Skin and Body Membranes

Human Anatomy and Physiology Mr. McCammon

I. Classification of Body Membranes

Epithelial Membranes include the cutaneous membrane (skin) and the mucus membranes, and the serous membranes.  Always combined with an underlying layer of connective tissue.  That‟s why it is considered an organ.

I. Classification of Body Membranes

Cutaneous Membrane
– This is your skin. – Composed of keratinizing stratified squamous

epithelium. – Underlying dermis is dense (fibrous) connective tissue. – Exposed to air and is dry.

– Always moist because they are continually bathed in secretions.I. – Lines all the cavities that open to the exterior such as respiratory. Classification of Body Membranes  Mucous membranes (or mucosa) – composed of epithelium (the type varies from site to site) resting on a loose connective tusse membrane called a lamina propria. . digestive. urinary. and reproductive tracts.

– Line the body cavities that are closed to the exterior (except for the dorsal body cavities and joint cavities) – Occur in pairs – parietal layer lines a specific portion of the wall of the ventral body cavity and folds in on itself to form the viseral layer with covers the outside of the organs in that cavity.I. . Classification of Body Membranes  Serous Membranes (serosa) – Layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.

Classification of Body Membranes  The serous layers are separated by a clear fluid called serous fluid.  Important to decrease friction by moving organs (heart.I. stomach)  Some serous membranes – Peritoneum – abdominal cavity – Pleura – around the lungs – Pericardium – around the heart .

 Contain small sacs of connective tissue called bursae and tubelike tendon sheaths – both cushion organs moving against each other during muscle activity. .I. Classification of Body Membranes  Synovial membranes are composed of connective tissue and contain no epithelial cells at all.  Line the fibrous capsules surrounding joints where they provide a smooth surface and secrete a lubricating fluid.

sweat and oil – – – – glands. hairs. The Integumentary System  The Skin – Includes cutaneous membrane.II. and nails External body covering Keeps water and other molecules in the body. Keeps and other things out Pliable yet tough .

 .II.  The structure of the skin. – Epidermis Stratified epithelium – becomes keratinizing (hard and tough) – Dermis  Dense connective tissue  Both connected tightly until a burn or friction causes a blister. The Integumentary System  Study chart on page 95.

II. – Shock absorber and protected from temperature changes. but does anchor the skin to the underlying organs. – Makes you „curvy‟ . The Integumentary System  Deep down in the skin is the subcutaneous tissue or hypodermis – Basically adipose tissue – Not considered part of this skin.

. granulosum. lucidum. basale.  They are avascular  Most cells are keratinocytes (produce fibrous protein that makes the epidermis tough.  Deepest layer is stratum basale lies closes to the dermis and contains the only cells that receive adequate nourishment via diffusion from the dermis.  The Epidermis in Detail – 5 zones (layers) called strata  In order. spinosum.II. corneum. The Integumentary System  KNOW THE DIAGRAM ON PAGE 96.

feet)  Stratum corneum makes up ¾ of our body.II. The Integumentary System  Cells from the stratum basale are constantly dividing and pushed up to become part of the epidermis. .  Stratum lucidum only occurs where the skin is hairless and extra thick (palms.  Constant replaced – New epidermis every 25-45 days.

The Integumentary System Melanin – yellow to brown pigment is produced by cells called melanocytes found in the stratum basale.  Melanin forms a protective shield from sunlight so it doesn‟t affect genetic material.  Freckles and moles are where melanin is concentrated in one spot.II.  .  Sunlight stimulates melanin production causes tanning.

.  It can cause the elastic fibers to clump and lead to leathery skin.II.  Black people seldom have skin cancer because melanin is an effective shield against it. Integumentary System  Excessive exposure can lead to skin cancer.

stretchy envelope that helps to hold the body together. – Two regions  Papillary layer  reticular layer .II. The Integumentary System  The Dermis – Your „hide‟ – strong. Leather goods are just treated dermis of animals.

II. . – On hands and feet papillae are arranged in patterns to enhance gripping ability. The Integumentary System  The Papillary Layer is the upper dermal region – Uneven with finger like projections called dermal papillae – Contain capillary loops which nourish the epidermis – Pain receptors touch Meissner‟s corpuscles.

blood vessels. deep pressure sensors called Pacinian corpuscles – Collagen and elastic fibers make it tough – Restrictions of blood in the dermis results in cell death and causes Decubitus ulcers (bedsores) . sweat and oil glands.II. The Integumentary System  Reticular layer – Deepest layer – Contains seat.

II. The Integumentary System  Skin Color – The amount and kind of melanin in the dermis – The amount of carotene deposited in the stratum corneum (carotene is an orange yellow pigment – The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin (pigment in red blood cells) .

