has no place in Tunisia‖ . Has won the majority of votes in the recently held elections Biggest and best organized party in Tunisia.
Mustafa Abdel Jalil becomes the interim leader .What Followed: Libya NTC has been given official recognition by the UN.
UN has called a for probe into Gaddafi‘s death after the footage of his last moments went public October 31: NATO formally ends Libya mission October 31: UNSC votes unanimously to end the ―no-fly‖ zone over Libya Interim PM Mahmoud Jibril steps down to make way for Abdurrahim El Keib NTC is supposed to elect the cabinet a month from the liberation Under the NTC Roadmap: elections to be held within 8 months for a national assembly that will spend a year drawing up a new constitution before a parliamentary poll .
National Transitional Council .
known for ruling consistently against the regime. Current de facto government of Libya Established by anti-Gaddafi forces during the 2011 Libyan uprising to act as ―the face of the revolution‖ NTC lead the Libyan uprising and the rebels in occupying the cities March 5. Appreciated by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch . Jalil became the Justice Minister in the Gaddafi government in 2007 Jalil. as a judge. 2011: NTC declared itself to be the ―only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state‖ Chaired by Mustafa Abdul Jalil.
it turned its back towards Ben Ali‘s regime In October though.The Response of the West US supported Ben Ali‘s administration for many years. But in the end. upholding their policy of ―stability over democracy‖ France was a strong supporter of the administration throughout. President Obama pledged US support for Tunisia‘s political and financial development . but was a mute spectator to his ouster The West‘s response to the uprising has been described as hesitant and unwilling US stayed largely silent till the time Ben Ali fled.
British. The approach towards Libya was very aggressive on the West‘s part French. Italian and Russian supplied weapons to proGaddafi forces initially but they soon changed their allegiance Before NATO began the attacks. froze its assets in the US and took Gaddafi‘s case to the International Criminal Court The West whole-heartedly supported NATO‘s bombing on proGaddafi‘s forces . Obama administration imposed economic sanctions on Libya.
French President Nicolas Sarkozy: The disappearance of Muammar Gaddafi is a major step forward in the battle fought for more than eight months by the Libyan people to liberate themselves from the dictatorial and violent regime imposed on them for more than 40 years. beaten and killed. Libya's wealth was squandered and enormous potential of Libyan people was held back and terror was used as a political weapon. British PM David Cameron: People in Libya today have an even greater chance after this news of building themselves a strong and democratic future. . Today we can definitively say that the Gaddafi regime has come to an end. the Gaddafi regime ruled the Libyan people with an iron fist.World’s Reaction to Gaddafi’s Death US President Barack Obama: For four decades. Their human rights were denied. Innocent civilians were detained.
though maintaining a careful stance against too much intervention.After the Uprising… Doubts hover around Ennahda‘s ‗Islamic‘ status in Tunisia Ennahda trying hard to portray itself as moderate. seeking coalition with CPR and Ettakotal The future of the government under National Transitional Council (in Libya) too uncertain owing to it‘s allegiance to Islamic style of governance Mustafa Abdel Jalil (NTC‘s head) promised to scrap laws not conforming to Islamic jurisprudence Seemingly. . both Tunisia and Libya will maintain a friendly and cooperative relationship with the west.
uk www.al-bab.juancole. Andrew Terill .guardian.Bix The Arab Spring and The Future of US Interests by W.aljazeera.com www.com The North African–Middle East Uprising from Tunisia to Libya by Herbert P.References www.english.co.net www.
CONTENTS What is a war? International Law Human Security and Rights UN/UNSC Formation of the NATO Interventions in the past 2 decades The case FOR interventions The case AGAINST interventions Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) The case of Libya The implications of the case of Libya Conclusion .
WHAT IS A WAR? D-Day invasion on 6th June. 1944 at Normandy .
These are internal conflicts caused due to internal failure of a state. regional and global media The emergence of non-state actors like terrorist groups.Mary Kaldor has suggested a category of ‗new wars‘. Furthermore he also distinguishes between the objective and subjective nature of wars. war is ‗ an act of force intended to compel our opponents to fulfill our will‘.WHAT IS A WAR? According to 19th century strategist Carl Von Clausewitz. . Clausewitz distinguishes between the nature and character of war. Today contemporary war is being influenced by globalization and transnational elements such as NGO‘s. Since the mid 1980s.
INTERNATIONAL LAW .
Customary International Law Emergence of non-state actors such as international human rights groups.INTERNATIONAL LAW It can be best understood as a set of norms and rules created and practised by nations to facilitate goals. environment groups. challenging traditional ideas of state sovereignty. . Legal norms evolving to qualify interventions. In modern period law is seen as an agreement between legal subjects with mutual consent and will. co-existence and avoiding any conflicts or wars.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND SECURITY .
