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ION-IMPLANTATION

BASICS
Ionized impurity atoms are
accelerated by an
electrostatic field and
made to strike the surface
of wafer
By measuring ion current
and adjusting electrostatic
field, the penetration
depth and dose can be
controlled
SYSTEM SET-UP
Consists of:
Ion source,
Acceleration
tube, Mass
Analyzer,
End station
MASS ANALYZER
The ion beam is passed through a magnetic sector that
selects a particular ionic species
An ion of mass M and charge q moving at a velocity v in a
circular path will experience a force:


According to the mass, the trajectory will be
different a slit is used at the appropriate
place to extract desired species


The kinetic energy of the ion is given by its extraction
voltage:


r
Mv
qB B
M
q
V = =
1
2
ext
E qV Mv v
qV
M
= = =
ext
ext
1
2
2
2
Ions are accelerated after mass separation.
Acceleration done in vacuum to avoid collisions.
Neutral species undesirable as they cannot be
deflected by electrostatic potential during
scanning will get implanted near center of
wafer.
Each species will have a different mass.
Neutral species are removed by deflecting the
ions (or bending the ion beam) so that the neutrals
will not respond to the electrostatic field and will
travel straight and strike a beam stop.

BASIC ARRANGEMENT:
Vertical projected range
The total distance traveled
by the ion before it stops is
called range R.

Rp is the average vertical
distance for a uniform
beam= vertical projected
range

Energy loss due to two
mechanisms
Interaction of incident
ions with electrons of
target atom
Interaction with lattice
ions

Implantation Profile
Total distance traversed by ion is called Range, R.
The average penetration depth of the ions is called
projected range Rp.
Due to a distribution, there is a statistical fluctuation along
the direction of the projected range, called straggle, ARp.
The statistical fluctuation perpendicular to incident
direction is called lateral straggle, AR

.

AR
p
AR

Ion Beam
R
p
x
z
y
Log (ion
Concentration)
TARGET-ION INTERACTION:
Energy loss due to two mechanisms
Electronic stopping interaction with
electron cloud around target atom
Collisions with electrons around atoms
transfers momentum and results in local
electronic stopping

Nuclear stopping interaction with
nucleus of target

Nuclear stopping
Collision with nuclei of the lattice atoms
Scattered significantly
Causes crystal structure damage.
Electronic stopping
Collision with electrons of the lattice atoms
Incident ion path is almost unchanged
Energy transfer is very small
Crystal structure damage is negligible
THEORY OF STOPPING
MECHANISM:
Total rate of energy loss = sum of energy loss
per unit length due to each mechanism






Total projected range is given by

[ dE/dx ]
total
= S
n
(E) + S
e
(E)
Stopping profile:
E
c
: Critical energy
dE/dx : Energy lost

Peak concentration:

Dopant concentration can be expressed
as a function of depth:



Where is the dose.
( )
( )

A
=
2
2
2
exp
2
p
p
p
R
R x
R
x N
t
|
Ion channeling:
When the ion direction is such
that it orients itself along major
crystallographic direction, ions
travel a great distance before
stopping
Results in Deep junctions
For each species such as B, P,
etc, there is a critical angle
when this begins

Avoided by implanting at small
angle ~ 7 tilt

By using a thin screening layer of
PR or SiO2

Implant damage:
Light ions and heavy ions cause different
type of damage profiles

Annealing:
Removes implant damage
Restores crystalline structure
Activates dopants
Done usually at 850 1000C in N2 ambient
Long times (>30min) help remove defects
completely
But cause significant dopant diffusion

Secondary defects start forming at
about 500-600C
Removed at 850 1000C
Amorphous layer recrystallizes when
annealed at 600C for 30min (called
solid phase epitaxy)
RTA
High temperature attained in short time.
Two methods
Array of lamps
Laser
High throughput
No change in implantation profile.

2
2
( )
2( 2 )
2
( , )
2 ( 2 )
x Rp
Rp Dt
N x t
Rp Dt
e
|
t

A +
=
A +