II.  Then hemoglobin is poorly oxygenated the skin can become blue (cyanosis) – common during heart failure and breathing disorders .  Light skinned people (caucasian) people have less melanin and have a crimson color due to oxygen-rich blood. The Integumentary System  People with lots of melanin have browntoned skin.

hypertension.II. The Integumentary System  Skin color – Redness or erythema – may indicate embarrassment (blushing). or allergy. anger. low blood pressure. stress. impaired blood flow – Jaundice or yellow cast – liver problems – Bruises or black-and-blue marks – sites where blood has escaped from circulation and has clotted in the tissue spaces – called hematomas . – Pallor or blanching – becoming pale – fear. fever. inflammation. anemia.

The Appendages of the Skin Cutaneous glands – all exocrine glands that release their secretions to the skin surface via ducts.  Two groups  – Sebaceous glands – Sweat glands  Form in Stratum basale but push lower into the dermis .III.

 .  Sebum is the name of the oil – mixture of oil and fragmented cells that keep the hair and skin moist. Appendages of the Skin Sebaceous (oil) glands – found all over the body except palms of hands and feet.III. Kills bacteria  Increase in male hormones increase sebum during adolescence. but some open directly onto the skin.  Most open onto a hair follicle.

III.  . Appendages of the Skin If a sebaceous gland‟s duct becomes blocked by sebum a whitehead forms. If the whitehead dries it becomes a blackhead.  Acne is an active infection of the sebaceous glands  Severe acne results in scarring of the skin.

5 million per person  Two types  – Eccrine – Apocrine . Appendages of the Skin Sweat Glands – Sudoriferous glands  Can be as many as 2.III.

vitamin C. ammonia.  They secrete sweat when the external or body temperature is high.III. . and lactic acid (which attracts mosquitoes)  Sweat is acidic (ph 4-6) which kills bacteria  Reaches the skin by a funnel-shaped pore. uric acid. urea. salt. Appendages of the Skin  Eccrine glands – More numerous – Produce seat  Water.

Appendages of the Skin  When the sweat evaporates.III. . Maintaining body temp.  On a hot day the body can lose 7 liters of water per day. cooling the body. is very important to homeostasis. it carries heat with it.  A few degrees change in body temperature can radically alter body chemistry.

III. Appendages of the Skin  Apocrine sweat glands are confined to the axillary and genital areas  Larger than eccrine glands  Ducts empty into hair follicles  Secretions contain fatty acids. as well as all the other stuff secreted by the eccrine glands. proteins. .

 Begin to function during puberty. . Then it produces a musky unpleasant odor.  A lot is unknown about these. Appendages of the Skin  The secretions can have a milky or yellowish color. They have almost no thermoregulatory function.III.  Become more active during stress or sexual foreplay.  Odorless until bacterial that live on the skin use the proteins and fats as nutrients.

.  Eyelashes shielding the eyes  Nose hairs keep particles from the respiratory tract.III.  Only a few serve an important function  Hair on head to protect brain from bumps. Appendages of the Skin  There are millions of hairs scatterd all over the body.

 Hair is produced by a hair follicle  Root hair is enclosed in the follicle.  Hair is formed by a division of the stratum basale called hair bulb matrix. Appendages of the Skin  Hairs original purpose was to keep the body warm.  The hair shaft extends out of the follicle. .III.

III. Appendages of the Skin  KNOW THE DIAGRAM OF A HAIR ON PAGE 100  Arrector pili muscles are part of the hair follicle that make the hair stand up and makes “goose bumps” .

III. a body (visible portion). . Appendages of the Skin  Nails are scalelike modifications of the epidermis that corresponds to the hoof or claw of other animals.  Each nail has a free edge.  Proximal nail fold is called the cuticle. and a root (embedded in the skin)  Each nail has overlapping edges called nail folds.

. When blood supply is low. KNOW THE DIAGRAM ON PAGE 102. Nail is normally clear. Pink color is due to blood supply to the stratum basale. The white cresent is called the lunula. Nail matrix is responsible for nail growth.III. Appendages of the Skin       Stratum basale of the epidermis extends beneath the nail as the nail bed. nail becomes cyanotic.

peeling condition of the skin between the toes resulting from a fungal infection.  Athlete‟s foot – itchy. Homeostasis  The skin has more than 1000 different ailments. red. common on the dorsal neck.IV. tinea pedis  Boils and carbuncles – inflamation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Carbuncles are caused by bacterial infection (usually Staphlococcus aureus) .

and swelling of the skin. Localized in a cutaneous nerve. caused by a herpes simplex infection.IV. redness.  . Homeostatis Cold Sores – fever blisters – small fluid-filled blisters that itch and sting. Exposure of the skin to chemicals the provokes an allergic response. progressing to blistering. where it remains inactive until emotional upset – usually around the lips and oral mucosa  Contact dermatitis – itching.

characterized by reddened epidermal lesions. Can be disfiguring.  . raised lesions of the mouth and nose that develops a yellow crust and eventually rupture. silvery scales. Cause is unknown . water-filled. Homeostatis Impetigo – pink.  Psoriasis – chronic condition. Very contagious – common in elementary school children.IV. covered with dry.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful