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Packet Switching Vs Circuit Switching

ackeLswlLched and clrculLswlLched neLworks


use Lwo dlfferenL Lechnologles for sendlng
messages and daLa from one polnL Lo anoLher
Lach have Lhelr advanLages and dlsadvanLages
dependlng on whaL you are Lrylng Lo do
Packet Switching
W n packeLbased neLworks Lhe
message geLs broken lnLo small
daLa packeLs 1hese packeLs are
senL ouL from Lhe compuLer and
Lhey Lravel around Lhe neLwork
seeklng ouL Lhe mosL efflclenL
rouLe Lo Lravel as clrculLs become
avallable 1hls does noL
necessarlly mean LhaL Lhey seek
ouL Lhe shorLesL rouLe
W Lach packeL may go a dlfferenL
rouLe from Lhe oLhers
Packet Switching
W Lach packeL ls senL wlLh a 'header address' 1hls
Lells lL where lLs flnal desLlnaLlon ls so lL knows
where Lo go
W 1he header address also descrlbes Lhe sequence for
reassembly aL Lhe desLlnaLlon compuLer so LhaL Lhe
packeLs are puL back lnLo Lhe correcL order
W Cne packeL also conLalns deLalls of how many
packeLs should be arrlvlng so LhaL Lhe reclplenL
compuLer knows lf one packeL has falled Lo Lurn up
W f a packeL falls Lo arrlve Lhe reclplenL compuLer
sends a message back Lo Lhe compuLer whlch
orlglnally senL Lhe daLa asklng for Lhe mlsslng
packeL Lo be resenL
Packet Switching
DiIIerence between circuit switching and
packet switching:
Packet Switching
W Message is broken up into segments (packets).
W Each packet carries the identiIication oI the intended
recipient, data used to assist in data correction and
the position oI the packet in the sequence.
W Each packet is treated individually by the switching
centre and may be sent to the destination by a totally
diIIerent route to all the others.
Packet Switching
Packet Switching
Advantages:
W Security
W Bandwidth used to Iull potential
W Devices oI diIIerent speeds can communicate
W Not aIIected by line Iailure (rediverts signal)
W Availability do not have to wait Ior a direct
connection to become available
W During a crisis or disaster, when the public
telephone network might stop working, e-mails
and texts can still be sent via packet switching
Packet Switching
Disadvantages
W Under heavy use there can be a delay
W Data packets can get lost or become
corrupted
W Protocols are needed Ior a reliable
transIer
W Not so good Ior some types data streams
e.g real-time video streams can lose
Irames due to the way packets arrive out
oI sequence.
Circuit Switching
W Circuit switching was
deslgned ln 1878 ln order Lo
send Lelephone calls down
a dedlcaLed channel 1hls
channel remalned open
and ln use LhroughouL Lhe
whole call and could noL be
used by any oLher daLa or
phone calls
Circuit Switching
W 1here are Lhree phases ln
clrculL swlLchlng
LsLabllsh
1ransfer
ulsconnecL
W 1he Lelephone message ls
senL ln one go lL ls noL
broken up 1he message
arrlves ln Lhe same order LhaL
lL was orlglnally senL
Circuit Switching
W n modern clrculLswlLched neLworks
elecLronlc slgnals pass Lhrough several
swlLches before a connecLlon ls esLabllshed
W uurlng a call no oLher neLwork Lrafflc can
use Lhose swlLches
W 1he resources remaln dedlcaLed Lo Lhe clrculL
durlng Lhe enLlre daLa Lransfer and Lhe enLlre
message follows Lhe same paLh
W ClrculL swlLchlng can be analogue or dlglLal
Circuit Switching
W JlLh Lhe expanded use of Lhe nLerneL for
volce and vldeo analysLs predlcL a gradual
shlfL away from clrculLswlLched neLworks
W A clrculLswlLched neLwork ls excellenL for
daLa LhaL needs a consLanL llnk from endLo
end lor example realLlme vldeo
Circuit Switching
W Circuit Switching
AdvanLages
W ClrculL ls dedlcaLed Lo Lhe call no
lnLerference no sharlng
W CuaranLeed Lhe full bandwldLh for Lhe
duraLlon of Lhe call
W CuaranLeed CuallLy of Servlce
Circuit Switching
ulsadvanLages
W nefflclenL Lhe equlpmenL may be unused
for a loL of Lhe call lf no daLa ls belng senL
Lhe dedlcaLed llne sLlll remalns open
W 1akes a relaLlvely long Llme Lo seL up Lhe
clrculL
W uurlng a crlsls or dlsasLer Lhe neLwork may
become unsLable or unavallable
W L was prlmarlly developed for volce Lrafflc
raLher Lhan daLa Lrafflc
Packet Vs Circuit Switching
L ls easler Lo double Lhe capaclLy of a
packeL swlLched neLwork Lhan a clrculL
neLwork a clrculL neLwork ls heavlly
dependenL on Lhe number of channel
avallable
Packet Vs Circuit Switching
W L ls cheaper Lo expand a packeL swlLchlng sysLem
W ClrculLswlLched Lechnologles whlch Lake four
Llmes as long Lo double Lhelr performance/cosL
force Ss Lo buy LhaL many more boxes Lo keep
up 1hls ls why everyone ls looklng for ways Lo geL
nLerneL Lrafflc off Lhe Lelephone neLwork 1he
alLernaLlve of bulldlng up Lhe Lelephone neLwork
Lo saLlsfy Lhe demand growLh ls economlcally ouL
of Lhe quesLlon
Packet Vs Circuit Switching
W 1he baLLle beLween clrculL and packeL
Lechnologles has been around a long Llme and
lL ls sLarLlng Lo be llke Lhe old sLory of Lhe
LorLolse and Lhe hare n Lhls case Lhe hare ls
clrculL swlLchlngfasL rellable and smarL 1he
hare sLarLs ouL fasL and keeps a sLeady pace
whlle Lhe LorLolse sLarLs slow buL manages Lo
double hls speed every 100 meLers
W f Lhe race ls longer Lhan 2 km Lhe power of
compoundlng favours Lhe LorLolse