The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002. Notion of humans as ‗rights-bearers‘ specifically European & has grown in importance post the holocaust. UN specialized agencies. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948 Interventions are justified on account of gross violations of human rights and security. NGOs play a crucial role on promoting human security. to put to book perpetrators of crimes against humanity. .HUMAN RIGHTS & SECURITY Two conceptions of human securityfreedom of want and freedom of fear.
UN/ UNSC .
In the case of Libya the UNSC Resolution 1973 was implemented. . When UNSC considers a threat to international peace. the UN Security Council was formed. For this sole purpose. The council then takes measures to enforce its decisions under Chapter VII and on rare occasions authorizes ‗all necessary means‘. Issues of peace and security also include human rights and security. it first tries to settle it under Chapter VI of the UN Charter.UN/UNSC The UN was created post WWII with a view to maintain global peace and security. even military action. overrunning notions of non-intervention and selfdetermination.
war crimes. humanitarian assistance should be provided with the consent of affected and in principle on the basis of an appeal by the affected country. the GA held that if national authorities are ‗manifestly failing to protect their populations from genocide. 1991-GA resolution held that ‗ The sovereignty. the international community could take collective action through the UNSC according to Chapter VII of the charter. territorial integrity and national unity of States must be fully respected in accordance with the charter of the UN. (A/RES/60/1.UN/ UNSC Article 2(7) of the UN charter states that ‗Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the UN to intervene in matters which are essentially within domestic jurisdiction of any state. In the outcome document of the 2005 World Summit. ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and if peaceful means are inadequate. para 138 and 139.‘ (A/RES/46/182). . In this context.
FORMATION OF NATO .
the NATO has primarily been involved in military interventions in Bosnia. . Iraq etc. Post the fall of the communist bloc. Kosovo. It was formed post WWII in want of mutual defense alliance and to counter the perception of communist expansion.FORMATION OF NATO NATO is an organisation that includes countries of Europe and North America.
Troops in Afghanistan.Interventions in past 2 decades Clockwise from top: A photo of a skull in Rwanda. . A soldier being lowered on Saddam Hussein‘s shoulder in Iraq.
The French intervened in Rwanda in 1994. .Interventions in past 2 decades In the face of Saddam Hussein‘s oppression of the Kurds in the aftermath of the 1991 Gulf War. The solidarity vanished when US sustained casualties. British. the US. NATO‘s intervention in Kosovo in 1999 was a mix of humanitarian concern and national interest. French and Dutch military forces intervened to provide safe havens. for fear of their influence waning once the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) comes to power.
Most controversial has been the failure of international community to respond to the Darfur crisis.. . the case of Iraq & Afghanistan and vested interests.Interventions in past 2 decades Post 9/11 attacks on the pretext of intervening for humanitarian purposes the US invaded Iraq and Afghanistan to fight its war against terror. Reasons range from strong refusal by Sudanese govt.
‘ Human rights violations in other parts. The moral case. deriving from virtue of ‗common humanity. have an effect on everybody.The case FOR intervention The legal argument. . also labeled as counterrestrictionist.
States are not allowed to risk the lives of their soldiers to save strangers. Intervention does not work . States do not intervene for primarily humanitarian reasons.The case AGAINST intervention No basis for humanitarian intervention in International law.
Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) .
The Rtop was adopted in the 2005 World Summit. action and rebuilding. the :principle of non-intervention yields to the international responsibility to protect‘ (ICISS 2001:xi). If states fail or are unwilling. It recognized that the UNSC as the sole authority to authorize. It has a 3 pronged approach of prevention. It placed the onus of protecting citizens on the states. .Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) The ICISS in its 2001 RtoP report attempted to resolve issues of human rights & sovereignty. The intervention in Libya is the first under the RtoP umbrella.
The Case of Libya .
deploring what it called ―the gross and systematic violation of human rights‖ in strife-torn Libya & referred the situation to the ICC. It called for ―all necessary means‘ to protect civilians and civilian populated areas from attack which might include ‗crimes against humanity‘.The Case of Libya Resolution 1970 was adopted on 26th February 2011. the NTC appealed to the international community to enforce a no-fly zone. 2011 the Resolution 1973 was adopted following which the military intervention of Libya began. On 19th March. As the crisis escalated. .
NATO & particularly the Arab League & the League of Arab Nations supported the text. France.2011. The BRIC nations abstained from voting. Following which on 27th October.The Case of Libya Representatives of UK. US. 2011 the UNSC voted to end NATO‘s presence in Libya by 31st October. . Fighting in Libya ended with the capture and ‗death‘ of Muammar Gaddafi on 20th October. The intervention is now regarded as a qualified success.
