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Unit 1: Introduction to Chemistry

Scientific Method / Process

The Scientific Method is a systematic approach to problem solving. It is generally composed of the following parts:
Question Hypothesis Experiment Data Analysis Conclusion

Measurement
Measurement: A quantitative observation consisting of a numeric value and units. Three are 2 kinds of units: base and derived
Base Units: Units are mutually independent of each other Ex: 7 meters, 30 kg, 6 seconds Derived Units: Units are obtained mathematically from base units Ex: 10 cm3, 0.9 g/mL, 22 meters/second

Metric System
The Metric System is a decimalized system of measurement based on powers of 10
Used internationally and in the scientific community Consists of base units and prefixes

The United States, Liberia, and Myanmar (Burma) are the only three countries who do not use the metric system

Volume
liters (L)

Mass

grams (g)

Distance
meters (m)

Temperature
Kelvin (K)

Time
seconds (s)

Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy: the degree of agreement between the true value and the measured value (bullseye) Precision: the degree of agreement among several measured values (grouping)

Accuracy & Precision

Three different groups of students measure the mass of a medal, with a known value of 5.000 grams. Evaluate each groups data for its accuracy and precision (low or high):
Group 1
Trial 1 5.003 g

Group 2
Trial 1 5.400 g

Group 3
Trial 1 5.503 g

Trial 2 5.002 g
Trial 3 5.001 g high Accuracy ______ high Precision ______

Trial 2 5.202 g
Trial 3 5.905 g low Accuracy ______ low Precision ______

Trial 2 5.499 g
Trial 3 5.501 g low Accuracy ______ high Precision ______

Uncertainty in Measurement
All measuring instruments have a degree of uncertainty. The more divisions a device has, the more accurate the measurement. The last digit of a measurement is always estimated (uncertain). How would you read the volume in this graduated read from the cylinder if the markings showed every 5 mL instead of bottom of the meniscus every 1 mL?

Uncertainty in Measurement
If we measure the length of the paw print with a decimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 0 and 1 decimeters. We estimate the next digit:

0.3 decimeters estimated digit

Uncertainty in Measurement
If we measure the length of the paw print with a centimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 3 and 4 centimeters. We estimate the next digit:

3.5 centimeters estimated digit

Uncertainty in Measurement
If we measure the length of the paw print with a millimeter ruler, we know for a certainty that it is between 34 and 35 millimeters. We estimate the next digit:

34.5 millimeters estimated digit

Significant Figures
Significant Figures are the digits in a measurement that are known with some degree of certainty are called significant figures.
The number of significant figures in a measurement = the number of digits that are known + the estimated digit The more significant figures after the decimal, the more accurate the measurement.

Ex: This triple beam balance shows a mass of 62.41 grams. There are 4 significant figures in this measurement.

Significant Figure Rules

There are rules for counting significant figures related to:
Non-zero integers Zeroes
Leading zeroes Captive zeroes Trailing zeroes

Significant Figure Rules

Non-zero integers are always significant

Significant Figure Rules

Leading zeroes are never significant

Significant Figure Rules

Captive zeroes are always significant

Significant Figure Rules

Trailing zeroes are only significant if the number contains a decimal

Significant Figures Practice

How many significant figures are in the following measurements? 7 1. 8,675,309 km ____ 4 2. 90,210 L ____ 1 3. 0.07 mg ____ 4 4. 0.2020 daL ____ 5 5. 300.00 g ____

Scientific Notation
Scientific Notation is mathematical shorthand that makes large and small numbers manageable It is composed of three parts:
Coefficient Base Exponent

4.56 x Coefficient

-7 10
Base

Exponent

Scientific Notation Rules

Coefficients
Coefficients must be greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 Coefficients can be positive or negative All numbers in the coefficient are counted as significant

Which of the following numbers are written incorrectly? 22 x 105 7 x 10-3 9.5 x 102 0.3 x 10-9 10 x 108 -1.00 x 106

Scientific Notation Rules

Bases Base is always a 10 Bases are never counted as significant Exponents Exponents are always integers Exponents can be positive (big number) or negative (small number) Ex: 1 x 103 = 1000 and 1 x 10-3 = 0.001 Exponents are never counted as significant Which of the following numbers are written incorrectly? 4.1 x 10-5 7 x 100 2.2 x 620 0.15 x 10-9 1.0 x 10-1 -7 x 106.3

Scientific Notation
How to enter the number 2.5 x 10-8 into the calculator:
Enter the coefficient 2.5

Significant Figure Operations

Multiplication & Division Calculate raw answer Rounded answer must contain no more significant figures than the measurement with the least number of significant figures

Example: What is the density of a bar of gold with a mass of 87.82 g and a volume of 4.55 cm3? (Density = mass volume)
87.82 g 4 sig figs 4.55 cm3 3 sig figs = 19.301099 g/cm3 raw answer 19.3 g/cm3 3 sig figs

Significant Figure Operations

Addition & Subtraction Calculate raw answer Rounded answer can have no more digits to the right of the decimal point than the measurement with the least number of digits to the right of the decimal point Example: What is the difference in length between a professional shot put throw of 23.125 meters and an amateur shot put throw of 21.2 meters?

