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Computer

History
the beginnings

history of computers
second year
Before 1600’s 1600’s to 1900’s 1930’s to 1960’s

Manual Mechanical Electrical


Biological Pascaline ABC
devices
Stepped Reckoner Z3
Stones, sticks,
rocks, etc. Arithometer Colossus

Clay tablets Difference Engine MARK I

abacus Analytical Engine ENIAC


Comptometer EDVAC
Beginnings UNIVAC
of TRADE Industrial
Revolution World War
II
Manual Calculating
Devices

tones, sticks, scratches on


rocks, knots on strings

clay tablets

bacus
Pictographs

A cuneiform table (c. 2100


B.C.) listing expenditures of
grain and animals.
Codex Madrid

Drawn by Leonardo da Vinci roughly


around 1500 AD
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Pascaline
“Numerical Wheel Calculator”

Invented by Blaise
Pascal in 1642
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
 Can only do addition
of eight figures long
“Numerical Wheel
Calculator”
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Arithmometer
Invented by Charles
Xavier Thomas de
Colmar (1820)

First mass-produced calculator


that performs the 4 basic
arithmetic functions
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Difference Engine
 Charles
Babbage (1823)
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Difference Engine

oal: to perform
differential equations and
produce mechanical
tables

team – powered

ully automatic
* Portion of the engine, assembled by
everClemens
Joseph constructed
in 1832
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Analytic Engine
“Father of Computers”
Prototype of the modern computer
 Has 5 crucial features
- input device (punched cards)
- storage facility for numbers to be
processed
- processor / number calculator
- control unit to direct tasks to be
performed
- output device (for printing)
Never constructed
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Ada Lovelace
 1842 : First Computer
Programmer

Countess of Lovelace
and daughter of English
poet Lord Byron

abbage’s partner
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Comptometer
 invented by Dorr
E. Felt(1886)
First key driven
calculator
Mechanical Calculating
Devices
Punch Cards
First used in the
Jacquard Loom
Earliest secondary
storage device
Electromechanical
Calculating Devices
Tabulating
Machine

invented by Dr. Herman


Hollerith (1890)

acilitated in the 1890


census tabulation

sed punch cards to store


information
Electromechanical
Calculating Devices
Founded the
Tabulating Machine
company (TMC) in
1896
 became
International
Business Machine
(IBM) in 1924
Electrical Calculating
Devices

eveloped in 1936 by John Dvorak

n Ergonomic alternative to “Qwerty”


(1870’s)
Electrical Calculating
Devices
ABC (Atanasoff – Berry Computer)

owa state professor John


Atanasoff and graduate student
Clifford Berry, 1939

sed concept of Boolean Algebra

id not get its funding


Electrical Calculating
Devices
Z3

Konrad Zuse (1941)


First operational
programmable, general –
purpose computer in
Germany to design
airplanes and missiles
Electrical Calculating
Devices
Colossus
developed by Alan
Turing (1943)
Secret code –
breaking computer
to counteract the
Enigma
Electrical Calculating
Devices
MARK I

nvented by Dr.
Howard Aiken(1944)

arvard – IBM
Automatic Sequence
Controlled Calculator

ll – electronic
Electrical Calculating
Devices
ENIAC
Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Calculator

ohn Presper Eckert and


John Mauchly (1945)

eneral – Purpose
computer 1000 times
Used mainly to compute artillery
faster than Mark I
aiming and firing trajectory tables
Electrical Calculating
Devices
EDVAC
ohn Von Neumann
(1945)               
 “Stored Memory”
technique
 “Conditional
Control Transfer”
Electronic Discrete technique
Variable Automatic
Concept of central
Calculator
processing unit 
Electrical Calculating
Devices
Rear Admiral Grace
Murray Hopper

Harvard Mark II
1st Computer
Bug Reported
(1945)
Electrical Calculating
Devices

UNIVAC
Eckert and Mauchley
(1951)
Universal Automatic
Computer

irst general-purpose electronic digital computer


designed for commercial use in the US

redicted winner of 1952 presidential elections,


Dwight Eisenhower
Electrical Calculating
Devices

Integrated Circuit
Jack Kilby and Robert
Noyce (1958)
Computers became
more reliable, less
expensive, and smaller in
size