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COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

SHOP FLOOR CONTROL

BY: MOHAMED NAEEM


HEAD CONSULTING KINGSLAKE acmnaeem@gmail.com

CONTENTS
What is shop floor control?

Order release module


Order scheduling module Order progress module Factory data collection systems Data input techniques Automatic identification methods

Shop Floor Control


This includes, Releasing production orders to the factory Controlling the progress of orders through various work centers Acquiring current information about order status Simply it is managing the work in process.

Shop Floor Control


Shop floor control is part of the factory information control system as shown below:
MPS, MRP, CRP System

Shop floor control

Raw Materials

Factory Processes

Finished Product

Shop Floor Control


There are three modules of a typical shop floor control system Order release module Order scheduling module Order progress module

Shop Floor Control

Order Release Module


Provides the documentation needed to process production through out the factory. The document includes, Route sheet Material requisition note Job cards to report labour time / record progress of job Move tickets authorization of movements between work centers Part list for assembly purposes

Order Release Module


Two inputs to order release module are, Authorization to produce (derived from various planning functions MPS, MRP, CRP etc.) Product structure and process planning information (from engineering and manufacturing database)

Order Scheduling Module


Assigning the production orders to the various work

centers in the plan Provides information about relative priorities of different jobs. Two problems are expected to be solved by this module, The machine loading problem what are the machines to be loaded The job sequencing problem in what order the jobs to be routed.

Order Scheduling Module..


There are several priority basis used in scheduling Earliest due date Shortest processing time Least slack time (slack = difference between the time remaining until due date and the processing time remaining) Critical Ratio lowest critical ratio first (Critical Ratio = time remaining until due date / process time remaining) Priorities are changed due to,
Change in demand Equipment break down Cancellation of an order

Defective raw materials

Order Progress Module


Monitors the status of the various orders in the plant

Provide useful information to manage factory based on

collected data Main reports used are,


Work order status report current work center, remaining

hours, job is on schedule or not. Progress reports how many orders completed, not completed etc. Exception reports deviation from schedules over due jobs etc.

Factory Data Collection Systems


This consists of paper documents, terminals and other

automatic data collecting devices located in the shop floor. Such data includes
Completed quantity at each work center

Direct labour time expended


Parts that are scrapped Parts requiring re-work Equipment down time

Factory Data Collection Systems..


The collection method could be on line or batch. In an on line system,
Availability of current data Changes in the shop floor is immediately updated Real time

In off line system / batch system,


Delay in data processing Not real time information Off line systems are easy to implement

Data Input Techniques Manual Process


The techniques include manual documents: Job traveler
Documents move with the order Recording labour time Quantity completed / scrap etc.

Current information is difficult to get since it travels with the job

Employee time sheets


Each sheet /worker Work details for the day

Order number, operation number (as per route sheet)


Completed quantity, hours spent per day

Data Input Techniques Manual Process..


Operation tear strips
Pre-printed tear strips can easily be separated from shop

packet Operation completion / shift completion time, information such as time, quantity completed are recorded and sent to the office.

Pre-punched Cards
Similar to tear strips Order data available Production data are entered

Data Input Techniques Computer Terminal


Accuracy is an issue in the previous method and therefore, key board based terminals could be used for this purpose. This includes, One centralized terminal Satellite terminals Workstation Terminals

Data Input Techniques Computer Terminal..


One centralized terminal
Single terminal located centrally in the plant Workers walk to the place to feed data Not a convenient method for bigger plants Loss in workers productive time

Satellite terminal
Multiple data collection terminals Number of terminals is decided based on the trade off between

investment and inconvenient of workers movement

Work station terminal


Data collection terminal at each work station Worker movement time can be avoided Justified when number of data to be collected is more

Automatic Identification Method (AIM)


Sensor based methods that provides a means of

reading data that are coded. Computer system interpret and process data Reasons for using AIM are
Accuracy of data collection

Reduce time required to feed data to computers

Automatic Identification Method (AIM)


The technologies available are,
Barcodes widely used method Radio Frequency Signals similar to those used in wireless

television transmission, but the communication in two directions. Magnetic stripes attached to product Optical character recognition readable by optical sensor device. Accuracy is lesser than the barcode method. Machine vision system for automated inspection activities identification based on geometry of the product.

Bar Code Technology


This became popular method in retail sales and factory data

collection system. Bar code consists of thick and narrow coloured bars separated by thick and narrow spaces. Bar code reader scan decode the sequence of bars The light emitted by the reader recognizes the bars and the spaces. Then this is converted to electrical signals as shown.

Bar Code Readers


Contact bar code readers These are hand held wands or light pens The tip must touch the barcode or it must be very closer to it. Mostly used on factory data collection system. It allows worker to input data using the barcode and some

strokes of a key board.

Bar Code Readers


Non-contact barcode readers A light beam is used to read The reader probe is located in certain distance from the

barcode. Two classifications fixed beam and moving beam Fixed beam mounted beside the conveyors, the barcode passes the beam and reading happens. This is used in warehousing and material handling operation with larger volumes. Moving beam use a highly focus beam of light, lasers are often used to have highly focused beam. A scan is defined a single sweep of the light beam through the angular path. This can be stationary or portable.

Bar Code Readers Moving Beam-Stationary

Bar Code Readers Moving Beam-Portable

Application of Bar Code in Production


Production worker just scan to bar code to indicate operation completion in the route sheet.

We have learnt
What is shop floor control?

Order release module


Order scheduling module Order progress module

Factory data collection systems


Data input techniques Automatic identification methods