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/v.vn.cv (1 Ivi.

vion
Etching
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
2
%45ics
- Ltch|ng methods
WeL and dry eLchlng
- I|gures of Mer|t |n etch|ng ] Ltch Character|st|cs
- Ltch mechan|sms
WeL chemlcal eLch
lon Mllllng

Etching
- omet|mes an ox|de]n|tr|de may be used as hard mask
- Mu|t||ayer structures can be etched sequent|a||y us|ng same mask|ng |ayer
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

Etching Meth4/s
- C|ass|f|cat|on based on Ltch Mechan|sms
Physico/ removo/ of mater|a| (Ion m||||ng)
hemico/ reoction ond removo/ (wet chem|ca| etch|ng)
Comb|nat|on of both (p|asma etch|ng)
- C|ass|f|cat|on based on Ltch|ng env|ronment
Wet etch|ng uses ||qu|d etchants w|th wafers |mmersed
|n etchant so|ut|on
-chem|ca| process on|y
Dry etch|ng uses gas phase etchants |n a p|asma
-chem|ca| and phys|ca|
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- e|ect|v|ty of Ltch ()

fm
kat|o of etch rate of f||m to etch rate of hard mask] photo res|st

fs
kat|o of etch rate of f||m to etch rate of substrate beneath |t
n|gh se|ect|v|ty des|red
Low se|ect|v|ty resu|ts |n etch|ng of substrate or res|st above des|red f||m
- Degree of An|sotropy (A
f
)
Ind|cates the d|rect|ona||ty of etch
' # represents |atera| undercut wh||e 'h# represents f||m he|ght
h
l
ER Jertical
ER Lateral
A
f
1 1
l
igures 41 Merit
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

igures 41 Merit
- Ltch kate (Lk)
th|ckness removed per un|t t|me
Dependent on etch|ng process and f||m to be etched
hou|d not be too s|ow or too fast (poor contro|)
- Ltch rate un|form|ty
Determ|nes |f the etch rate has any pos|t|on dependence on wafer
G|ven by
Low va|ue |nd|cates etch rate |s same across wafer
100 * |
min max
min max
|
ER ER
ER ER
Uniformity

S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

- Ltch D|rect|ona||ty Measure of


re|at|ve etch rates |n d|fferent
d|rect|ons usua||y vert|ca| vs
|atera|
Isotrop|c Ltch|ng Ltch rates are same |n
a|| d|rect|ons It |s usua||y re|ated to
chem|ca| processes
An|sotrop|c Ltch|ng n|gh|y d|rect|ona|
etch|ng w|th d|fferent etch rates |n
d|fferent d|rect|ons It |s usua||y re|ated to
phys|ca| processes such as |on
bombardment and sputter|ng
- An|sotrop|c etch|ng |s the preferred
process
- Advantageous for today#s shr|nk|ng
feature s|zes
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

Etching Mechunisms
- Ltch|ng by Chem|ca| Act|on Wet Ltch|ng
- Ltch|ng by hys|ca| remova| Ion m||||ng
- Ltch|ng by Comb|nat|on of chem|ca| and phys|ca|
|asma etch|ng
keact|ve |on etch|ng
Chem|ca| Mechan|ca| o||sh|ng (CM)
#ressure ranges for
etching methods
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus

et Etching
- Wafers typ|ca||y submerged |n spec|f|c chem|ca| baths
- rocesses tend to be h|gh|y se|ect|ve but |sotrop|c
Lxamples
- LLchlng of SlC
2
by aqueous Pl
- LLchlng of Sl by nlLrlc acld (PnC
3
) and Pl
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S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, 10
Wef Efching Mechonism
- ulffuslon of reacLlon specles Lhrough boundary layer on Lo wafer
surface
- 8eacLlon wlLh deslred fllm Lo form eLch producLs
- 8emoval of eLched producLs vla dlffuslon Lhrough boundary layer Lo
bulk llquld
- SlowesL one ls Lhe raLe llmlLlng sLep
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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et Etching
- Ltchant |s st|rred to m|n|m|ze boundary |ayer and thus make
etch|ng react|on rate contro||ed
- Ltch rate |s very sens|t|ve to temperature and hence d|ff|cu|t
to ach|eve un|form|ty across the wafer
- Advantages n|gh se|ect|v|ty because |t |s based on chem|ca|
processes
- D|sadvantages
Isotrop|c (undercutt|ng occurs) poor process contro| and part|cu|ates
Cver etch|ng |eads to p|tt|ng of substrate
Not very effect|ve for very sma|| feature s|zes
Lnd po|nt detect|on |s d|ff|cu|t
Ltch rate un|form|ty across wafer |s sens|t|ve to temperature
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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et Etching ChuIIenges
- Lnd po|nt detected by mon|tor|ng co|or of f||m or
react|on product spec|es
s||ght overetch|ng (typ|ca||y S10) usua||y done to ensure
comp|ete remova|
- Mask or k d|mens|ons erode dur|ng etch
Need to account for mask eros|on
- Iormat|on of bubb|es |nh|b|t etch|ng process
t|rr|ng and heat|ng he|p overcome th|s and m|n|m|ze boundary
|ayer
- Ltch rate |s very temperature sens|t|ve and hence
d|ff|cu|t to ach|eve un|form|ty across the wafer
- n|gh e|ect|v|ty and Low Degree of An|sotropy
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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C4mm4n wet etchunts
- |C
2

