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Basic CMOS

Process Flow
S. Gopalan, Amrita Vishwa
Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
2
Step 1: N-Well formation
Form N-WeII
regions
Grow oxide
Deposit
photoresist
Luyout view
Cross section view
p-fype subsfrofe
MWELL mosk
MWELL mosk
oxide
phofo resisf
Step 1.
Form N-WeII
regions
Grow oxide
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-
well areas
Luyout view
Cross section view
p-fype subsfrofe
MWELL mosk
MWELL mosk
oxide
phoforesisf
Step 1.
Form N-WeII
regions
Grow oxide
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-
well areas
Etch oxide
Remove
photresist
Luyout view
Cross section view
p-fype subsfrofe
oxide
Step 1.
Form N-WeII
regions
Grow oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
NWELL Mask
expose only n-
well areas
Etch oxide
Remove photoresist
Diffuse n-type
dopants through
oxide mask layer
Luyout view
Cross section view
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Step 2: Active region
Form Active
Regions
Deposit SiN over
wafer
Deposit
photoresist over
SiN layer
%'E mosk
%'E mosk
SiM
phoforesisf
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Step 2.
%'E mosk
%'E mosk
SiM
phoforesisf
Form Active
Regions
Deposit SiN over
wafer
Deposit
photoresist over
SiN layer
Pattern
photoresist
*ACTVE MASK
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Step 2.
%'E mosk
SiM
phoforesisf
Form Active
Regions
Deposit SiN over
wafer
Deposit photoresist
over SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTVE MASK
Etch SiN in
exposed areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Step 2.
%'E mosk
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Form Active
Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist over
SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTVE MASK
Etch SiN in exposed
areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth
Remove photoresist
Grow Field Oxide
(FOX)
thermal oxidation

Step 2.
%'E mosk
p-fype subsfrofe
n-weII
Form Active
Regions
Deposit SiN over wafer
Deposit photoresist over
SiN layer
Pattern photoresist
*ACTVE MASK
Etch SiN in exposed
areas
leaves SiN mask
which blocks oxide
growth
Remove photoresist
Grow Field Oxide (FOX)
thermal oxidation
Remove SiN

Step 3: Poly Formation


Form Gate (PoIy
Iayer)
Grow thin Gate
Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions
ofe oxide
Page 13
Step 3.
Form Gate (PoIy
Iayer)
Grow thin Gate
Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions
Deposit
Polysilicon
Deposit
Photoresist
ofe oxide
PLY mosk
PLY mosk
poIysiIicon
Step 3.
Form Gate (PoIy
Iayer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions
Deposit Polysilicon
Deposit Photoresist
Pattern Photoresist
*POLY MASK
Etch Poly in exposed
areas
ofe oxide
PLY mosk
PLY mosk
Step 3.
Form Gate (PoIy
Iayer)
Grow thin Gate Oxide
over entire wafer
negligible effect on
FOX regions
Deposit Polysilicon
Deposit Photoresist
Pattern Photoresist
*POLY MASK
Etch Poly in exposed
areas
Etch/remove Oxide
gate protected by
poly
ofe oxide
Step 4: PMOS Formation
Form pmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
PSELE% mosk
PSELE% mosk
Step 4.
Form pmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*PSELECT MASK
PLY mosk
PSELE% mosk
Step 4.
Form pmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*PSELECT
MASK
mplant p-type
dopants
Remove
photoresist
p+ doponf
PLY mosk
p+ doponf
Step 5: NMOS Formation
Form nmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
PLY mosk
MSELE% mosk
p+ p+ p+
n
Step 5.
Form nmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*NSELECT
MASK
PLY mosk
MSELE% mosk
p+ p+ p+
n
Step 5.
Form nmos S/D
Cover with
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*NSELECT
MASK
mplant n-type
dopants
Remove
photoresist
n+ doponf
PLY mosk
n+ doponf
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 6: Contact formation
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit
photoresist
M%% mosk
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
M%% mosk
Step 6.
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*CONTACT
Mask
One mask for
both active and
poly contact
shown
M%% mosk
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
M%% mosk
Step 6.
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*CONTACT
Mask
One mask for
both active and
poly contact
shown
Etch oxide
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 6.
Form Contacts
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*CONTACT Mask
One mask for both
active and poly contact
shown
Etch oxide
Remove photoresist
Deposit metal1
immediately after
opening contacts so
no native oxide
grows in contacts
Planerize
make top level
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 7:
Form Metal 1
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
ME%LI mosk
ME%LI mosk
Step 7
Form Metal 1
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL1 Mask
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
ME%LI mosk
ME%LI mosk
Step 7.
Form Metal 1
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL1 Mask
Etch metal
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
mefoI over poIy oufside of cross secfion
Step 7.
Form Metal 1
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL1 Mask
Etch metal
Remove
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 8.
Form Vias to
Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize oxide
Deposit
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
' mosk
' mosk
Step 8.
Form Vias to
Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*VA Mask
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
' mosk
' mosk
Step 8
Form Vias to
Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*VA Mask
Etch oxide
Remove
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 8.
Form Vias to Metal1
Deposit oxide
Planerize
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
*VA Mask
Etch oxide
Remove
photoresist
Deposit Metal2
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 9:
Form Metal2
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
ME%LZ mosk
ME%LZ mosk
Step 9:
Form Metal2
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL2 Mask
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
ME%LZ mosk
ME%LZ mosk
Step 9:
Form Metal2
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL2 Mask
Etch metal
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 9:
Form Metal2
Traces
Deposit
photoresist
Pattern
photoresist
*METAL2 Mask
Etch metal
Remove
photoresist
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
Step 10+
Form Additional Traces
Deposit oxide
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
Etch oxide
Deposit metal
Deposit photoresist
Pattern photoresist
Etch metal
Repeat for each
additional metal
p+ p+ p+
n
n+ n+ n+
p-fype subsfrofe