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Scrum

3 Roles, 3 Ceremonies, 3 Artifacts, & 3 Best Practices


Speaker: Dan Mezick Email: info@newtechusa.com Phone: 203-234-1404 URL: NewTechUSA.com

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Agile ASAP- RoadMap PART1:


Quick Overview of Scrums ideas

PART2:
Three Roles Defined Three Ceremonies Defined Three Best Practices Defined

PART3:
Scrum in Practice

PART 4: Next Steps & Resources


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PART1: Quick Overview of Agile & Scrum The term Agile is an umbrella xP, Scrum, Test Driven Development (TDD) Agile is Empirical and Adaptive
Iterative

Waterfall is Predictive
Prediction is error prone; assumptions are snapshots that can expire over time

Agile is planning, with outs.

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The Case for a New Approach Huge number of statistics on FAILED PROJECTS Huge amounts of WASTE Systems are often NOT deployed to production Users and software developers are polarized Software is almost always delivered late Research shows clearly that software development IS NOT manufacturing

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Agile Software Development: What is It? The term Agile is an umbrella term It is xP: ExTreme programming (pairs) It is Scrum: A radical project management method It is Test Driven Development (TDD)

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Agile Software Development: What is It? Agile is EMPIRICAL and ADAPTIVE


Empirical: based on most recent experience Adaptive: responds to feedback

Agile is ITERATIVE
Iterative: Cuts processes and experience into small, manageable chunks

Agile is PLANNING with outs


A common misconception is that Agiles lack of prediction = lack of planning. This is WRONG.

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Empirical Process Overview Good for high-change, inherently unstable environments Terminology comes from industrial manufacturing theory Empirical approaches are adaptive.
Frequent Measurement Dynamic (adaptive) response

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Empiricism: Planning vs. Prediction

Empirical processes DO plan


But empirical processes DO NOT predict

KEY POINT: Planning is NOT prediction


Prediction is not planning
Prediction creates a comforting illusion

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Empirical Process vs. Defined Processes Teams have unique and complex human chemistry Organizations have a unique history and culture SOFTWARE IS COMPLEX. BUSINESS SOFTWARE DEFINITIONS ARE OFTEN VERY COMPLEX Complex tasks with unique 1-time objectives are best solved empirically (adapting to experiential feedback)
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Empirical Process vs. Defined Processes Empirical approach incorporates planning but not prediction
List all the likely tasks Prioritize some and define a first step Execute, and remain open to learning from experience
New tasks emerge, prioritize higher Others go lower in priority

Summarize findings
You have ability to pull plug quickly at low cost

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Defined Processes Defined approach incorporates planning AND prediction Works for well-understood solutions
Does not work so good for delivering software

Assumes your product is a repeatable thing


Example: manufacturing an automobile or part
Same thing over and over

You have no ability to pull plug quickly at low cost


Stopping the production line is expensive

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Defined Processes Defined approach incorporates planning AND prediction


List all the likely tasks Prioritize all, and define ALL of the steps, to the Nth degree
Define all predicted steps AND predicted detailed content of each step

Any experience is distorted to fit the plan


New tasks emerge: ignore them (not part of spec) Others go or higher lower in priority: ignore (plan is fixed)

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Defined Processes Definition of length and breath of steps becomes a goal.


Assumes all predictions are 100% accurate Long delay in finding out what is working Huge changes in assumed environment as a function of time.

You have no ability to pull plug quickly at low cost when using a Defined process such as predictive waterfall software development.

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Empirical vs. Defined Approach Defined approach pretends to define time and cost parameters. Actually this is a prediction. Defined approach provides illusion that all actors completely understand the problem. Defined approach provides illusion that all actors completely understand the solution space Defined approach tends to ignore new information that is generated as the actors focus on the work.
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Empirical vs. Defined Approach Empirical approach avoids prediction and instead creates a timebox for generating an iteration of experience
Using highly detailed measurement tools

Empirical approach assumes the whole problem cannot be understood up front Empirical approach assumes all actors learn more about the solution as part of experience Empirical approach incorporates new information as it becomes available
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Agile: Entrepreneurship Aspects Testing with small investment Probing for solutions Deferring irrevocable decisions till the last responsible moment. Self-organizing teams Managing risk relative to reward at all times

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Empiricism & Adaptation: Summary Software development is not manufacturing Software development is about creating 1 and only 1 instance of the product Teams are unique Technology changes Businesses change (mergers, new products etc) This is high-change, unstable setup that is IDEAL for using Empirical, adaptive approaches.
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Agile Development: What is It NOT?

Agile is NOT WATERFALL


Waterfall is Predictive Prediction can filter and distort reality Prediction is error prone
When new information comes in, that new info is often DISTORTED to fit the plan, rather than adapting the plan to the new information.

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Agile Development: What is It NOT?

Agile is NOT PREDICTION


Managing to a predicted outcome has several drawbacks Predicting time, money, effort works for well-understood, repeatable and relatively simple processes.
Manufacturing is a defined process Software development is a complex process

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Agile Development: What is It?


Agile confronts reality and does not pretend Agile radically redefines the Project Lead role. Agile radically redefines the Development Team role. Agile radically redefines the Product owner role.
What is the #1 cause of software development project failure?

Agile confronts the reality of software development


Coding business apps is easy Defining business apps is difficult.
Why?

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PART 2

Scrums 3 Roles, 3 Ceremonies and 3 Best Practices

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Scrums THREE ROLES

The actors in Scrum: Product Owner, Scrum master, Team. Product Owner: Own and prioritizes the Product Backlog Scrum Master: Facilitates the Scrum process
NOT a traditional Project Manager !!

