You are on page 1of 30

%

!bat i. tcbivg..
WSe|ect|ve remova| of unmasked areas
Ltching Mechanism:
Physical removal
Chemical removal
Combination of both
Depending on environment used, 2
types of etching:
Wet Ltching : Chemical
Dry Ltching : Chemical and Physical
igvre. of Merit
Ltch Rate (LR):
- thickness removed per unit time
- Dependent on etching process and film to be
etched
- Should not be too slow or too fast (poor control)
Ltch rate uniformity:
- Determines if the etch rate has any position
dependence on wafer
- Given by
- Low value indicates etch rate is same across
wafer
Selectivity of Ltch (S):
- S
fm
: Ratio of etch rate of film to etch rate of hard
mask/ photo resist
- S
fs
: Ratio of etch rate of film to etch rate of substrate
beneath it
- High selectivity desired
- Low selectivity results in etching of substrate or
resist above desired film
Degree of Anisotropy (A
f
)
- Indicates the directionality of etch
- represents lateral undercut while h represents
film height
tcb Directiovatit,:
Measure of relative etch rates in
different directions usually vertical vs.
Lateral
.otroic tcbivg: Ltch rates are same in all
directions. It is usually related to
chemical processes
vi.otroic tcbivg: Highly directional
etching with different etch rates in
different directions. It is usually related
to physical processes such as ion
bombardment and sputtering
WAnisotropic etching is the preferred
process
WAdvantageous for todays shrinking
feature sizes
!et bevicat tcbivg Mecbavi.v:
Diffusion of reaction species through boundary layer on to
wafer surface
Reaction with desired film to form etch products
Removal of etched products via diffusion through boundary
layer to bulk liquid
Slowest one is the rate limiting step
%ransport of etchants:
- Ltchants are in the solution.
- Solution layer adjacent to surface to be
etched is depleted of etchant material.
- Materials above this layer must diffuse to
the depleted area Diffusion governs the
process.
- Gas evolution during surface reaction
avoids the need for this diffusion in
certain cases.
Surface reaction:
- Reaction rate depends on crystal
orientation.
%ransportation of reaction products:
- Products must be removed for further
reaction to happen.
- Constant stirring/agitation.
Ltching of Si
- %wo step process
Conversion to SiO
2
Ltching of SiO
2
- Ltchant: HNO
3
+ HI
Ltching of SiO
2
- Ltchant: Buffered HI
ovtrottivg tcbivg
Provide an etch-stopping layer.
Orientation dependent.
Controlling Doping of substrate.
Heavy doping Difficult to etch.
Ltch rate is high for:
%hin films.
Irradiated films.
Iilms with some stress.
Iilms with improper stoichiometry.
Metat fitv etcbivg
Aluminum and Gold.
Ltching Al is fairly simple.
H
3
PO
4
+ HNO
3
Cannot be done if the substrate is GaAs. HCl
+ H
2
O
Gold etching:
Aqua-regia can dissolve gold. But..
Ltchant: KI + I
2
+ H
2
O
Solution is opaque due to iodine.
Difficult to inspect.
Alternative : Lift-off
\L1 L1ClING
Lack o anisotropy
Poor process control
Lxcessie particle contamination.
lighly selectie.
Less damage to substrate.
DRY L%CHING
Commonly reerred to as plasma etching.
listorically, deice dimensions were not
much smaller.
lence, this was considered just an
alternatie to wet etching.
- Can use saer gas instead o corrosie acids.
- \aste disposal is easy.
- Lasy automation.
Plasma
Partially ionized gas.
Low degree o ionization.
-e charge ions.
-e charge electrons.
Since low mass, energy transer rom
electrons to plasma is diicult.
lence, plasma is at lower temperature
than electrons.
simple plasma reactor
2 electrodes held in a chamber at low
pressure.
ligh requency Rl signal applied to get
plasma.
Llectrons diuse to chamber walls much
aster and ions concentrate in the middle.
Plasma potential, Vp, will be -e wrt
chamber walls.
1ransition region between centre and walls
Sheath`
Depleted o charges.
Most oltage is dropped across this region.
ter a stage, electrons will be repelled back
rom chamber walls.
Lentually, i we keep an insulating material in
the region, it acquires a -e potential, which is
called the loating potential.
t the electrodes..
ligh requency C oltage is applied.
Llectrode will be -e or one hal cycle
and -e or the other.
ligh electron current towards -e
electrode in that hal cycle..
Next hal cycle, it behaes as a capacitor.
sheath region is deeloped near the
electrode also.
Llectrode size..
lor smaller area electrode, sheath
capacitance is going to be small.
lence high impedance.
More oltage drop across this.
high ion bombardment energy.
1wo other parameters
- Pressure
- lrequency.
Plasma etching systems:
ligh electron temperature.
Can hae high temperature like reaction.
ligh ion bombardment energy by
adjusting cathode sheath potential.
Process can be
Physical
Chemical
Physical-Chemical
Dry etching-Chemical:
By reactie species in plasma.
Reaction in gas phase and olatile reaction
products are ormed.
Lg: Si etching in Cl
4
plasma.
Reactie species: actie lourine.
Isotropic.
Good selectiity.
Dry etching-Physical:
Known as Sputtering or Ion-Milling.
1akes adantage o high ion beam energy.
Surace atoms ejected out.
Poor selectiity.
Good anisotropy.
Reactie Ion etching:
Ions with lower energy.
React with surace and makes it more
reactie to actie species rom plasma.
Lg: Si with Cl.
Ion-inhibitted etching:
Side-wall passiation.
Lg: heaily doped Si with Cl.
Spontaneous reaction.
Inhibitor: C
2
l
6
Good selectiity
Good anisotropy.
Special etching systems
Si etching:
- l based
- Cl
2
based.
l based:
- Spontaneous.
- Isotropic
- Good selectiity.
Cl
2
based:
- Depends on many actors. ,eg: doping,
- Can be anisotropic.
lluorine based etching:
Common plasma: Cl
4
C
2
l
6
,C
3
l
8
,Sl
6
Reactions:
- e
-
- Cl
4
Cl
3
-
- l

- e
-
- Si - 4l Sil
4
Improing LR: add O
2
1oo much o O
2
SiO
2
ormation.
Good selectiity, bsolute isotropy.
SiO
2
etching:
Same eed gas.
dded element: l
2
.
Cl
4
- l
2
Cl
3
-
- ll
l
2
suppresses actie luorine and produce
ll that etches SiO
2
.
Si
3
N
4
etching:
Choice depends on i to select between Si
or SiO
2
.
I oer Si : use Cl
4
- l
2
.
I oer SiO2 : use Nl
3
-Cl
2
Selectiity oer both cannot be obtained
simultaneously.
Cl
2
based etching:
Cl
2
will not etch undoped Si
spontaneously.
Reactiity to Cl
2
enhanced in RIL.
leaily doped Si gies spontaneous
reaction with Cl
2
.
Can hae combined etching with Cl
2
and
l.
1his can improe anisotropy.
Metal etching: l
Doesn`t etch by l.
l
2
l
3
is not olatile.
Use Cl
2
.
Spontaneous reaction.
Isotropic.
dd inhibitor to make it anisotropic.
l has ainity to O
2
Should hae eed gas that can etch l
2
O
3
.
BCl
3
, SiCl
4
, Cl
4