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I2-08-09
hoLollLhography
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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Phofo Lifhogrophy
% 1wo step process
1ransfer pattern from Mask on
to k cover|ng the wafer
1ransfer of pattern from k to
wafer by etch|ng
% Dev|ce |ayout |s broken |nto severa|
|ayers of |nformat|on
% Lach |ayer |s a map for the |ocat|on
of one f||m on IC
% rocess of transferr|ng patterns of geometr|c shapes on a mask to a
th|n |ayer of rad|at|on sens|t|ve mater|a| (ca||ed photo res|st)
cover|ng the surface of wafer

$ Chrome coofed Quorf; pIofe


S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

Phofo Pesisf (PP)


% Is a rad|at|on sens|t|ve mater|a| wh|ch changes chem|ca||y on
exposure to ||ght
% Usua||y a carbon based organ|c mo|ecu|e
% 1wo types of res|st
os|t|ve
% keg|ons of res|st exposed to ||ght d|sso|ve qu|ck|y |n
'deve|oper'
% Unexposed reg|ons rema|n unchanged and are not
removed by deve|oper
Negat|ve
% keg|ons exposed to ||ght are hard to remove by deve|oper
% Unexposed reg|ons are eas||y removed by deve|oper
% os|t|ve res|sts resu|t |n better reso|ut|on than negat|ve res|st
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
siIicon substrate
oxide
photoresist
Posifive Lifhogrophy
IsIand
Window
Areas exposed to light
become photosoluble.
Resulting pattern aIter
the resist is developed.
$hadow on
photoresist
Exposed area
of photoresist
Chrome isIand
on gIass mask
photoresist
siIicon substrate
oxide
UItravioIet Light
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
egofive Lifhogrophy
IsIand
siIicon substrate
oxide
photoresist
Window
reas exposed Lo llghL
become polymerlzed and
reslsL Lhe develop
chemlcal
8esulLlng paLLern afLer Lhe
reslsL ls developed
photoresist
oxide
siIicon substrate
UItravioIet Light
Exposed area
of photoresist
$hadow on
photoresist
Chrome isIand
on gIass mask
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

