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Stepper Motors

By NAVEENKUMAR R

1ST M.Tech
N.I.T.K Surathkal

CONTENTS

Introduction Components Types of Stepper Motors >Variable Reluctance >Permanent Magnet >Hybrid Applications

What is a Stepper Motor?

A stepper motor is an electromechanical device which converts electrical pulses into discrete mechanical movements. The sequence of the applied pulses is directly related to the direction of motor shafts rotation. The speed of the motor shafts rotation is directly related to the frequency of the input pulses and the length of rotation is directly related to the number of input pulses applied.

Stepper Motors Types

There are three basic stepper motor types. They are: Variable-reluctance Permanent-magnet Hybrid

Movement Generation

N S N S N N S S N N S N S

S N

NS

rotor follows the stator field one step invert magnetic field in 1 coil

for the next step invert magnetic field in the other coil
A stepper motor always needs electronic control. step angle depends on number of poles -> fixed by construction

Stepper motor operation

Step angle angle through which motor shaft rotates for each command pulse

where Nr=No. of rotor poles (teeth) m=No. of phases

= 360 / (m*Nr)

Displacement = * No of control pulses


(Rotation) Speed =(60*f) / SR

rpm

step resolution SR=360 / step/rev

Variable Reluctance Stepper motors


No permanent magnet Free wheeling possible less torque

Working of variable reluctance motor

Methods to increase resolution of VR

Permanent Magnet Stepper motors

Rotor is made of permanent magnetic Material No teeth on rotor No freewheeling more torque during rotation Less acceleration Difficult to make small step pm rotors with a large number of poles.

Working of pm motor

Hybrid Stepper motors

A hybrid stepping motor has characteristics of both PM and VR motors the rotor is a permanent magnet but has blades like VR motors Rotor is magnetised axially to create the poles motor has very high torque and very small, precise step increments

Step Mode
Full Step Mode

Step angle = catalogue value

N S N S N S S N N S N S

I1 / I1max
1 0

S N

-1

NS

I2 / I2max

1 0

-1

coil current in a bipolar motor

Step Mode
Half Step Mode

Step angle = half catalogue value

N S N N N S S S N S N S NS SN S S S N

I1 / I1max
1 0

N N

S N

N S
I2 / I2max

-1
1 0

-1

coil current in a bipolar motor

Characteristics
Output Power
power torque

Motor output power : P = M

with

2 f z

M...torque

...angular velocity
f...step frequency z...steps per revolution

frequency

Advantages

They produce the highest torque at low speeds It is possible to achieve very low speed synchronous rotation with a load that is directly coupled to the shaft. The motors response to digital input pulses provides open-loop control, making the motor simpler and less costly to control. holding torque (not present in DC motors) Rotor has no winding, commutator or brushes quite, robust and reliable operation

Applications

Precise positioning and speed control Open loop position control Torque : 1Nm to 40 Nm Power : 1w to 2500w

Applications

Applications cont

Applications cont

THANK YOU