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Structural Design of Mat

Foundation
Conventional Rigid Method:
Step1: Calculate the total column load

Step2: Determine the pressure on the soil (q)


below the mat at point A, B, Cby using the
equation

Step 3: Compare the values of the soil


pressures determine in step 2 with the net
allowable soil pressure to check if q<qall(net)
Step 4: Divide the mat into several strips in X
and Y direction. Let the width of any strip be
B1.
Step 5: Draw the shear and moment diagrams
for each individual strip in X and Y direction.

Step 6: determine depth of the mat d. This can


be done by checking for diagonal tension
shear near various column. According to ACI
Code 318-95(section 11.122.1c). For critical
section

Step 7: from the moment diagrams of all strips


in a given direction (that is X or Y), obtain the
maximum positive and negative moments per
unit width M=M/B1

G
A

I
B=500KN

A=400KN

C=450KN

7m

Ix
L=1500KN

J=1200KN
K=1500KN
0.436m

7m

Iy

0.095m

G=1500KN

X'

I=1200KN
H=1500KN
7m

F=400KN

D=350KN
F

H
8m

E=500KN

J
8m

ex

Cu=
qu=
qall=
B=
L=
b=

25
128.5
42.83333
16.5
21.5
0.5

KPa
KPa
KPa
m
m
m

QA=
QB=
QC=
QD=
QE=
QF=

400
500
450
350
500
400

KN
KN
KN
KN
KN
KN

QG=

1500 KN

QH=

1500 KN

QI=

1200 KN

QJ=

1200 KN

QK=
QL=
SQ=

1500 KN
1500 KN
11000 KN

Q M y X M xY
q

A
Iy
Ix
A=BL=

354.75 m

1
3
Ix
BL
12

1
3
Iy
LB
12

Y '

13665.27 m

8048.391 m

Qi X i
X '
Q

7.813636 m

B
ex X '
2

-0.43636 m

M y Qe x

4800 KN.m

Q iY i
10.84545 m
Y '
Q
L
0.095455 m
e y Y '
2
M x Qe y 1050 KN.m

11.000 4800.x 1050.y


q

31.
354.75 8048 13665

11.000 4800.x 1050. y


q

31.0 0.6x 0.077yKPa


354.75 8048 13665

qA=

36.7778 Kpa

qB=

31.8278 KPa

qC=

26.8778 KPa

qD=

25.2223 KPa

qE=

30.1723 KPa

qF=

35.1223 KPa

The soil pressures at all point are less than the allowable bearing capacity
qall=

42.8333 Kpa

OK

Strip AGHF
qav=
(qA+qF)/2

35.95 Kpa

Total soil reaction qav.B1.L


Total column load on this strip
Average load
3542.4656
Modified average soil pressure
qav.modified=
38.768434
Factor modified column load
QA=
372.8911 KN
QL=
1398.342 KN
QG=
1398.342 KN
QF=
372.8911 KN
The load per unit beam is equal to

3284.93125 KN
3800 KN
KN
Kpa
F=

0.93223

164.766 KN

Strip GIJH
(qB+qE)/2
qav=
Total soil reaction

31 Kpa
qav.B1.L

Total column load on this strip

5332 KN
4000 KN

Average load
4666 KN
Modified average soil pressure
qav.modified=
27.128 Kpa
Factor modified column load F=
QB=
583.25 KN
QK=
1749.75 KN
QH=
1749.75 KN
QE=
583.25 KN
The load per unit beam is equal to

1.167

217 KN

Strip ICDJ
(qC+qD)/2
qav=

26.05 Kpa

Total soil reaction qav.B1.L


Total column load on this strip
Average load
2790.159
Modified average soil pressure
qav.modified=
30.53526
Factor modified column load

2380.32 KN
3200 KN
KN
Kpa
F=

QC=
392.3662 KN
QJ=
1046.31 KN
QI=
1046.31 KN
QD=
305.1737 KN
The load per unit beam is equal to

0.871925

129.775m KN

Shear on point
SA1=
41.19146 KN

0.25

SA2=

-331.7 KN

0.25

SL1=

821.6612 KN

7.25m

SL2=

-576.68 KN

7.25m

SG1=

576.6805 KN

14.25m

SG2=

-821.661 KN

14.25m

SF1=

331.6997 KN

21.25m

SF2=

-41.1915 KN

21.25m

Shear on point
SB1=
54.25581 KN

0.25

SB2=

-528.994 KN

0.25

SK1=

990.17m KN

7.25m

SK2=

-759.6m KN

7.25m

SH1=

759.58m KN

14.25m

SH2=

-990.2m KN

14.25m

SE1=

528.99m KN

21.25m

SE2=

-54.26m KN

21.25m

Shear on point
SC1=
32.4437 KN

0.25

SC2=

-359.92 KN

0.25

SJ1=

548.502 KN

7.25m

SJ2=

-497.81 KN

7.25m

SI1=

410.616 KN

14.25m

SI2=

-635.69 KN

14.25m

SD1=

272.73 KN

21.25m

SD2=

32.4437 KN

21.25m

Moment on point
X1=
2.013158 m
X2=

4.986842 m

MA=

5.148933 KN.m

Mmax(AL)=

-328.733 KN.m

ML=

1720.014 KN.m

X5=

3.5m

Mmax(LG)= 710.824m KN.m

X6=

3.5m

MG=

1720.014 KN.m

Mmax(GF)=

-328.733 KN.m

MF=

-5.14893 KN.m

X3=

2.01316m m

X4=

4.986842 m

Moment on point
X1=
2.4375 m
X2=
0.25 MB=
2.01316 Mmax(BK)=
7.25m MK=

4.5625m m
6.781977 KN.m
-637.93 KN.m
1620.892 KN.m

X5=

3.5m

10.75m Mmax(KH)=

291.62m KN.m

X6=

3.5m

14.25m MH=

1620.9m KN.m

17.75m Mmax(HE)=

-637.93 KN.m

21.25m X3=

2.4375m m

X4=

4.5625m m

ME=

-6.78198

Moment on point
X1=
2.77344 m
X2=

4.23 m

MC=

4.05546 KN.m

Mmax(CJ)=

-495.06 KN.m

MJ=
Mmax(JI)=
MI=

664.08 KN.m

X5=

3.84m

-290.70 KN.m

X6=

3.1641

358.91 KN.m

Mmax(ID)=

-282.52 KN.m

X3=

2.10156 m

X4=

4.89844 m

MD=

4.05546 KN.m

Shear diagram AF
1000
821.6612435

800
600

576.6804506

Strength(KN)

400

331.6996577

200
41.19146076

0
-200
-400
-600

10

15

-331.6996577
-576.6804506

-800

-821.6612435

-1000
Distance(m)

20

-41.19146076
25

Moment diagram AF
2000
1720.014483

1720.014483

Moment(KN.m)

1500

1000
710.8236945m
500
5.148932594

0
0

5
-328.7329597

-500
top steel

10

15

Bottom steel
Distance(m)

-5.148932594
20
25
-328.7329597

Top steel

Determination of the thickness of the Mat


bo= (0.5+d/2)+(0.5+d/2)+(0.5+d)=1.5+2d

Column load 1500KN

U=(bod)[f.0.34.f'c ]
U= 1.7 x 1500=
2.55 MN
2.55=(1.5+2d)(d)[(0.85)(0.34)(20.7)0.5]
0.5

0.5+d/2

(1.5+2d)d=1.94
0.5+d

2d2+1.5d-1.94=0
d=
0.68 m
minimum cover=
76 mm
steel bars=
25 mm
h= 0.781 m
We take
h=
0.8 m

Determination of Reinforcement
Maximum positive momement is located in strip AGHF
1720/B1=
M'=
404.706 KN.m/m
Maximum negative momement is located in strip GIJH
637.93/B1= 150.101 KN.m/m
M'=
Mu=M'(load factor)=fAsfy(d-a/2)
For the positive moment

Mu=(404.71)(1.7)=fAs(413.7*1000)(0.68-a/2)
688.007
=
351645 As(0.68-a/2)
0.00195654
=
As(0.68-a/2)

AS f y
0.85 f ' c b

413 .7 As.
=
(0.85 )( 20 .7)(1)

23.51As

or

As= 0.0425a

0.00195654

=
0.0425a(0.68-a/2)
=
0.0289a-0.02125a2
So
a=
0.07147
2
2
0.0289a-0.02125a -0.001957=0
As=
0.00304 m /m
-0.02125
As=
3037.58 mm2/m
0.0289
For steel D=25mm
A= 490.8739 mm2
-0.001957
So for spacing bars at 160 mm center to center
0.00066887
As provided= (490.874)(1000/160)=
3067.96 mm2/m
0.02586242
0.07147237

For the negative moment

Mu=(150.1)(1.7)=fAs(413.7*1000)(0.68-a/2)
255.172
=
351645 As(0.68-a/2)
0.00073
=
As(0.68-a/2)
Similarly
As=
0.0425a
0.000726
=
=

0.0425a(0.68-a/2)
2
0.0289a-0.02125a

0.0289a-0.02125a -0.00073=0
So
a= 0.02575
-0.02125
As=
0.00109 m2/m
0.0289
As=
1094.25 mm2/m
2
-0.00073
For steel D=25mm
A= 490.874 mm
0.00077
So for spacing bars at 300mm center to center
0.02781
As provided= (490.874)(1000/300)= 1963.5 mm2/m
a= 0.02575