Zoomlng and shrlnkage

W 1hls Loplc ls relaLed Lo lmage sampllng and
quanLlzaLlon because zoomlng may be vlewed
as over sampllng (lnLerpolaLlon)ţ whlle
shrlnklng may be vlewed as under sampllng
(declmaLlon)Ŧ
W Zoomlng requlres Lwo sLepsť
Lhe creaLlon of new plxel locaLlonsţ and
1he asslgnmenL of gray levels Lo Lhose new
locaLlonsŦ
W 1ypes of zoomlng
W nearesL nelghbor lnLerpolaLlon Ŵ look for Lhe closesL plxel ln Lhe
W orlglnal lmage and asslgn lLs gray level Lo Lhe new plxel ln Lhe
grldŦ
W Þlxel repllcaLlon Ŵ Þlxel repllcaLlon ls appllcable when we wanL Lo
lncrease Lhe slze of an lmage an lnLeger number of LlmesŦ
W 8lllnear lnLerpolaLlon Ŷ A sllghLly more sophlsLlcaLed way of
accompllshlng grayŴlevel asslgnmenLs ls blllnear lnLerpolaLlon
uslng Lhe four nearesL nelghbors of a polnLŦ
LeL (x'ţ y') denoLe Lhe coordlnaLes of a polnL ln Lhe zoomed lmage
(Lhlnk of lL as a polnL on Lhe grld descrlbed prevlously)ţ and leL v(xƌţyƌ)
denoLe Lhe gray level asslgned Lo lLŦ lor blllnear lnLerpolaLlonţ Lhe
asslgned gray level ls glven by
v(xƌţ y') ƹ axƌ + byƌ + cxƌyƌ + d
where Lhe four coefflclenLs are deLermlned from Lhe four equaLlons
ln four unknowns LhaL can be wrlLLen uslng Lhe four nearesL
nelghbors of polnL (x'ţ yƌ)Ŧ
W mage shrlnklng ls done ln a slmllar manner as
[usL descrlbed for zoomlngŦ 1he equlvalenL
process of plxel repllcaLlon ls rowŴcolumn
deleLlonŦ
lasslflcaLlon of dlglLal lmages
W 8asLer lmage
Lxamples Ŵ Scanned graphlcs and web graphlcs
8esoluLlon dependenL
an be obLalned by opLlcal scannersţ dlglLal
cameras and oLher rasLer lmaglng devlces
Loose lLs quallLy lf lL ls enlarged
ommon rasLer lmage formaLs 8MC (wlndows
blLmap)ţ ÞO(palnLbrush)ţ 1ll(Lag lnLerleave formaL)ţ
!ÞLC ([olnL phoLographlcs experL group)ţ Cl (graphlcs
lnLerchange formaL)ţ ÞnC(porLable neLwork graphlcs)ţ
ÞS (Adobe ÞhoLoshop) and Þ1 (corel phoLopalnL)
W IecLor lmages
eflned by ob[ecLs whlch are made of llnes and
curves LhaL are maLhemaLlcally deflned ln Lhe
compuLer
IecLor can have dlfferenL aLLrlbuLes such as llne
Lhlcknessţ lengLh and colorŦ
Laslly scalable (lŦeŦ prlnLable ln any slze)
SulLable for Lypographyţ llne arL and lllusLraLlonsŦ
lglLal lmage Lypes
W 8lnary/ black and whlLe lmage
1ake only Lwo values lŦeŦ elLher '0' or '1'Ŧ
used Lo exLracL geomeLrlc properLles of ob[ecLs
such as locaLlon of Lhe cenLrold of Lhe ob[ecL or
orlenLaLlon of Lhe ob[ecLŦ
W Crayscale lmage
Crayscale conLaln only brlghLness lnformaLlonŦ
Lach plxel corresponds Lo quanLlLy or amounL of
llghLŦ
8rlghLness graduaLlon can be dlfferenLlaLed
8ŴblL grayscale lmage wlll have brlghLness
varlaLlon form 0 Lo 233 where 233 represenLs
WP1L and 0 represenLs 8LAŦ
W olor lmages
1hree values per plxelţ Lhey measure lnLenslLy and
chromlnance of llghLŦ
ommon color spaces are
W 8C8 (8edţ Creen and 8lue)
W PSI (Pueţ SaLuraLlonţ Ialue)
W M? (yanţ MagenLaţ ?ellowţ 8lack)
8epresenLed by Lhree separaLe lmage
represenLaLlons called colot plooes
Þlxel value ln each plane corresponds Lo Lhe
lnLenslLy of a cerLaln color aL speclflc polnL ln Lhe
lmage
W Iolume lmages
3 lmage
an be obLalned form some medlcl lmgaelng
equlpmenLs
ndlvldual daLa polnL called oxels (volume plxels)Ŧ
A1 (compuLer axlal Lomography)scan
W 8ange lmages
Lach plxel expresses Lhe dlsLance beLween a know
reference frame and a vlslble polnL ln Lhe screenŦ
L reproduces Lhe 3 sLrucLure of a sceneŦ
Also referred as depLh lmages
W MulLlspecLral lmages
mages of Lhe same ob[ecL Laken aL dlfferenL
bands of vlslble or lnfrared reglons
mages acqulred ln remoLe senslng appllcaLlons
8aslc relaLlonshlps ln plxels
W nelghbors of plxel (n

