green.economical.

future
Mayank Batra ME - 1508311 NCCE

◦ Projections have oil hitting $110/barrel in few years. Powered by Hydrogen 2 . ◦ Burning of fossil fuels contributes a lot towards greenhouse effect. Gas prices/Oil Market ◦ Oil currently around $80/barrel.  Environment ◦ Extraction of fossil fuels cause a lot of pollution. ◦ Moreover supply of fossil fuels is limited. And we are running out of sources. ◦ Need of eco-friendly energy source is the need of the hour.

 As of now.  Include hydrogen fueled space rockets. These are: ◦ Fuel Cells ◦ Internal Combustion Engines Powered by Hydrogen 3 . Uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. there are two methods/technologies of using hydrogen as a fuel in vehicles.

much like a battery.  The molecular hydrogen needed can be produced by many thermochemical methods like   Coal gasification Biomass gasification    Thermolysis Biological hydrogen production From water by Electrolysis Powered by Hydrogen 4 . First produced and then stored as a carrier.   Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of energy. Hydrogen for vehicle uses needs to be produced using either renewable or non-renewable energy sources.

Produce the hydrogen on the vehicle by means of a tiny onboard hydrogen plant (the onboard fuel processor option)  Hydrogen FC’s 2 times as efficient as internal combustion ◦ Internal combustion efficiency – 15-25% ◦  Hydrogen FC’s – 50-60% Estimates that FC Vehicles can achieve equivalent of 80 miles/gallon gasoline. Two storage options: 1. Produce the hydrogen on the ground and then store it onboard the vehicle (the direct hydrogen option) 2. Powered by Hydrogen 5 .

 Internal Combustion Hydrogen Engines ◦ Slightly modified form of internal combustion engine ◦ Burns hydrogen. produces pure water exhaust ◦ 100% Eco-Friendly ◦ Cheap to produce and maintain ◦ Serious range problems ◦ Low efficiency ◦ Leakage maybe a problem ◦ Still under testing phases Powered by Hydrogen 6 .

Powered by Hydrogen 7 .A BMW concept of an Internal Combustion Engine Above diagram illustrates a Internal Combustion Hydrogen Engine concept by one of the leading vehicle manufacturer – BMW. The illustration shows an engine similar to the current Internal Combustion Engines that use Gasoline or Petrol as fuel.

The car utilizes an Internal combustion engine (discussed in previous slide) that runs on hydrogen. Expect some delay before you see this car on road.The hydrogen 7 developed by BMW uses hydrogen as a fuel. Since the cost of Manufacturing is still high and we are still looking for a better way to use hydrogen. The car is still in the concept phase and is worked upon. Snapshots showing Hydrogen 7 Powered by Hydrogen 8 .

old and useful technology. buildings & much smaller applications   Reliable. “An old idea whose time has come” ◦ Fuel cells invented in 1838 by Swiss scientist Christian Friedrich Schönbein   Aspects of engines as well as batteries No pollution emitted  Proton Exchange Membrane FCs ideal for light-duty vehicles. a fuel cell will run as long as fuel (hydrogen) is supplied. Like a battery. it produces electricity by electrochemical reactions Powered by Hydrogen 9 . Like an engine.

Powered by Hydrogen 10 . quiet and highly efficient process.two to three times more efficient than fuel burning. Since conversion of the fuel to energy takes place via an electrochemical process. not combustion.  Internal Combustion Engines that run on hydrogen are still undergoing research phase and we still don’t know when the technology will be ready to be used on a commercial scale. its safe and eco-friendly  It is a clean.

but it does not run down nor does it require recharging  The catalyst coating separates hydrogen’s negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons  As long as fuel is supplied. A Fuel Cell consists of two catalyst coated electrodes surrounding an electrolyte  One electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode The process begins when Hydrogen molecules enter the anode   It operates similarly to a battery. a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat Powered by Hydrogen 11 .

but not the electrons  When the oxygen and the  Instead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which creates electrical current protons combine with the electrons it produces water and heat Powered by Hydrogen 12 . While the electrons pass through the external circuit. oxygen molecules pass through the cathode  There the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit  The electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode.

 Fuel cells are similar to batteries. water  The stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or to provide stationary power to a building  vapor and liquid water out Typical output is about . most common will likely  Individual fuel cells can then be placed in a series to form a fuel cell stack  be the PEM FC Hydrogen and oxygen in. but designed for continuous replenishment of energy via external fuel  Many different types of fuel cells.8 volts Powered by Hydrogen 13 .

◦ This is the leading cell type for passenger car application ◦ Uses a polymer membrane as the electrolyte ◦ Operates at a relatively low temperature. can vary its output quickly and is suited for applications where quick startup is required making it popular for automobiles ◦ Sensitive to fuel impurities Powered by Hydrogen 14 . about 175 degrees ◦ Has a high power density.

 In order to produce enough voltage. but only output is still liquid and vapor water Powered by Hydrogen 15 . cells are grouped into stacks  A hydrogen fuel cell automobile would have at least 45 cells in a stack  Hydrogen is stored and injected in either liquid or gas form  Many cells.

 Hydrogen is non-polluting. Along with it's effectiveness as a fuel.  Hydrogen is renewable source of energy. hydrogen is non-polluting. Energy content of hydrogen is the highest per unit of weight of any fuel. The only byproduct of hydrogen when it burns is heat and water. which makes up about 3/4 of all matter  Hydrogen has the highest energy content. Powered by Hydrogen 16 . It can be regenerated right from its combustion by-product. Therefore it offers the most "bang for the buck". Most abundant element Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the Universe.

hydrogen is very powerful.  Fossil Fuels May be Needed to Produce Hydrogen. as opposed to an energy source.  The Hydrogen Hazard Stereotype. Hydrogen is an energy carrier rather than an energy source.  Costly to convert to liquid. By the same token. it must be separated from these elements and is therefore considered an energy carrier. other methods to produce hydrogen must use energy to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen. By its very nature. such as in water. it cannot be compressed into a liquid form without intensive cost and energy input. Because hydrogen is a gas. Who has not heard of the hydrogen bomb? Powered by Hydrogen 17 . While hydrogen always exists in conjunction with other elements.

 Countries will need to look beyond the sticker price.  We should aggressively pursue hydrogen fuel cell vehicles There are definite issues. Powered by Hydrogen 18 . but nothing compared to the economic.  Large dependency on fossil fuels and rising price of fuel prices is enough to burn a hole in the country’s pocket. political and environmental issues associated with being wholly dependent on oil.

com http://planetforlife.      http://wikipedia.org http://howstuffworks.com Powered by Hydrogen 19 .edu http://hydrogencarsnow.com http://fuelcellworks.com http://fi.

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