23.125 m 21.2 m = 1.925 m 1.9 m 3 digits 1 digit raw after decimal after decimal answer

1 digit after decimal

Exact Numbers
Exact Numbers are different from measurements because they have no uncertainty Significant figures does not apply Examples
Conversions (3 feet = 1 yard) Counting Numbers (20 M&Ms)

Metric System - Prefixes

Prefix teragigamegakilohectodeka(base unit) decicentimillimicronanopicoSymbol T G M k h da (none) d c m n p Numeric Representation 1012 109 106 103 102 101 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 1,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001 0.000000000001

Powers of Ten

Remember
King Henry died by drinking chocolate milk.
Kilo Hecto Deka Base Deci, Centi, and Milli.

Metric Conversions
Example: How many kilograms are in 75 decigrams?Move decimal 4 places to the left: 75 dg = 0.0075 kg
(start)

k h da

base

c mx x

Example: How centiliters are in 12 dekaliters?

Move decimal 3 places to the right: 12 daL = 12,000 cL
(start)

k h da

base

c mx x

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
base

c mx x

Practice metric conversions:

_______ dg = 4.2 hg 4,200 _______ dam = 6,055 mm 0.6055 0.01 _______ L = 1 cL 300 _______ cK = 0.003 kK 11.7 _______ s = 11,700,000 s

Metric System: Pressure

Pressure is the force over a given area If someone stepped on your foot, which shoe would you prefer they wore? Pressure is measured in units of: 1 Atmospheres (atm) 101.3 kiloPascals (N/m2) 760 mmHg (mm of Mercury) 760 torrs Pressure is measured by 2 instruments: Barometer Manometer

Pressure Conversions
400 torr = __________ kPa
400 torr 101.3kPa 760 torr = 53.32kPa

1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mmHg = 101.3 kPa

Density
Density is the ratio of an objects mass and volume
The formula for density is D = m/v

In chemistry, the 2 most common units of density will be g/mL and g/cm3
The four cubes to the right have the same volume (1 cm3), but different masses. How does this effect their densities?

Density
The density of an object is an intensive physical property, meaning it cannot be changed no matter the quantity
A property that changes with the amount or quantity of the substance is an extensive property.

The density of water is 1 g/mL

Objects that float < 1 g/mL Objects that sink > 1 g/mL

What happens to the density of an object when it is sawed I half?

Counting Matter
What are some common ways we count matter? Dozen = 12 Ream = 500 Gross = 144 Mole = 6.02 x 1023

The Mole
In the same way a dozen is worth 12, a mole is worth 6.02 x 1023
This number is called Avogadros number Mole is abbreviated as mol

Written in expanded form, that number is: 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

The mole is a large number because particles are so small, it takes many of them make up an amount we can see and understand

The Mole
1

ream Al particles = 500 Al particles 1 mole of Al particles = 6.02 X 1023 particles

Mole Calculations
6.02 x 1023 particles = 1 mole Ex: How many particles are in 3.00 moles of N2? 3.00 mol N2 6.02 x 1023 particles = 1.81 x 1024 particles 1 mol N2 Ex: How many moles of Na are in 1.10 x 1023 particles? 1.10 x 1023 particles Na 1 mol Na = 1.83 x 1022 6.02 x 1023 particles Na moles

2 Unit Conversions
Convert the density of titanium (4.54g/mL) to kg/L.

Convert 13.2 mg/mL to g/cm3.

Classifying Matter

Pure Substances
Pure substances cannot be separated by physical means
Elements: cannot be chemically separated, listed on the periodic table

carbon (C)

sulfur (S)

copper (Cu)

mercury (Hg)

Compounds: can be chemically separated, made up of elements

salt (NaCl)

water (H2O)

sugar (C6H12O6)

rust (Fe2O3)

Pure Substances
Particle representations of
Elements

Compounds

Periodic Table
Each square on the periodic table contains: Name of Element Symbol
First letter is upper case, second letter must be lower case

Atomic Mass
Number (usually with a decimal) indicates the mass (g) of 1 mole of that element

Atomic Number

Types of Elements

Groups/Familes

Period/Series

The Mole

Molar Mass of Atoms

How do chemists count Avogadros number? By measuring mass (just like how they count aluminum cans for recycling)
The mass (think grams) of one mole of a substance

