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# The waveguide components generally

encountered are:
Tee junctions E-plane, H-plane &
Magic Tee
Attenuators
Directional couplers
Waveguide terminating devices
Slotted sections
Components that reduce the amount of power a fixed
amount, a variable amount or in a series of fixed steps
from the input to the output of the device.
Operate on the principle of interfering with the electric
field or magnetic field or both.
Slide vane attenuators: a resistive material placed in
parallel with the E-lines of a field current will induce a
current in the material that will result in I
2
R power loss.
Flap attenuator: has a vane that is dropped into the
waveguide through a slot in the top of the guide. The
further the vane is inserted into the waveguide, the
greater the attenuation.
Rotary vane attenuator: It is a precision waveguide
attenuator & attenuation is independent on frequency.
provides a termination designed to absorb all
the incident power with very little reflection,
effectively terminating the line or port in its
characteristic impedance.
Waveguide Tees
Cutting a
rectangular slot
along the width
of the main
waveguide &
attaching
another
waveguide
H-plane Tee
Main arm
H-arm /
side arm
Port 3
Port
1
Port 2
Collinear ports
Axis of the side arm is parallel to the plane of
the main TL
All the 3 arms lies in the plane of magnetic field
magnetic field divides itself into the arms
CURRENT JUNCTION
When TE
10
mode is allowed to propagate into
port 3, the electric fields do not change their
direction when coming out of port 1 & 2 H
plane tee
S-matrix of H-plane Tee
S
13
= S
23
due to plane of
symmetry at the junction
Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
= S
13

S
13
= S
31

Perfect match at the junction
S
33
= 0

| |
(
(
(

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
| |
(
(
(

=
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S
Unitary property [S] [S]
*
= [ I ]
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 * *
* * *
* * *
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S S
S S S
S S S
( )
( ) 2 1 ) (
1 1
1 * * * ) (
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
2
13
2
12
2
11
13 13 12 12 11 11 1 1
= + +
= + +
= + +
S S S C R
S S S
S S S S S S C R
from (1) & (2)
|S
11
|
2
= |S
22
|
2
S
11
= S
22
(3)
( )
( ) 5
2
1
, 1 2
4 1 ) (
13
2
13
2
13
2
13 3 3
= =
= +
S S
S S C R
( )
( )
( ) 7
0 * *
0
0 * *
6 0 * * ) (
12 11
12 11
13
12 11 13
12 13 11 13 1 3
=
= +
=
= +
= +
S S
S S
S
S S S
S S S S C R
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
( )
( ) 9
2
1
8
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
12
11
2
11
2
11
2
11
=
=
=
= + +
S
S
S
S S
( ) 10
2
1
22
= S
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
S
| | | | | |
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
a
a
b
b
b
a S b
2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a a b
a a a b
a a a b
=
+ =
+ =
0
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 1 (
3
3
2
3
1
2 1 3
=
=
=
= = =
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
a
3
power input at port 3
Power gets equally divided
b/n the ports (1) & (2)

P
3
= P
1
+P
2
=2 P
1
=2P
2
Amount of power coming out of port 1 or 2 due to i/p at port 3
dB
P
P
P
P
3
2
1
log 10 log 10 log 10
3
2
3
1
= = = =
3 dB Power splitter

2 2 2 2
0
2
2 2
0
2
2 2
0 , ) 2 (
2 1
3
3 2 1
2
3 2 1
1
3 2 1
a a a a
b
a a a
b
a a a
b
a a a a
+ = = =
= + + =
= + =
= = =
Power output at port 3 is
addition of power inputs from
(1) & (2) in phase H arm is
also called SUM ARM

Waveguide Tees
Cutting a
rectangular slot
along the
broader
dimension of
the main
waveguide &
attaching
another
waveguide
E-plane Tee
H-arm /
side arm
Main arm
Port
3
Port
1
Port 2
Collinear ports
Port 1
Port 2
Collinear ports
Port 3
E arm
S-matrix of E-plane Tee
S
13
= -S
23
due to plane of
symmetry at the junction & o/p
180 out of phase
Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
= -S
13

S
13
= S
31

Perfect match at the junction
S
33
= 0

| |
(
(
(

=
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
| |
(
(
(

=
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S
Unitary property [S] [S]
*
= [ I ]
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

(
(
(

1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 * *
* * *
* * *
0
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
13 13
13 22 12
13 12 11
S S
S S S
S S S
S S
S S S
S S S
( )
( ) 2 1 ) (
1 1
1 * * * ) (
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
2
13
2
12
2
11
13 13 12 12 11 11 1 1
= + +
= + +
= + +
S S S C R
S S S
S S S S S S C R
from (1) & (2)
|S
11
|
2
= |S
22
|
2
S
11
= S
22
(3)
( )
( ) 5
2
1
, 1 2
4 1 ) (
13
2
13
2
13
2
13 3 3
= =
= +
S S
S S C R
( )
( )
( ) 7
0
0 * *
6 0 * * ) (
22 12 11
13
12 11 13
12 13 11 13 1 3
= =
=
=
=
S S S
S
S S S
S S S S C R
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
( )
( ) 9
2
1
8
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
12
11
2
11
2
11
2
11
=
=
=
= + +
S
S
S
S S
( ) 10
2
1
22
= S
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
S
| | | | | |
(
(
(