8uffered ox|de etch (8CL) (Nn


4
I + nI)
- Nn
4
I supp||es nI
- |
3
N
4

8S n
3
C
4
at 140200C (good se|ect|v|ty w|th respect to
ox|de and s|||con)
nI + nNC3 at 70C
- A|um|num
n
3
C
4
at 3SC
20 acet|c ac|d + 77 n3C4 + 3 nNC3
- GaAs
n2C4 + n2C2 + n2C
8r2 + Cn3Cn
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C4mm4n wet etchunts
- Ior GaAs we somet|mes need very good se|ect|v|ty w|th respect
to A|
x
Ga
1x
As and v|ce versa
k
3
Ie(CN)
6
k
4
Ie(CN)
6
w|th pn 9
k
3
Ie(CN)
6
k
4
Ie(CN)
6
w|th pn between S 9
- D|rect|ona| etch|ng us|ng wet etchants poss|b|e
Ior | the (111) p|ane has more ava||ab|e bonds per un|t
area than the (110) and (100) p|anes etch rate |s s|ower for
the (111) p|ane
kCn + |sopropy| a|coho|+n
2
C etches | 100 t|mes faster |n
the 100 d|rect|on compared to 111 d|rect|on
8r
2
Cn
3
Cn |s used for d|rect|ona| etch|ng of GaAs
- Wet etch|ng rates can a|so be made 'dop|ngse|ect|ve#
nI+nNC
3
+acet|c ac|d for h|gh|y doped |
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4n MiIIing
- Dse of an energet|c beam of |nert
atoms |n a very |ow pressure
chamber
- Ltch|ng by phys|ca| act|on
- Ion m||||ng can be understood by
cons|der|ng VD system w|th
po|ar|ty of the e|ectrodes |s
reversed
- Argon |ons str|ke the wafer |nstead
of the target 1h|s causes remova| of
mater|a| from wafer depend|ng on
|nc|dent |on energy
- Low pressure needed to ma|nta|n p|asma (10
3
1orr)
- Magnet|c f|e|d can be used to |ncrease |on dens|ty
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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- kauffman source (therma| ) |s
used for generat|ng Ar+ |ons
- L|ectrons from f||ament co|||de
w|th Ar atoms to |on|ze them
- Low pressure needed to
ma|nta|n p|asma (10
3
1orr)
- os|t|ve |ons are co||ected
through the negat|ve|y b|ased
perforated sh|e|d on to wafer
- Magnet|c f|e|d can be used to
|ncrease |on dens|ty
Ion M||||ng
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
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Ion M||||ng
- Very good an|sotropy etch|ng most|y
|n vert|ca| d|rect|on
- Can be used for etch|ng w|de var|ety
of f||ms (d|e|ectr|cs meta|s etc)
Dsed for 8aCuC InA|GaAs
etc(ternary systems)
- oor se|ect|v|ty w||| eas||y etch the
substrate be|ow and photores|st
- Low throughput (one wafer at a t|me)
- Damage to wafers
- 1o |ncrease se|ect|v|ty of |on m||||ng
some react|ve spec|es need to be
|ntroduced
Damages caused by ion miIIing
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, 1
!Iusmu Etching
- A p|asma |s created wh|ch attacks the wafer surface
- Primori/y chemico/ removo/ of mater|a| occurs
- Las|er to start and stop compared to wet etch|ng
leed gas lnLroduced ln chamber ls
broken down lnLo chemlcally reacLlve
specles by lasma
Mo|ecu|e A8 A 8 A8+ A*
(exc|ted state) A+ A8* e etc
8eacLlve specles dlffuses Lhrough Lo
Lhe wafer geLs adsorbed and reacLs
wlLh exposed fllm
8eacLlon producL ls desorbed and
dlffuses away from wafer
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!Iusmu Etching
|asma cons|sts of about 1 rad|ca|s and 001 |ons
10
1S
cm
3
neutra| spec|es
10
8
10
12
cm
3
|ons and e|ectrons
10
12
10
14
cm
3
react|ve neutra| spec|es
W evera| react|ons take
p|ace |n a p|asma as shown
Adv of |asma Ltch
- lasma eLch ls less senslLlve
Lo wafer Lemp changes
- lewer parLlcles and less
chemlcal wasLe compared
Lo weL eLchlng
- Dsua||y kI energy used |n p|asma at 13S6Mnz
- A vo|tage b|as deve|ops between a p|asma and e|ectrodes as
e|ectrons have h|gher mob|||ty than |ons and are |ost qu|ck|y to
the e|ectrodes p|asma |s pos|t|ve|y b|ased wrt e|ectrodes %refer
to poqe 249252 of text for more on p/osmos)
- Anode to cathode area asymmetry V
c
]V
a
(A
a
]A
c
)
4
- If one of the e|ectrodes |s connected to the chamber wa||s |ts
effect|ve area |ncreases and vo|tage drop reduces
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, 20
!Iusmu Etching
- keactant gases conta|n|ng a ha||de (CI
4
C|
2
n8r) and somet|mes
another reactant such as C
2
n
2
are common|y used
- As kI power |s |ncreased p|asma dens|ty |ncreases and hence
p|asma (sheath) vo|tage a|so |ncreases thereby |ncreas|ng |on
ve|oc|ty
- 1wo ma|n spec|es |nvo|ved |n p|asma etch react|ve neutra|
spec|es such as CI
3
I* CI
3
* and |ons such as CI
3
+
- -eutro/ species form the chemico/ component whi/e the ions form
the physico/ component of etch
S. Copalan, Amrita vishwa vidyapeetham, 21
!Iusmu Etching
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