Weiss (City University of NY). Alex J. and Thomas G. Bellamy (Queensland). James Pattison (Manchester). . Simon Chesterman (NYU).Implications of the Case of Libya Analysis drawn from the special roundtable conducted by the Carnegie Council for their Ethics and International Affairs Journal. Contributors: Jennifer Welsh (Oxford).
military interventions became palatable. However. . Weiss Due to the inconsistent and inconclusive interventions in the 1990s.RtoP Alive and Well After Libya by Thomas G. military intervention is not the only panacea. States sought guidance. With RtoP.
Mission Creep.why do international community fail to act in similar such cases. Selectivity. .The Ethics of Humanitarian Intervention in Libya by James Pattison Raises the just cause question and the right intention question.Was it protection of civilians or removal of Gaddafi? The long-term consequences.
The will and consensus not available everytime. RtoP should focus on reducing no. Bellamy The Resolution 1973 mentioned RtoP explicitly for the first time. Prevention of mass atrocities require a combination of different methods. Ivory Coast The Libyan case was patchy and imperfect. . Guinea. of cases so acute that they require urgent decision making of this sort.Libya and the RtoP: The Exception and the Norm by Alex J. Case of Libya different on 2 accountsclarity of threat and a short time frame. Examples of Kenya.
Civilian Protection in Libya: Putting Coercion & Controversy back in RtoP by Jennifer Welsh
Through Resolution 1973, the UNSC effectively inserted itself in the struggle. The 3 pillars of RtoP. Pillar 3 which states international responsibility to RtoP crimes, should elaborate the coercive tools that can be employed.
Leading from Behind: The RtoP, the Obama Doctrine & Humanitarian Intervention after Libya by Simon Chesterman
In legal terms, the UNSC authorisation hardly ground-breaking. Neither RtoP or Res. 1973 have changed the standing prohibition on the use of force outside self-defense & SC authorized enforcement action. RtoP more political.RtoP confers public power, allocation of responsibility & jurisdiction. Military- ability to intervene
Though the Libyan case has finally given RtoP some teeth and its now the best understood form of codification for intervention, interventions at best are a palliative for immediate solutions. For long term solutions, it requires a never-ending commitment from the side of the intervening states. However, in this realist world, dictated by vested interests, such a possibility seems distant.
Baylis and Smith Ethics and International Affairs Journal.REFERENCES: The Globalization of World Politics. UN . authorizing all ‗necessary measures‘ to protect civilians. Carnegie Council UN Charter UNDP 1994 UDHR 1948 Resolution 1973: Security Council Approves ―No flyzone‖ over Libya. by vote of 10 in favour with 5 abstention‘s Resolution 1970: In a swift. Fotosearch. decisive action. Security Council imposes tough measures on Libyan regime. Images courtesy: Google. NATO directory. adopting resolution 1970 in the wake of crackdown on protestors.
What did Social Media do? .
The video and the feedback and comments on it sparked nationwide protests on the streets. What triggered the whole uprising was a video (first posted on Facebook) of the selfemollition of street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi which went viral and awakened the people about the situation in Tunisia. .
. Facebook. Twitter. and so on were instrumental in fueling the protest and mediating their live coverage. mobile messaging. Social media was said to be the ‗effective and uncensored news agency‘. YouTube. Virtual elements such as blogs. For example ‗Al Jazeera‘ referenced Facebook for the live coverage of protests. The presence of the protest on Social networking sites was brought to local and international media attention.
Al-Hiwar. Social activism was in full swing on Facebook.The citizens of Tunisia began to flock social media networks which fed and fuelled new stations like. etc. Tens of thousands joined Facebook groups and got to know about the new develepmonts and mobilized for further action. BBC Arabic. France 24. . Twitter and blogs.Al jazeera.
placing a blackout about the riots and subsequently started a campaign of demonising the protester as thugs and outlaws. like live video streaming. In contrast. On state media there has been systematic and organised silence. . public defiance and the display of popular anger were sustained by new media outlets. Bloggers and Facebook pages became sites of networking and spaces for exchanging and disseminating news about the protests.
the government decided to employ new measures of hacking and jamming Facebook pages and personal home pages of activists. taking the name of the government's internet censor.Notices like. and in an attempt to curb the influential impact of such networks. became known to activists as 'Ammar 404'. meet in town centre". became common features of social activism on Facebook pages. Faced with a fierce and unprecedented cyber war. . "Demonstration at 4pm. an error message that comes up on computer screens whenever someone's account is hacked. 'Error 404'.
Bloggers and social activities on the internet and satellite TV forced former president Ben Ali to flee the country. securing justice for all. and an invitation to the 'opposition' for a free dialogue.‗Tunileaks‘ was founded and made immensely popular. The subsequent caretaker government promised to open up to the outraged public by freeing the media. Tunisians declared ‗Victory‘ on social networks and Twitter went berserk with traffic. .
giving real time updates about the protest.500 ―likes‖ on Facebook. The micro-blogging site was an incredibly powerful tool during moments of political upheaval. One of the libya news and media Facebook pages has over 21. The site currently has several likes and posts about the events unfolding. Twitter handles such as @Feb17Libya and @Shabablibya gained mass popularity. with plenty of people posting their thoughts on the recent events in Libya.‗Libya protest news‘ site on Facebook devoted to ongoing revolution. .
In the second week of February 2011. tags. text. and recommendation feeds to make the most for their visitors. The Al Jazeera Live Blog used video.Youtube made the world witness history through the protest videos uploaded by citizens. The news of Gaddafi‘s death and photos spread instantly on twitter and Facebook . this move backfired as the protest went out on the streets and a ‗day of rage‘ was decided as the day the civil war would commence on the 17th of February 2011. when the Government shut down the internet. audio. RSS feeds.
How did social media help create and sustain a revolution? .
from ordinary people ―on the ground‖.Social media facilitates the conveyance of information in an important new way. Social media spreads the capacity to document human rights abuses beyond the mainstream media and nongovernment organisations in the many parts of the globe now reached by the internet. .
Social media amplifies the message of those connected. . and publicises that information in its primary form. a ―whistleblower‖ website which solicits information. An important new vista in access to information has arisen on the internet outside the social media field with the advent of Wikileaks. on its site and in partnership with various newspapers around the world. including classified information. largely but not totally unredacted.
. It helps people analyze government statements. I acts as a Counter rumour or propaganda tool. Organizes the rise of civil society and active citizenship. Social media aided in Grassroots mobilization.A reaction from people is bound to get amplified in a case where relevant sites are blocked by certain repressive States.
What could have been the reason it worked .
a social construct was created in the virtual space which lead to a mass uprising as people could identify with the creators of the revolution in the virtual spaces and their discontent which was the same as masses. A social construction (also called a social construct) is a concept or practice that is the construct (or artefact) of a particular group. In the context of the Arab Spring and Social media. .Social Constructionist Theory Social constructionism is a sociological theory of knowledge that considers how social phenomena or objects of consciousness develop in social contexts. It was the social construction of a reality.
and before anyone could imagine through the spread of information online and videos going viral. mentions how in a system where communication is involved at such a large scale it is bound to spread at a rapid rate through a system wherein the information spreads from one to many and from each of those many to a further number. it turned into a massive revolution.Denis McQuail. . In the Arab Spring. It creates a trickle down effect. the protest started with a little spark. ‘One-toMany’ Denis McQuail in his theory of Mass Communication.
Skeptics Argue Otherwise .
.Malcolm Gladwell One prominent sceptic regarding the role of social media in progressive social and political change is the New Yorker’s Malcolm Gladwell. He argues in an article published in October 2010 that real social change is brought about by high risk meaningful activism.
require little effort.Social media connections promote weak ties and low risk activism. Successful activism requires strategic hierarchies. or the retweeting of a story. so called ‗slacktivism‘. . with a careful and precise allocation of tasks. The ―liking‖ of something on Facebook. yet might lull the protagonists into thinking they are doing something meaningful.
perhaps by deluding them into thinking that they are in fact changing things when all they are probably doing is adapting within the existing status quo. Social media is a conservative force in promoting activism as it distracts people from ―real‖ activism. they have real difficulty reaching consensus and setting goals. .Networks don‘t have a centralized leadership structure and clear lines of authority.
it may also generate shallower and shorter conversations which are easily displaced by the next new ―big thing‖.While social media may create quicker and louder conversations. .
com www.al-jazeera.in www.com Social Media.com www.google.com www.com www.Sarah Joseph Social Media in the Arab World.com www.wikileaks.washingtonpost.neteffect.com www.References www.sociologicalimages.co.wikipedia.libyaliveblog. Human Rights and Political Change.Jeffry Ghannam Various Facebook pages and Blogs .
Media and Conflict
Media , conflict and war are deeply interconnected. People learn about conflict and violence through media. Media not only informs us about conflict but helps to formulate public opinion.
This idea is linked with the normative theory of Social Responsibilty.