%a) SubsLraLe covered wlLh slllcon


dloxlde barrler layer
%b) oslLlve phoLoreslsL applled Lo
wafer surface
%c) Mask ln close proxlmlLy Lo
surface
%d) SubsLraLe followlng reslsL
exposure and developmenL
%e) SubsLraLe afLer eLchlng of
oxlde layer
%f) Cxlde barrler on surface afLer
reslsL removal
%g) vlew of subsLraLe wlLh slllcon
dloxlde paLLern on Lhe surface
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
%rends in minimum feofure si;e
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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$feps in osk fobricofion
Define chip function
Breakdown into subfunctions
Layout of subfunctions on floor plan using
design rules
Construct highlevel model to test
functionality and performance
Nake adjustments to design
Transfer design to pattern generator
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% ame s|ze as f|n|shed ch|p or an |ntegra| factor (Sx or 10x) of
f|na| ch|p
% Dur|ng exposure the |mage s|ze |s reduced
% 1yp|ca||y 1S0mm square
% Made of fused s|||ca (typ|ca||y uartz)
% Lssent|a| propert|es
n|gh degree of opt|ca| transparency
ma|| therma| expans|on coeff|c|ent
I|at and po||shed surface
kes|stant to scratches
% Chrom|um |s used as opaque |ayer
% 1yp|ca||y 1S20 masks are used |n a process sequence
Musk
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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- Electron beam used to create the pattern on the mask due to its high
precision
- The quartz is first covered with chrome followed by PR
- Ebeam is raster scanned on to PR
- Unwanted PR is removed and chromium is etched
4 is u musk mude?
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
osk-fo-Wofer Iignmenf
% art|cu|ar|y
cha||eng|ng for a dark
f|e|d mask
% G|oba| vs d|ebyd|e
a||gnment
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
1
% Lach success|ve |ayer has to be a||gned w|th the
prev|ous |ayer (for eg the gate e|ectrode has to
come on top of gate ox|de accurate|y)
% Lach mask conta|ns a||gnment marks wh|ch he|p |n
a||gn|ng the |ayers on top of each other
% Important a||gnment features
keso|ut|on
% ab|||ty of k to accurate|y transfer patterns on to f||m
underneath
% Is the m|n|mum feature s|ze that can be transferred
w|th m|n|ma| to|erance
% Measured |n terms of 3s|gma (standard dev|at|on of
m|n|mum feature s|ze)
Iigning using Masks
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
1
% Important a||gnment features
keg|strat|on
% measure of how accurate|y patterns on success|ve
masks can be a||gned
% Measured |n terms of 3s|gma
1hroughput
% Number of wafers processed per hour
% Ior |ndustry th|s number has to be suff|c|ent|y h|gh
wh||e ma|nta|n|ng good reso|ut|on and reg|strat|on
% Usua||y a||gnments are automated
igning using Musks
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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;eruy err4rs beteen t4 putterns
% goa| a||gn two "|dent|ca|" patterns one on top of the
other
9
2
0;0
0;0
W 2pure registration error
W 9 distortion error
overIay error: sum of aII errors
W reaIIy a statisticaI quantity
W ruIe of thumb: totaI overIay error not more than 1/3 to 1/5 of
minimum feature size
W what can go wrong??
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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osic poffern fronsfer fechniques
% contact
gap
mask
photoresist
opticaI imaging system
W proximity
W Imaging/
Projection
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
1
UsuaIIy 4X or
5X
Reduction
1:1 Exposure $ystems
usic puttern trunsfer techniques
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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- Contact printing is capable of high resolution (1um) but
has unacceptable defect densities.
- Proximity printing cannot easily print features below a few
mm (except for xray systems).
- Projection printing provides high resolution and low defect
densities and dominates today.
- Typical projection systems use reduction optics (2X X),
step and repeat or step and scan mechanical systems, print
0 wafers/hour and cost $ 10N.
usic puttern trunsfer techniques
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
iffrocfion Effecfs
% kay trac|ng (assum|ng ||ght
trave|s |n stra|ght ||nes) works
we|| as |ong as the d|mens|ons
are |arge compared to 2
% t sma||er d|mens|ons
d|ffract|on effects dom|nate
% If the aperture |s on the order
of 2 the ||ght spreads out after
pass|ng through the aperture
(1he sma||er the aperture the
more |t spreads out)
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S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
Confocf ond Proximify Prinfing
% oth operate |n the near f|e|d or Iresne| d|ffract|on reg|me as
there |s a|ways some gap g between the mask and res|st even for
Contact r|nt|ng
% Iresne| d|ffract|on
app||es when
% 1he aer|a| |mage can be constructed by |mag|n|ng po|nt sources
w|th|n the aperture each rad|at|ng spher|ca| waves (nuygens
wave|ets)
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S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
resneI diffrocfion
% Interference effects and
d|ffract|on resu|t |n " opt|ca|
r|ng|ng" and spread|ng outs|de
the aperture
% W|th|n th|s range the minimum
reso/vob/e feoture site |s g|ven
by
% 1hus |f g 20 3m and
2436nm W
m|n
> 33m
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S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
Projecfion Prinfing
% We can co||ect the ||ght us|ng a |ens and focus |t on the |mage
p|ane
% ut the f|n|te d|ameter of the |ens means some |nformat|on |s
|ost
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S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
rounhofer iffrocfion
% kay|e|gh suggested that a reasonab|e cr|ter|on for reso|ut|on
was that the centra| max|mum of each po|nt source ||e at the
f|rst m|n|mum of the |ry pattern
% W|th th|s def|n|t|on
% Where n |s kI of med|um and n s|n- N (numer|ca| aperture)
2
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
rounhofer iffrocfion
% N represents the ab|||ty of the |ens to co||ect d|ffracted ||ght
% k1 |s an exper|menta| parameter wh|ch depends on the
||thography system and res|st propert|es and |s 06 08
% Cbv|ous|y reso|ut|on can be |ncreased by decreas|ng 2 and
|ncreas|ng N (b|gger |enses)
% kay|e|gh Cr|ter|a for Depth of Iocus
2
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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Projecfion $ysfems
% nowever h|gher N |enses a|so decrease the depth of focus Usua||y |t |s
better to decrease wave|ength of ||ght
% nence as we go forward every new generat|on UV ||ght w|th |ower
wave|ength |s needed to pattern the features accurate|y
Extreme
UV
TypicaI high-pressure Hg-
arc Iamp spectrum
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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Lighf sources
% Lxposure requ|res h|gh |ntens|ty un|form rad|at|on
% n|gh pressure arc |amps used typ|ca||y
% 1wo conduct|ng e|ectrodes |n a fused s|||ca enve|ope w|th a
sma|| gap between them
% h|gh vo|tage sp|ke |gn|tes the |amp and part|a||y |on|zes the
gas (ng)
G|ow d|scharge or p|asma
% Very h|gh temperatures and pressures (40atm) (about S00
1000W of power d|ss|pated)
% Lxc|ted e|ectrons |n p|asma (40 000k) em|t rad|at|on |n deep
UV (7Snm) not des|red absorbed by fused s|||ca
% ng atoms a|so get exc|ted and when these e|ectrons]atoms
return to ground state they em|t rad|at|on
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
2
Lighf sources
% 1he em|tted rad|at|on has to be eff|c|ent|y co||ected and
co|||mated
Done by a ser|es of |enses parabo||c ref|ectors opt|ca| |ntegrators
% Wave|ength se|ect|on done us|ng a set of f||ters wh|ch absorb
unwanted wave|engths
% In the deep UV reg|me exc|mer |asers are the br|ghtest opt|ca|
sources
% Lxc|mer Lxc|ted D|mer mo|ecu|es w|th two atoms of one or
more e|ements such as I2 keC|
% keC| the e|ements do not react at ground state but when
exc|ted they react em|t rad|at|on |n deep UV and return to
ground state where they d|ssoc|ate
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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Lighf sources for smoII feofures (I
min
)
% e|ectromagnet|c rad|at|on
near UV h|gh pressure mercury arc |amp
% g||ne 436 nm
% |||ne 36S nm
m|d UV xenon (ke) arc |amps
% 2903S0 nm
deep UV exc|mer |aser
% keC| 308 nm
% krI 248 nm
% rI 193 nm
% I
2
1S7 nm
Lxtreme UV 1S7nm
% 13nm deve|opment stage
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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urther reducti4n in u;eength
% xray synchrotron p|asma
04 S nm
% part|c|es very short de rog||e wave|ength (| h]mv)
e|ectron beam (S0eV e|ectron 4 | 1S)
|on beam
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus