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Guide: Ms. Shipra Asst. Professor, MAE dept.

BY: Bhawna Kumar (0611353608) Himani Rai (0591353608) Kanika Gajmoti (0111353608) Sanauwer Iqubal (0771353608)

FIELD OF WORKING
Our project aims at working on designing of a system
that concentrates on following factors: 1. utilizing the kinetic energy produced by the suspension movement of a vehicle due to the bumps on roads to charge the battery.

2. Utilizing the solar energy.


3. Utilizing the energy produced by sound or noise.

Origin of idea
Varoius electrical energy sources.
Other renewable energy resources. How to utilize the force and movement of a moving vehicle.

Basic Kinetic energy recovery system in basic hybrid vehicle

Principle
Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but

can be converted from one form of energy to another form. Utilization of linear motion of rack. Utilization of solar energy.

Working of a car suspension system

Theory
Coil springs
Rack and pinion Dynamo

Solar panel
Axle Battery

Springs
flexible links that allow the frame and the body to ride

relatively undisturbed while the tires and suspension follow the bumps in the road. support the weight of the vehicle, maintain ride height, and absorb road shock. Types: 1. coil springs 2. leaf springs 3. torsion bar 4. air springs

Hellical coil spring


Used in most of the rear suspension systems.
Materials used:Oil-tempered wire 0.60-0.70 of carbon. Cold drawn if wire dia.<10mm.

Type of spring considered: Open coiled

compression helical spring.

Spring specifications

Rear suspension axle load = 733.5 kg Unsprung mass=35 kg Sprung mass=331.75 kg Spring ratio=spring travel/wheel travel=0.8(standard) No. of coils,N=11 No. of active coils,n=9 Modulus of rigidity,G=80MPa. Bump length= 134.23mm Mean coil dia.=81.11mm Wire dia=10.91mm Spring constant,C=7.437(target 4<C<10) Stress concentration factor,k=1.186 Spring rate=28.13 N/mm Wire length=2752.26mm Spring mass=2.018 kg (approx.) Free length= 378.9mm Solid length=111.8mm(open end coil) Maximum deflection per coil=28.88mm(estimated) Stress solid=1419.38 N/mm^2 Stress range(working)=977.75 N/mm^2

Rack and pinion arrangement


Linear actuators that comprises a pair of gears which convert

rotational motion into linear motion and vice-versa. Materials used: Metallic materials: cast iron, steel and bronze. Non-metallic materials :wood, rawhide, compressed paper and synthetic resins like nylon. Specifications : rack width=50mm pinion dia.=30 mm tooth thickness=5mm pressure angle=20 (standard) no. of teeth=24

fig. rack and pinion arrangement attached with dynamometer

Dynamo
Principle :The generation of electricity by a dynamo is

based on a principle of magnetism called induction. When the lines of force that pass from the north to the south pole of a magnet are cut by a wire there is produced or induced in the wire a current of electricity. Purpose of using : the dynamo is connected to the pinion with a shaft which gives rotation to armature and d.c. is produced.

Solar panel
generate and supply electricity in commercial and

residential applications.

a solar panel fixed on a car model.

How solar panels work in asystem?


changes energy from sunlight into electricity. Electricity travels through a wire to the battery of the

system. Electrical energy charges the battery. Used to run the drive shaft of the system.

CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR CELLS


These are usually made from semi-conductors like

silicon, galium and selenium. Wafer (think layer) of semi-conductor materials are arranged in such a way that when the light falls on them, a potential difference is produced between the two regions of wafer. When the sunlight falls on wafer of selenium, it is converted into electricity due to emission of electrons. Potential difference produced by a single solar cell of 4 sq. cm size is about 0.4 volts.

Solar Radiations

Ctric Current

Boron Major impurity

Flow of Electrons

Arsenic Major impurity

CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR CELLS

Assembled view of the design:

References
United state patent application US2010/0006362 Vehicle Regenerative suspension. Suda, Y., Shiba, T.: New hybrid suspension system with active control and energy

regeneration. Vehicle Syst. Dyn. Suppl. 25, 641654 (1996) Gerald L. Larson, Fort Wayne, IN(US); Paul W. OMalley, Fort Wayne, IN(US) Engine Based Kinetic Energy Recovery System For Vehicles 10/771,059. Jimm C.K.Chang, Kinetic Energy Reclaiming System for Vehicle United States Patent; 4798053.

www.wikipedia.org www.howstuffworks.com www.carsbible.com www.scribd.com www.ssponline.blogspot.com www.siliconsolar.com www.sciencedirect.com