(Þ))
W onnecLlvlLy
1o esLabllsh lf Lwo plxels are connecLedţ lL musL be
deLermlned lf Lhey are nelghbors and lf Lhelr gray
levels saLlsfy a speclfled crlLerlon of slmllarlLyŦ
lor lnsLanceţ ln a blnary lmage wlLh values 0 and
1ţ Lwo plxels may be 4Ŵnelghborsţ buL Lhey are
sald Lo be connecLed only lf Lhey have Lhe same
valueŦ
W Ad[acency
4Ŵad[acency Ŵ 1wo plxels p and q wlLh values from
I are 4Ŵad[acenL lf q ls ln Lhe seL n
4
(p)Ŧ
8Ŵad[acency Ŵ 1wo plxels p and q wlLh values from
I are 8Ŵad[acenL lf q ls ln Lhe seL n
8
(p)Ŧ
mŴad[acency (mlxed ad[acency) Ŵ 1wo plxels p and
q wlLh values from I are mŴad[acenL lf
W (l) q ls ln n
4
(p)ţor
W (ll) q ls ln n

(p) and Lhe seL n
4
(p) Πn
4
(q) has no plxels
whose values are from IŦ
W 8eglon
LeL 8 be a subseL of plxels ln an lmageŦ We call 8 a
reglon of Lhe lmage lf 8 ls a connecLed seLŦ
W 8oundary
1he boundary (also called border or conLour) of a
reglon 8 ls Lhe seL of plxels ln Lhe reglon LhaL have
one or more nelghbors LhaL are noL ln 8Ŧ
Þlxel dlsLance measuremenL
W lor plxels pţ qţ and zţ wlLh coordlnaLes (xţ y)ţ
(sţ L)ţ and (vţ w)ţ respecLlvelyţ ls a dlsLance
funcLlon or meLrlc lf
(a) žpţ q) ƹƽ 0 ((pţq)ƹ0 lff p ƹ q)ţ
(b) (pţq) ƹ(qţp)
(c) (pţz) ƹƼ(pţq) +(qţz)Ŧ
W Luclldean dlsLance
1he Luclldean dlsLance beLween p and q ls deflned
as e(pţq) ƹ ż(xŴs)
2
+ (yŴL)
2
Ž
1/2
Ŧ
W
4
dlsLance
1he 4 dlsLance (also called clLyŴblock dlsLance)
beLween p and q ls deflned as
4(pţq) ƹ |xŴs| + |yŴL|
W 1he 8 dlsLance (also called chessboard
dlsLance) beLween p and q ls deflned as
8(pţq) ƹ max(|x Ŷ s|ţ |y Ŷ L|)
mage Lransforms
W 8aslcally Lhere are Lwo reasons for
Lransformlng an lmage from one
represenLaLlon Lo anoLher
1ransformaLlon may lsolaLe crlLlcal componenLs of
Lhe lmage paLLern so LhaL Lhey are dlrecLly
accesslble for analyslsŦ
Þlace Lhe lmage daLa ln more compacL form so
LhaL Lhey can be sLored and LransmlLLed
efflclenLlyŦ

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