Team: Produces Increments of Shippable Product Functionality


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Scrums THREE ROLES The Product Owner:


Defines and Prioritizes Features
Owns the gathering of requirements

Agrees to Iteration Ground Rules


Set length of calendar time for Sprint
(2,3,4 weeks typical)

Does not interfere with Sprint (no scope creep) Can pull the plug at any time (has the power) Honors rules and the Scrum process during Sprints

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Scrums THREE ROLES Scrum Master: A Boundary Manager


Supports the Team Facilitates the Daily Scrum meeting. Asks each developer:
What did you do yesterday? What are you doing today? What is in your way? Listens and watches carefully during Scrum meeting
Pays careful attention to non-verbal cues

Removes Impediments in Way of Team


Secures resources (monitors, rooms, etc)

Communicates to Product Owner


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Scrums THREE ROLES

The Team:
Participates in design
To gain understanding of problem/solution space

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Scrums THREE ROLES

The Team:
Selects subset of prioritized Product Backlog for Sprint commitment
Estimates the effort Fills the timebox with work Commits to the work as a team

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Scrums THREE ROLES

The Team:
Self organizes:
Everyone commits to ALL TASKS necessary during the Sprint Determines the nature of self-organization

Teams select work for each Sprint Teams self-organize Teams have a velocity

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Scrums THREE ROLES

Team Velocity: How much work the team can average per iteration, FOR THAT TEAM
Each time has a personality Each team is unique Teams velocity becomes very predictable over time

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Scrums THREE CEREMONIES Sprint Planning Daily Scrum Sprint Review (retrospective)

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Scrums THREE CEREMONIES Ceremony #1: Sprint Planning Meeting


Product Owner reviews:
Vision, Roadmap, Release Plan

Team reviews:
Estimates for each item on Backlog that is a candidate for the Sprint

Team pulls the work:


From the Product Backlog onto the Sprint Backlog

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Scrums THREE CEREMONIES


Ceremony #2: The Daily Scrum
By and for the Team Other may attend and NOT speak Team members speak, others listen Team stays on task with the 3 questions, divergences are addressed offline outside of this meeting Visibility, clear understanding on a day-by-ay basis

Product owners know the score on a daily basis


Can pull the plug at ANY time
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Scrums THREE CEREMONIES Ceremony #3: Sprint Review Meeting


Part 01: Product Demo
Led by Product Owner

Part 02: Sprint Retrospective


Led by Scrum Master What worked? What didnt? What adjustments can we make now?

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Scrums THREE ARTIFACTS Artifact #1: Product Backlog


A list of features, prioritized by business value Each feature has an associated estimate, provided by the ACTUAL team who will do the work Backlog items come in from diverse sources, including the Team

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Scrums THREE ARTIFACTS Artifact #2: Sprint Backlog


Topmost subset of the Product Backlog, loaded onto the Sprints timebox Usually has more detail attached, including planned hours and primary person responsible to do the work during the Sprint Is the list of work the Team is addressing during the current Sprint

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Scrums THREE ARTIFACTS Artifact #3: Burndown Chart


Provides visibility into the Sprint Illustrates progress by the team Work on the Horizontal, Time on the Vertical

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Scrums THREE ARTIFACTS Sample BurnDown Chart

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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Best Practice #1: User Stories


Plain-english requirements, written on common 3X5 index cards Form: As [a type of user] I want to [perform a specific action] such that [result] Example: As a web user, I want to make a reservation, such that I may secure my lodging Stories that are big are called EPICS Acceptance criteria goes on card back
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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Best Practice #2: Planning Poker


A way for the team to do estimates Each participant has cards numbered 1,2,3,5,8,13,21 Values represent story points of effort Players discuss feature, then throw down a card together Differences are noted and discussed, then process repeats till a concensus estimate is formed
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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Best Practice #3: Use of the Scrum Board
Scrum Board is a rows-and-columns depictions of work-in-progress Items of work are rows, work status labels are columns Work is addressed from top to bottom Work migrates from left to right on the board

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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Sample Use of the Scrum Board

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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Sample Use of the Scrum Board

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Scrum THREE BEST PRACTICES Sample Use of the Scrum Board

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PART 4: Applying Scrum Managing a Release is managing tradeoffs in:


Cost Date Quality Functionality

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Agile Software Development Best Practices Co-location of entire development team in one lab Co-location or CLOSE proximity to Product Owner
Or delegate

Engaged Product Owner or Delegate


Team needs answers in 15 minutes

Daily Scrum

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Agile Software Development Best Practices Daily build


Implies a deep testing infrastructure Daily build encourages fast development
Developers know it will be tested NOW

Self-organizing Team Team involved in design stage


Builds understanding of problem and perception of the solution space

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Essential Web Sites AgileAlliance.org


National organization of Agile leaders

Agile2007.org (www.Agile2006.org)
Annual conference

controlchaos.com
Scrum defined

danube.com
Scrumworks

newtechusa.com/agile/blog
My blog

shmula.com/183/12-questions-with-marypoppendieck
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Mythical Man-Month By Fred Brooks

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AgileSoftware by Schwaber & Beedle

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Agile Estimating by Mike Cohn

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Agile PM with Scrum by Schwaber

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Implementing Lean by Poppendieck

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Thanks !

Speaker: Dan Mezick Email: info@newtechusa.com Phone: 203-234-1404 URL: NewTechUSA.com

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