Atomic masses are based on the mass of carbon

One mole of carbon contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms of C
1 carbon atom is 12.011 amu 1 mole of carbon is 12.011 grams

Molar Mass of Atoms

The mass of 1 mole (in grams) Equal to the numerical value of the average atomic mass (get from periodic table)
Examples:
1 mole of C atoms 1 mole of Mg atoms 1 mole of Cu atoms = = = 12.0 g 24.3 g 63.5 g

Practice
Find the molar mass
1 mole of Au atoms = 1 mole of Sn atoms =

Chemical Formulas
The chemical formula describes a compound using numbers and element symbols
Subscripts denote number of each element in a compound
Ex: H2O has 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen Ex: Al2(SO4)3 has 2 aluminums, 3 sulfurs, and 12 oxygens

Coefficients act as a scalar (also called a multiplier)

Ex: 6H2O has 12 hydrogens and 6 oxygens Ex: 3Al2(SO4)3 has 6 aluminums, 9 sulfurs, and 36 oxygens

Binary Ionic Compounds

A Binary Ionic Compound contains 2 elements: metal & nonmetal When you write a formula, you add subscripts to the symbols for the ions until the algebraic sum of the ions charges is zero. Naming:
Name the metal Drop the end of nonmetal and add ide

Example: MgCl2 = magnesium chloride

Diatomic Elements
Some elements are always found as a pair (2 together)
H2, O2, N2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 Try to remember HOF BrINCl

Example:
How many atoms of O are present in 78.1 g of oxygen?

Practice:

78.1 g O2 32.0 g O2

How many grams of Cl are present in 100 atoms of chlorine?

Classifying Matter

Mixtures
Mixtures are composed of two or more substances that can be separated by physical means; contains elements and/or compounds
Heterogeneous Mixtures: not uniform throughout Homogeneous Mixtures: uniform throughout

Particle representations of mixtures

Heterogeneous Mixtures
Heterogeneous Mixture: two or more substances physically combined; not uniform throughout Ex: Granite, chex mix

Suspensions
A suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. The internal phase (solid) is dispersed throughout the external phase (fluid) through mechanical
Suspensions will eventually settle.

Homogeneous Mixtures
Homogeneous Mixture: two or more substances physically combined; uniform throughout
Know as a solution composed of
Solute: substance being dissolved (smaller amount) Solvent: substance that does the dissolving (larger amount)

Examples: kool-aid, brass

Separating a Mixture
Separating a mixture components are separated without changing their physical identity

Manual Separation
Decanting
Separates two liquids of different densities

Sifting
Separates two solids of different particle size by pouring

Sorting
Separates two solids by picking

Magnetism
Separates metals (such as iron) from a mixture

Filtration
Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions

Evaporation
Separates a dissolved solid from its solvent

Distillation
Separates homogeneous mixture with different boiling points (heat mixture and catch condensed vapor)

Centrifuging
Separates heavier particles (bottom of tube) from lighter particles (top of tube) by spinning them at high speeds

Chromatography
Separates substances on the basis of their differences in solubility in a solvent - different substances are attracted to paper or gel and move at different speeds

Properties of Matter
A property is a characteristic that describe matter or how it behaves Physical determined without a chemical change
Extensive vary with amount of matter (Ex. Mass, volume, length, area) Intensive does not vary with amount (Ex. Density, color, odor, melting point, solubility)

Chemical can only be determined by a chemical change

Ex. Flammability, reactivity with acid, stability of a compound (how easily it decomposes)

Changes of Matter
Physical Changes do not involve a change in chemical identity
Ex: boiling, freezing, melting, dissolving, evaporating, and crystallizing

Changes of Matter
Chemical Changes new substances are formed in the reaction
Ex: iron rusting, copper oxidizing, wood burning, silver tarnishing

Evidence for Changes of Matter

Color Change Gas produced without heating Precipitate formed New odor develops Large amount of heat or light produced

Law of Conservation of Mass

The LCM says matter is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical change
The mass of the reactants is always the same as the mass of the products. The number of atoms of each element is always the same in the reactants and the products.

LCM Examples
Calcium chloride and sodium sulfate combine to form calcium sulfate and sodium chloride. CaCl2 + Na2SO4 CaSO4 + 2NaCl Before and After: Does the mass change?

Energy
Energy is the ability to do work Heat: Energy used to cause the temperature of an object to rise. Temperature - measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles
We measure temperature with a thermometer.

Heat (Thermal) Energy

Heat is a form of energy that flows between two samples of matter because of their difference in temperature
Heat flows from hot to cold It can be absorbed or released Measured in units of calories or Joules

The End
Be Prepared for Unit 1 Test.