Keeping in mind the social responsibility media model, the media can and the media has played a very important role during conflicts. Despite the fact that numerous media theories state that the media has a social responsibility towards the society in reality the dual-nature of media hinders its social purpose. Dual-nature of media creates numerous filters that decide what will make news. 'If it bleeds, it leads'
News which will grab eyeballs makes it to the front page. ―Conflict and violence make news as news is perceived as what‘s exciting and different. News is what will be in sync with the political economy of media. Media owners remain more inclined to make money by capitalizing on tensions and conflict. Bad news is good news
Immediacy. The basic criterion of news value helps cover conflict extensively. But they are not the most important players. simplicity. drama. impact and ethnocentrism etc. News media are important actors in conflict. They react to events rather than initiate them. .
. It‘s a catchall phrase Postulates that the development of 24hour international television news channels have a major impact on the conduct of a country‘s foreign policy . Media images fire public opinion and demand immediate action from the government.CNN Effect Defines the nexus between media power and foreign policy.
1. . 2. The strength/ power has increased with the arrival of new technology. Helps shape and reshape the foreign policy. The strength of the fourth estate has an impact on the government. The media may function alternately or simultaneously as a policy agenda-setting agent. 3. an impediment to the achievement of desired policy goals. and an accelerant to policy decision making.
24/7 media has radically altered the way foreign policy is conducted. It has also destroyed the concept of a "news cycle." .
Myths It makes life more difficult for foreign policy makers.CNN effect. . Pictures of suffering force officials to intervene. It dictates what's on the foreign policy agenda. There is nothing officials can do about the CNN Effect.
of the last century.TIME Magazine . It was established on March 3.both written and photographic. 1923. . Though it is a weekly magazine special commemorative issues are also published to mark special events. TIME has documented a comprehensive history. Termed as the world‘s most influential magazine.History Time is the world's largest weekly news magazine with a domestic audience of 20 million and a global audience of 25 million.
TIME has eight International Editions in more than 150 countries. Asian edition (Time Asia) is based in Hong Kong. The magazine is dominated by Republican point of view TIME stories often also have a strong point of view but reflect open-minded reporting rather than partisan biases. Based in New York City. .
Few reporters.Liam Fitzpatrick Associate Editors. . mostly guest columnists and contributors. Emily Rauhala TIME US and ASIA mostly publish the same articles.Krista Mahr. The editorial staff is heavily dominated by westerners.TIME ASIA.Editorial Asia Editor.Zoher Abdoolcarim Senior Editor.
Inbox Briefings World Cover Story Features Editorial 10 Questions .Structure of the Magazine A single photograph dominates the cover.
Number of Stories Cover Stories 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 3 Cover Stories 1 Arab Spring Libya Tunisia .
Month Wise 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Arab Spring Tunisia Libya .
Inbox. World 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 INBOX Briefing World . Briefing.
Photographs60 50 40 Feature Cover 30 20 10 0 Arab Spring Libya Tunisia Spread Full Page Half Others Black & White .
Month Wise Photographs 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Photographs .
From role model to Authoritarian . no till Jan 24. editorials. The change in terminology used to describe the Tunisian dictator. World and then moves on to features.Conclusion Though the event broke out in Dec. cover stories. First covered in briefings.
Similar terms used to describe the regime of Hosini Mobarak and his supporters. . TIME states that it is a revolution and not an evolution(Feb 14) ―The Islamists have won‖. A stark difference between how Gaddafi‘s regime is described and that of US‘s allies. (Nov 7) The role of US has constantly been highlighted in bringing democracy.
The use of black and white and red. Sep5) Similar tactics that were employed in Iraq and Afghanistan were used to justify the NATO intervention (women. From small thumbnails to photo features. While describing the Arab world stereotypes have been used (Nov 7. democracy). Photographs have been used extensively to explain the Arab Spring. .
. of articles and photographs in the months preceding and immediately following the NATO intervention. Max no.
In Libya journalists started getting access into those areas which were controlled by the rebels. Not used to express alternative views Journalists were not given the permission to enter countries where Arab Spring took place. .owned media houses. thus media used by government. State.Problems faced by the Media Authoritarian governments rarely have any free media.
more regional than international.Jazeera received flak for not reporting much on Bahrain.revolution Al. . Al.Jazeera was the only channel that constantly and consistently reported about the Arab springright from Dec. Despite being pro. (Qatari) Barely any academic work on the role of international media in the Arab spring. It had easier access.
Created by: Namrata Tibrewal (history & background) Manira Chaudhary (aftermath & implications) Anubha Sarkar (military intervention) Arushi Kapoor (role of social media) Akanksha Narain (media coverage) .
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