(
(
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(

=
3
2
1
3
2
1
0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a
a
a
b
b
b
a S b
2 1 3
3 2 1 2
3 2 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
a a b
a a a b
a a a b
=
+ =
+ + =
0
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 1 (
3
3
2
3
1
2 1 3
=
=
=
= = =
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
a
3
power input at port 3
Power gets equally divided
b/n the ports (1) & (2) with a
phase difference of 180

E plane tee 3 dB
Power splitter

0
2 2
2 2
0 , ) 2 (
3
2
1
3 2 1
=
+ =
+ =
= = =
b
a a
b
a a
b
a a a a
Power output at
port 3 is zero with
equal inputs at
port 1 & 2
2
2
2
0 , 0 , 0 ) 3 (
1
3
1
2
1
1
3 2 1
a
b
a
b
a
b
a a a
=
=
=
= = =
H-arm
E-arm
Port1
Port2
Port3
Port4
(
(
(
(

0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
H-plane Tee section S
23
= S
13
E-plane section S
24
= -S
14
Geometry of the section S
34
= S
43
= 0
Symmetric property
S
12
= S
21
S
23
= S
32
S
13
= S
31

S
24
= S
42

S
43
= S
34

S
14
= S
41
Port 3 & 4 matched S
33
= S
44
= 0

(
(
(
(

0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 * *
0 0 * *
* * * *
* * * *
0 0
0 0
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
14 14
13 13
14 13 22 12
14 13 12 11
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
S S
S S
S S S S
S S S S
( )
( )
( ) 3
2 1 ) (
1 1 ) (
22 11
2
14
2
13
2
22
2
12 2 2
2
14
2
13
2
12
2
11 1 1
=
= + + +
= + + +
S S
S S S S C R
S S S S C R
( ) 8 0
0
1
2
1
2
1
12 11
2
12
2
11
2
12
2
11
= =
= +
= + + +
S S
S S
S S
Using (3,5,7) in (1)
( )
( ) 5
2
1
4 1 ) (
13
2
13
2
13 3 3
=
= +
S
S S C R
( )
( ) 7
2
1
6 1 ) (
14
2
14
2
14 4 4
=
= +
S
S S C R
| |
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(

=
0 0
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
0 0
2
1
2
1
0 0
S
Four port waveguide junction
Primary waveguide 1-2
Secondary waveguide 3-4
With matched terminations at all the ports, properties
of ideal DC
1. Portion of power travelling from port 1 to port 2 is
coupled to port 4 not to port 3.
2. Portion of power travelling from port 2 to port 1 is
coupled to port 3 not to port 4.
3. Portion of power incident at port 3 is coupled to
port 2 but not to port 1
4. Portion of power incident at port 4 is coupled to
port 1 but not to port 2
5. Ports 1 &2 are decoupled as are ports 2&4

Coupling Factor C
Directivity D
Isolation I

dB
P
P
D
b
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10
log 10
P
i
incident power at port1
P
r
received power at port2
P
f
forward coupled power at port4
P
b
back power at port3
dB
P
P
I
b
i
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10
log 10
dB
P
P
C
f
i
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
10
log 10
) ( ) ( ) ( dB D dB C dB I + =
All ports are perfectly matched S
12
=S
22
= S
33
=S
44
=0

Symmetric property
S
23
= S
32
, S
13
= S
31
,S
24
= S
42
,S
43
= S
34
,S
14
= S
41
No coupling b/n port 1 & 3 S
13
= S
31
= 0
No coupling b/n port 2 & 4 S
24
= S
42
= 0

(
(
(
(

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
34 14
34 23
23 12
14 12
S S
S S
S S
S S
(
(
(
(

=
(
(
(
(

(
(
(
(

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 * 0 *
* 0 * 0
0 * 0 *
* 0 * 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
23 14
34 23
23 12
14 12
23 14
34 23
23 12
14 12
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
S S
( )
( )
( ) 3
2 1 ) (
1 1 ) (
23 14
2
13
2
12 2 2
2
14
2
12 1 1
=
= +
= +
S S
S S C R
S S C R
( )
12 34
2
34
2
14
2
34
2
23 3 3
1 ) 3 (
4 1 ) (
S S
S S
S S C R
=
= +
= +
from
34 34 12
12
12
* S P S S
P S
S
= = =
=
+ ve & real as Assume
( )
jy S jy S
S S P
S S P
P S PS
S S S S C R
= =
= + =
= +
= +
= +
23 23
23 23
23 23
23 23
34 14 23 12 3 1
* ,
0 * , 0
0 *
0 *
0 * * ) (
1
2 2
14 23
34 12
14 23
= +
= =
= =
= =
Q P
jQ S S
P S S
S jQ S Let
(
(
(
(

0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
P jQ
P jQ
jQ P
jQ P